七、繁衍对停滞
作者: 心理空间 / 1040次阅读 时间: 2020年4月24日
标签: 停滞 繁衍
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繁衍停滞 GENERATIVITY V. STAGNATION

In this book the emphasis is on the childhood stages, otherwisethe section on generativity would of necessity be the centralone, for this term encompasses the evolutionary developmentwhich has made man the teaching and instituting as well as thelearning animal. The fashionable insistence on dramatizing thedependence of children on adults often blinds us to the dependenceof the older generation on the younger one. Mature manneeds to be needed, and maturity needs guidance as well asencouragement from what has been produced and must betaken care of.

如果本书不是将重点放在童年阶段的话,那么我将会重点论述这一部分,因为繁衍这个术语包含了让人类发展成社会性动物的进化发展历程。时下流行强调儿童对于成人的依赖,这经常使我们看不到老一代对于年轻一代的依赖。成人需要被别人需要,需要得到指引,需要从那些刚被生产出来、必须受到照顾的对象那里得到鼓励。

Generativity, then, is primarily the concern in establishingand guiding the next generation, although there are individualswho, through misfortune or because of special and genuinegifts in other directions, do not apply this drive to their ownoffspring. And indeed, the concept generatively is meant toinclude such more popular synonyms as productivity andcreativity, which, however, cannot replace it.

繁衍,首先意味着生育和指引下一代,尽管有一些个体因为不幸或者在其他方面存在特殊的天赋而不愿把繁衍的动力用于生育后代。繁衍还意味着生产能力和创造能力,但这些都不能代替繁衍。

It has taken psychoanalysis some time to realize that theability to lose oneself in the meeting of bodies and minds leadsto a gradual expansion of ego-interests and to a libidinal investmentin that which is being generated. Generativity thus is anessential stage on the psychosexual as well as on the psychosocialschedule. Where such enrichment fails altogether, regression toan obsessive need for pseudo-intimacy takes place, often with apervading sense of stagnation and personal impoverishment.Individuals, then, often begin to indulge themselves as if theywere their own - or one another's - one and 'only child; andwhere conditions favor it, early invalidism, physical or psychological,becomes the vehicle of self-concern. The mere fact ofhaving or even wanting children, however, does not 'achieve'generatively. In fact, some young parents suffer, it seems, fromthe retardation of the ability to develop this stage. The reasonsare often to be found in early childhood impressions; in excessiveself-love based on a too strenuously self-made personality; andfinally (and here we return to the beginnings) in the lack of somefaith, some 'belief in the species', which would make a childappear to be a welcome trust of the community.

精神分析学家花了一些时间认识到,身体和灵魂的碰撞会导致个体对自我的兴趣逐渐扩展,并且对繁衍出的事物投入精力。繁衍由此成为心理性欲和心理社会发展进程的一个重要阶段。在繁衍性被压抑的地方,对伪亲密感的强迫性需求以及一种普遍性的停滞感和贫瘠感便会出现。此外,个体会开始放纵自我,就好像自己是自己的独子一般。当条件成熟时,早期的身体或精神上的衰弱会成为个体向自我关注发展的关键因素。拥有孩子甚至希望拥有孩子的事实并不能保证繁衍性的实现。事实上,一些年轻的父母看上去在这一发展阶段出现了停滞。我们经常能在早期的童年印象、建立在艰难建立的人格基础上的过度自爱、信念和对人类的信仰的缺失中找到导致这种情况的原因。

As to the institutions which safeguard and reinforce generativity,one can only say that all institutions codify the ethics ofgenerative succession. Even ",here philosophical and spiritualtradition suggests the renunciation of the right to procreate or toproduce, such early turn to 'ultimate concerns', whereverinstituted in monastic movements, strives to settle at the sametime the matter of its relationship to the Care for the creatures ofthis world and to the Charity which is felt to transcend it.

对于保障繁衍性的组织,我们只能说这些组织将繁衍的伦理编纂到一起。甚至连哲学以及精神传统都建议放弃生育或生产的权利。这种向“终极关怀”的早早转变试图同时解决它与关怀、仁爱之关系的问题。

If this were a book on adulthood, it would be indispensableand profitable at this point to compare economic and psychologicaltheories (beginning with the strange convergencies anddivergencies of Marx and Freud) and to proceed to a discussionof man's relationship to his production as well as to his progeny.

如果本书重点在于论述成人期,那么在此比较经济学和心理学理论(以马克思和弗洛伊德各自提出的理论之间的相同点和不同点作为比较的开始),并讨论人类与其产物(产品及子孙)之间的联系,将是十分必要的。

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TAG: 停滞 繁衍
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