PAULA HEIMANN 论反移情 On counter-transference
作者: PAULA HEIMANN / 6013次阅读 时间: 2014年10月30日
来源: 陈明 翻译 标签: Heimann 反移情 移情
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反移情 On counter-transference (1949/50)
PAULA HEIMANN
陈明 译
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这篇文章在第十六届精神分析大会(1949年苏黎士)上宣读。发表于国际精神分析期刊31 (1/2) (1950).

XF%W5|v q0在我的研讨会和督导分析中关于反移情的短评引发了一些讨论和注意。我被新人之间普遍的信念所触动,他们认为,反移情除了成为麻烦的来源之外一无是处。很多新人在意识到自己对患者的感受时,感到害怕和内疚,并因此试图避免任何的情绪反应,同时变成彻底的决绝与超然。心理学空间Hr|J}Bfv
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当我试图追寻分析师“超然”想法的来源之时,我发现,我们的文献确实涵盖了对分析性工作中的描述,这导致了以下的观点,一位好的咨询师在面对其患者时,除了正式的温和与慈善之外,不能觉察到其他的东西,同时,任何表面上平顺的情感波动代表着需要被克服的扰动。这可能来自于对弗洛伊德1912e The Dynamics of Transference 移情动力学一些语句的误读,就像他用外科医生在手术中的心灵状态做的比较,或者他的镜子的比喻,至少这些都被我引用到了就此而论的与反移情性质的讨论之中了。
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另一方面,有一个相反的学派思想,像弗伦奇一样,不仅承认分析师对他的病人有各种各样的感受,而且建议他应该时常公开的告诉他们。在爱丽丝·巴林特那篇热心的文章《基于弗伦奇实验的移情处理》‘Handhabung der übertragung auf Grund der Ferenczischen Versuche’ (1936)中,她认为咨询师真诚的部分是有帮助的,这又与精神分析中与生俱来的对真理的尊重相一致。我不能同意她的结论,虽然我欣赏她的态度。其他的分析师再次声明,当他对患者表达了自己的情感的时候,使得分析师更“人性化”,同时这有助于他与他建立“人性化”的关系。心理学空间z?PY/i

[*Y(pw1Up}X*w Y0出于这篇文章的宗旨,我使用“反移情”这一术语来涵盖分析师对他患者的所有情感。心理学空间dt$Pl8b3m%g/lyyK
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也许有人会说,这样使用术语是不对的,而且反移情仅仅意味着转移了分析师的那个部分。然而,我想说前缀counter'反'暗指了其他的因素。
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顺便要说,需要记住的是,移情的感受不会从极其不同于自己权利所涉及另一个人中急剧的分裂,也不会作为父母的替代品。人们常说,患者对于他的分析的感受,并非都是源于移情,并且,作为分析的进程,他变得越来越有“现实”的能力。这个警告本身就说明了两种感情之间的区别并不总是那么简单。心理学空间,t&S;ZfT?VS

1qw#ZvI.q6T.RD t'hs0我的论点是,分析师在分析情景中对其患者的情绪反应代表了他工作的最主要工具。分析师的反移情是进入患者无意识的研究手段。心理学空间6cf'{.W$S#?

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分析情景已经从多角度被研究和描述了,它独特的特征有着普遍的一致性。但是我的印象是,这是两个人之间的关系,关于这一点,没有被特别的强调过。这种关系与其他(关系)的区分是,患者对于伙伴的情感是缺席的,没有呈现;分析师,却是高于所有的情感体验并制造了他们,这些因素是相互依存的。从这个角度来看,分析师分析的目的不是把自己变成一个机械的大脑,可以产出基于纯粹智力过程的解释,而是使得他有能力忍受扰动他的情感,而非卸载之(就像病人做的那样),以便当他作为患者镜面反射功能的时候,让其从属于解析的任务。
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如果咨询师不试图请教自己的感受,他的分析是可怜的。我经常在初学者的工作中看到这些,他们出离于恐惧,忽视或压抑了自己的情感。
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我们知道,分析师需要悬浮注意,以跟随患者的自由联想,而这时他们能够在许多层面同时倾听。他必须感知患者话语中明显和潜在的意思,影射和暗指,并与之前涉及童年情景,藏在当前关系之后的会谈相连接,等等。通过这种方式的倾听,分析师避免了在每一个主题上都斤斤计较的危险,同时,依然有能力接受患者在自由联想中的多主题,以及这些序列的变化中的意义。
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我建议分析师跟随这种自由工作的注意,需要自由地激起情感的敏感性,以便遵循患者情绪的脚步以及无意识的幻想。我们的基本假设是,分析师的无意识理解他的患者。这种深层次的契合走向了情感形成表面,分析师在他的“反移情”中觉察回应他的患者。这是患者的话语够到他的主要的动力方法。在他自己的情感唤起和患者自由联想与行为之间比较,分析师拥有他是否理解或不理解他的患者的最重要的检查手段。心理学空间d"n ~%F wz

Q"a9kQ5nr]%j0因此,然而,任何形式的剧烈情绪,爱与恨、无助与愤怒促使其采取行动,而不是凝视与混淆观察和正确衡量的能力,它遵循于,如果分析师的情感反应是强烈的,它会打败他的客体。心理学空间0P sW \f

)QU Z{7K[o w0因此分析师的情绪的敏锐度必须是广泛的,而不是密集的、差异和移动的。心理学空间F&ZNsUt%n

b$d&H ev'c0当分析师不将自己的自由情绪反应登记为情感的问题,并结合自由联想之时,就会延伸分析的工作,因为他们符合他的理解。但,他的被唤起的情绪常常更接近于问题的心脏而不是他的推理,或者,换个说法,他的无意识更加敏锐的感知患者的无意识,并先于他对这一情景的意识概念。
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D*e4uF+b!l*^0i)oL r0最近的经历浮现于脑海,这涉及了我从同事哪儿接手的患者。该患者是40岁的男性,起初,因为婚姻破裂问题而寻求治疗。在他的症状中,滥交占据了主要的位置。在我和他分析的第三周,他告诉我,在这次会谈开始的时候,他打算娶一个只见了很短时间的女性
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#G#uj}FP%uR@0他在这个节骨眼上想结婚的愿望明显是由分析阻抗和他移情冲突的行动化所决定的。与我关系亲密的愿望已经在强烈而又矛盾的态度之中清晰的呈现了。有如此之多的理由让我怀疑他意图的智慧,并且怀疑他的选择。但是这种试图回避分析的尝试并不罕见,在开始或治疗的重要的节点上,通常不代表工作中太大的障碍,因此灾难性的情况不必出现。我因此有些不解地发现,我对此感到忧虑并且担心患者的评论。我觉得有更多的东西卷入到了他的状况之中,一些东西超越了一般的付诸行动,然而这些躲避了我。心理学空间@Q K/J7rI-k

1oTV7HZ~R0在进一步的关于他朋友圈的联想中,患者描述了她,说她有过“曲折的道路”。这个短语又一次记录并增加了我的疑虑。我渐渐明白,确切的说,正是因为她有一个“曲折的道路”,他才被她所吸引。但是我觉得,我还没完全看清楚。不久之后,他来向我讲了他的梦:他从国外获得了一辆损坏的非常不错的二手车,他想修好它,但是梦里的另一个人出于谨慎而反对。这个患者,如他所说,“让他感到困惑”可以他可以继续修这部汽车。
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在这个梦的帮助下,我开始理解是什么让我觉得有一丝不安和焦虑的感觉了。在简单的移情冲突之外的确有更多的危险。当他给了我这个特殊的小汽车——非常好、二手、进口的——患者自发的认识到它代表了我。梦里的另一个人试图阻止他,这个人支持着患者自我的部分,又让他困惑,其目的在于安全和幸福,并且让分析作为了受保护的对象。
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这个梦表明,患者希望我被伤害(他坚持让我成为难民,适用于“曲折的道路”这个已经用在他新朋友身上的表达。)出于对他的虐待冲动的罪恶感,他被迫作出赔偿,但这赔偿是自虐性质的,因为它需要想办法遮蔽理性和谨慎的声音。心理学空间HqFE[_@

YD6xiL!a0患者与他新朋友结婚的意图,那个受伤的女人,来自于两个部分,并从他移情冲突中行动化了,事实证明,这种特殊而强大的受虐和肆虐系统决定了其移情冲突。混淆的元素保护的图像本身就是双重目的的,表达着他的施虐与受虐冲动:其目的在于消灭分析,它代笔了患者婴儿期针对母亲的肛欲攻击模式的施虐倾向;在此程度上,它主张排除他对安全和幸福的渴望,它表达了他的自我毁灭的倾向。补偿变成了自虐的行为再次滋生了仇恨,并且,远离了破坏性和罪恶感之间的冲突的解决,导致了恶性循环。心理学空间sc$\en9`wQ r

l^ZC&|2S?:cO0我已经立即无意识地把握了情况的严重性,因此我体验到了担心的感觉。但是我的意识理解相对滞后,这样我就可以破译患者的信息,当提出了更多信息之后,又在一小时后寻求帮助。
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8Hm}*hU0为了给出一次会谈的要点,我希望说明我的观点,分析师对其患者即时的情绪反应是患者无意识过程的一个重要指针,并且指导他走向更全面的理解。它帮助分析师将自己的注意力集中于患者自由联想的最紧迫的元素之上,同时为我们从熟知的多因素决定的材料中进行至关重要的选择服务。
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但我要强调一点,分析师的反移情不仅仅是分析关系的重要组成部分,而且是患者的产物,这是患者人格的一部分。(我可能触及到Clifford Scott博士身体图式概念术语的那个观点,但是沿着这个线追寻会远离我的主题)心理学空间A/Fx EvA x3`:HQWu

:f K7M[E#X6}/W_0我提出的反移情方法也不是没有危险。这并不代表分析师屏幕的不足之处。当分析师在他自己的分析中修通了他婴儿期的冲突和焦虑(偏执和抑郁),以便他可以很容易的与自己的无意识链接,他不会推诿属于他的患者。他将获得一个可依赖的平衡,使其帮助患者的本我、自我、超我和患者派发给他的——也就是说投射给他的——外部客体这些角色度过难关。当患者在分析关系中戏剧化了他的冲突时。在我给的实例中,分析师在多数情况下是在患者好妈妈的角色中被摧毁、被解救,同时患者的现实自我试图反对他的肆虐受虐冲突。在我看来,弗洛伊德需要分析师必须“认识和掌握”自己的反移情之需求,并不会导致反移情是一个令人不安因素的结论,同时分析师应该变得绝情和超然,但他必须利用他的情绪反应这把钥匙打开患者的无意识。这将避免他以共同的演员的身份进入患者在分析关系中重新演绎的屏幕,同时避免让他利用这些来谋取自己的私利。同时他将会找到充裕的刺激,为了将他自己一次次的带入任务之中,并继续分析自己的问题。然而,这是他的私事,我不认为分析师和患者交流自己的情感是正确的。在我看来,这种诚实更多的是供认的性质同时也是对患者的负担。无论如何,它会导致分析的远离。如果将分析中激起的情绪作为洞察患者无意识冲突和防御的又一个来源,这对他的病人是有价值的。同时,这些被解释和修通之后,随之而来的是患者自我的变化,包括现实感的增强,因此他将他的分析师视为普通的一个人,不是神或妖,而且分析情景中“人”的关系并不遵循分析师诉诸于额外的分析方法。心理学空间vOs!dP ^'LI a
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精神分析的技术来自于并成型于弗洛伊德放弃催眠,发现了阻抗和压抑。在我看来,反移情的使用,作为研究的工具可以在他描述的方法中得到认可,他通过这些抵达了他的基本发现。当他试图阐明癔症患者的记忆遗忘时,他觉得来自患者的力量对抗着他的企图,他必须抵制自己的精神工作。他的结论是,这是由关键回忆的潜抑造成的相同的力量,并形成了癔症的症状。心理学空间N#H0vE*~;u LI

g)oJ/Qu },gbp0癔症健忘症的无意识过程因此可以由它的两个因素来定义,一个是向外的,被分析师感受为阻抗,同时另一个工作于作为潜抑的内省冲突。
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而在反移情被压抑的情况下,反移情的特征是直觉上能量的数量,一个反方向的力。其他的防御机制会唤醒分析师响应的其他品质。
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我相信随着更多的,以我的这个角度对反移情彻底调查尝试,我们会更充分得出反移情的特征,对于患者无意识冲动和当时采取的防御机制的性质。心理学空间Y,JL@/ZK;K&^
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在大会宣读这篇文章之后,我的注意力被Leo Berman的“反移情以及分析师在治疗过程中的态度”Psychiatry 12 (2) May 1949所吸引,事实上反移情的问题已经被提出来讨论,几乎被不同的工作指出反移情的性质和功能更深入研究的时机已经成熟了。我同意Leo Berman的关于分析师情感冷漠拒绝的基本训练,但关于使用分析师的感情对他的病人的结论我有不同。
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]o4q%m3hb5}0On counter-transference (1949/50)心理学空间;{y Y8e:f ~(}(K

\yv2vs`Z0PAULA HEIMANN心理学空间2hDn*}.T,`

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This paper was read at the 16th International Psycho-Analytical Congress, Zurich, 1949, and published in the International Journal of Psycho-Analysis31 (1/2) (1950).
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This short note on counter-transference[1] has been stimulated by certain observations I made in seminars and control analyses. I have been struck by the widespread belief amongst candidates that the counter-transference is nothing but a source of trouble. Many candidates are afraid and feel guilty when they become aware of feelings towards their patients and consequently aim at avoiding any emotional response and at becoming completely unfeeling and ‘detached’.心理学空间!q0Rjs t3HZ.X

(I$S k[&u1q0When I tried to trace the origin of this ideal of the ‘detached’ analyst, I found that our literature does indeed contain descriptions of the analytic work which can give rise to the notion that a good analyst does not feel anything beyond a uniform and mild benevolence towards his patients, and that any ripple of emotional waves on this smooth surface represents a disturbance to be overcome. This may possibly derive from a misreading of some of Freud’s (1912e) statements, such as his comparison with the surgeon’s state of mind during an operation, or his simile of the mirror. At least these have been quoted to me in this connection in discussions on the nature of the counter-transference.
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On the other hand, there is an opposite school of thought, like that of Ferenczi, which not only acknowledges that the analyst has a wide variety of feelings towards his patient, but recommends that he should at times express them openly. In her warm-hearted paper ‘Handhabung der übertragung auf Grund der Ferenczischen Versuche’ (1936) Alice Balint suggested that such honesty on the part of the analyst is helpful and in keeping with the respect for truth inherent in psychoanalysis. While I admire her attitude, I cannot agree with her conclusions. Other analysts again have claimed that it makes the analyst more ‘human’ when he expresses his feelings to his patient and that it helps him to build up a ‘human’ relationship with him.心理学空间a7u MQ `V(Sr"w

Q+B@ Wz{"Ye0For the purpose of this paper I am using the term ‘counter-transference’ to cover all the feelings which the analyst experiences towards his patient.
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It may be argued that this use of the term is not correct, and that counter-transference simply means transference on the part of the analyst. However, I would suggest that the prefix ‘counter’ implies additional factors.
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` VhI%`0In passing, it is worth while remembering that transference feelings cannot be sharply divided from those which refer to another person in his own right and not as a parent substitute. It is often pointed out that not everything a patient feels about his analyst is due to transference, and that, as the analysis progresses, he becomes increasingly more capable of ‘realistic’ feelings. This warning itself shows that the differentiation between the two kinds of feelings is not always easy.
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My thesis is that the analyst’s emotional response to his patient within the analytic situation represents one of the most important tools for his work. The analyst’s countertransference is an instrument of research into the patient’s unconscious.心理学空间xhUImF
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The analytic situation has been investigated and described from many angles, and there is general agreement about its unique character. But my impression is that it has not been sufficiently stressed that it is a relationshipbetween two persons. What distinguishes this relationship from others is not the presence of feelings in one partner, the patient, and their absence in the other, the analyst, but above all the degree of the feelings experienced and the use made of them, these factors being interdependent. The aim of the analyst’s own analysis, from this point of view, is not to turn him into a mechanical brain which can produce interpretations on the basis of a purely intellectual procedure, but to enable him to sustainthe feelings which are stirred in him, as opposed to discharging them (as does the patient), in order tosubordinatethem to the analytic task in which he functions as the patient’s mirror reflection.心理学空间 E1w[&^ z

"qZ DA0T:M0fe4@~0If an analyst tries to work without consulting his feelings, his interpretations are poor. I have often seen this in the work of beginners, who, out of fear, ignored or stifled their feelings.心理学空间/G`&A t&{l

\hr]4lP9LoR/j0We know that the analyst needs an evenly hovering attention in order to follow the patient’s free associations, and that this enables him to listen simultaneously on many levels. He has to perceive the manifest and the latent meaning of his patient’s words, the allusions and implications, the hints to former sessions, the references to childhood situations behind the description of current relationships, and so on. By listening in this manner the analyst avoids the danger of becoming preoccupied with any one theme and remains receptive for the significance of changes in themes and of the sequences and gaps in the patient’s associations.
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I would suggest that the analyst along with this freely working attention needs a freely roused emotional sensibility so as to follow the patient’s emotional movements and unconscious phantasies. Our basic assumption is that the analyst’s unconscious understands that of his patient. This rapport on the deep level comes to the surface in the form of feelings which the analyst notices in response to his patient, in his ‘countertransference’.This is the most dynamic way in which his patient’s voice reaches him. In the comparison of feelings roused in himself with his patient’s associations and behaviour, the analyst possesses a most valuable means of checking whether he has understood or failed to understand his patient.
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Since, however, violent emotions of any kind, of love or hate, helpfulness or anger, impel towards action rather than towards contemplation and blur a person’s capacity to observe and weigh the evidence correctly, it follows that, if the analyst’s emotional response is intense, it will defeat its object.心理学空间"tY2u@+qx

(WwA6E3tp oZTK Y0Therefore the analyst’s emotional sensitivity needs to be extensive rather than intensive, differentiating and mobile.心理学空间b3b0U$N9{;^ mHB8^8O

9~9E N`.Z%[ME0There will be stretches in the analytic work when the analyst who combines free attention with free emotional responses does not register his feelings as a problem, because they are in accord with the meaning he understands. But often the emotions roused in him are much nearer to the heart of the matter than his reasoning, or, to put it in other words, his unconscious perception of the patient’s unconscious is more acute and in advance of his conscious conception of the situation.
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A recent experience comes to mind. It concerns a patient whom I had taken over from a colleague. The patient was a man in the forties who had originally sought treatment when his marriage broke down. Among his symptoms promiscuity figured prominently. In the third week of his analysis with me he told me, at the beginning of the session, that he was going to marry a woman whom he had met only a short time before.
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)p;W/O1]&f|0It was obvious that his wish to get married at this juncture was determined by his resistance against the analysis and his need to act out his transference conflicts. Within a strongly ambivalent attitude the desire for an intimate relation with me had already clearly appeared. I had thus many reasons for doubting the wisdom of his intention and for suspecting his choice. But such an attempt to shortcircuit analysis is not infrequent at the beginning of, or at a critical point in, the treatment and usually does not represent too great an obstacle to the work, so that catastrophic conditions need not arise. I was therefore somewhat puzzled to find that I reacted with a sense of apprehension and worry to the patient’s remark. I felt that something more was involved in his situation, something beyond the ordinary acting out, which, however, eluded me.
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In his further associations which centred round his friend, the patient, describing her, said she had had a ‘rough passage’. This phrase again registered particularly and increased my misgivings. It dawned on me that it was precisely because she had had a rough passage that he was drawn to her. But still I felt that I did not see things clearly enough. Presently he came to tell me his dream: he had acquired from abroad a very good second-hand car which was damaged. He wished to repair it, but another person in the dream objected for reasons of caution. The patient had, as he put it, ‘to make him confused’ in order that he might go ahead with the repair of the car.心理学空间9WvO n9xF2\If
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With the help of this dream I came to understand what before I had merely felt as a sense of apprehension and worry. There was indeed more at stake than the mere acting out of transference conflicts.心理学空间L)}.Q8V)n$D%y LM

&u-w;d$H!zXs;E0When he gave me the particulars of the car—very good, second-hand, from abroad— the patient spontaneously recognized that it represented myself. The other person in the dream who tried to stop him and whom he confused stood for that part of the patient’s ego which aimed at security and happiness and for the analysis as a protective object.
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i4@#sp9a0The dream showed that the patient wished me to be damaged (he insisted on my being the refugee to whom applies the expression ‘rough passage’ which he had used for his new friend). Out of guilt for his sadistic impulses he was compelled to make reparation, but this reparation was of a masochistic nature, since it necessitated blotting out the voice of reason and caution. This element of confusing the protective figure was in itself double-barrelled, expressing both his sadistic and his masochistic impulses: in so far as it aimed at annihilating the analysis, it represented the patient’s sadistic tendencies in the pattern of his infantile anal attacks on his mother; in so far as it stood for his ruling out his desire for security and happiness, it expressed his self-destructive trends. Reparation turned into a masochistic act again engenders hatred, and, far from solving the conflict between destructiveness and guilt, leads to a vicious circle.心理学空间e Pp0jD Ww^@4i+Uj
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The patient’s intention of marrying his new friend, the injured woman, was fed from both sources, and the acting out of his transference conflicts proved to be determined by this specific and powerful sado-masochistic system.
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Unconsciously I had grasped immediately the seriousness of the situation, hence the sense of worry which I experienced. But my conscious understanding lagged behind, so that I could decipher the patient’s message and appeal for help only later in the hour, when more material came up.
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rL7LZ8c0XQ'yI0In giving the gist of an analytic session I hope to illustrate my contention that the analyst’s immediate emotional response to his patient is a significant pointer to the patient’s unconscious processes and guides him towards fuller understanding. It helps the analyst to focus his attention on the most urgent elements in the patient’s associations and serves as a useful criterion for the selection of interpretations from material which, as we know, is always overdetermined.心理学空间zM@F*BB$gn6P
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From the point of view I am stressing, the analyst’s counter-transference is not only part and parcel of the analytic relationship, but it is the patient’screation, it is a part of the patient’s personality. (I am possibly touching here on a point which Dr Clifford Scott would express in terms of his concept of the body-scheme, but to pursue this line would lead me away from my theme.)
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hA:ClY I:j']2}0The approach to the counter-transference which I have presented is not without danger. It does not represent a screen for the analyst’s shortcomings. When the analyst in his own analysis has worked through his infantile conflicts and anxieties (paranoid and depressive), so that he can easily establish contact with his own unconscious, he will not impute to his patient what belongs to himself. He will have achieved a dependable equilibrium which enables him to carry the roles of the patient’s id, ego, superego, and external objects which the patient allots to him or—in other words—projects on him, when he dramatizes his conflicts in the analytic relationship. In the instance I have given, the analyst was predominantly in the roles of the patient’s good mother to be destroyed and rescued, and of the patient’s reality-ego which tried to oppose his sado-masochistic impulses.In my view Freud’s demand that the analyst must ‘recognize and master’ his counter-transference does not lead to the conclusion that the counter-transference is a disturbing factor and that the analyst should become unfeeling and detached, but that he must use his emotional response as a key to the patient’s unconscious. This will protect him from entering as a co-actor on the scene which the patient re-enacts in the analytic relationship and from exploiting it for his own needs. At the same time he will find ample stimulus for taking himself to task again and again and for continuing the analysis of his own problems. This, however, is his private affair,and I do not consider it right for the analyst to communicate his feelings to his patient. In my view such honesty is more in the nature of a confession and a burden to the patient. In any case it leads away from the analysis. The emotions roused in the analyst will be of value to his patient, if used as one more source of insight into the patient’s unconscious conflicts and defences; and when these are interpreted and worked through, the ensuing changes in the patient’s ego include the strengthening of his reality sense so that he sees his analyst as a human being, not a god or demon, and the ‘human’ relationship in the analytic situation follows without the analyst’s having recourse to extra-analytical means.
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Psychoanalytic technique came into being when Freud, abandoning hypnosis, discovered resistance and repression. In my view the use of counter-transference as an instrument of research can be recognized in his descriptions of the way by which he arrived at his fundamental discoveries. When he tried to elucidate the hysterical patient’s forgotten memories, he felt that a force from the patient opposed his attempts and that he had to overcome this resistance by his own psychic work. He concluded that it was the same force which was responsible for the repression of the crucial memories and for the formation of the hysterical symptom.
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m o_0\!x [U }'iMk0The unconscious process in hysterical amnesia can thus be defined by its twin facets, of which one is turned outward and felt by the analyst as resistance, whilst the other works intrapsychically as repression.
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Whereas in the case of repression counter-transference is characterized by the sensation of a quantity of energy, an opposing force, other defence mechanisms will rouse other qualities in the analyst’s response.心理学空间 ](tS'VY"ir
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I believe that with more thorough investigation of counter-transference from the angle I have attempted here, we may come to work out more fully the way in which the character of the counter-transference corresponds to the nature of the patient’s unconscious impulses and defences operative at the actual time.心理学空间bE7}!sgAl]s

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E]|4W9q_:f01 After presenting this paper at the Congress my attention was drawn to a paper by Leo Berman: ‘Countertransferences and attitudes of the analyst in the therapeutic process’, Psychiatry 12 (2) May 1949. The fact that the problem of the counter-transference has been put forward for discussion practically simultaneously by different workers indicates that the time is ripe for a more thorough research into the nature and function of the counter-transference. I agree with Berman’s basic rejection of emotional coldness on the part of the analyst, but I differ in my conclusions concerning the use to be made of the analyst’s feelings towards his patient.  

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