作者: Richard A Friedman / 2137次阅读 时间: 2017年10月11日
来源: 陈明 编译 标签: 共情 特朗普

What if Trump is actually a master of empathy?


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陈明 编译


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‘Trump made a strong empathic connection with his supporters.’ Photograph: Brendan Smialowski/AFP/Getty Images心理学空间;{)w njgjR

特朗普和他的支持者建立了非常强的共情链接。”心理学空间(^,ps k[
摄影:Brendan Smialowski /AFP/Getty Images

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Many Americans see President Trump’s preoccupation with the protesting NFL athletes – and his near silence on the unfolding humanitarian crisis in Puerto Rico – as evidence that Trump has no empathy. Wrong.心理学空间X"m'Wx7L-AW/{\


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Actually, Trump is a master of empathy. Most people confuse empathy with sympathy and don’t understand the nature – or power – of empathy. There is nothing necessarily nice about empathy, which is essentially the ability to imagine and intuit how other people think and feel.

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It has nothing to do with genuinely identifying with others or actually feeling their pain; that would be sympathy. Instead, empathy is really about having an accurate theory of mind of other people – and getting under their skin.心理学空间MG^Y X,b"~G C



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Trump has lots of empathy. What he doesn’t have is sympathy – he doesn’t really feel badly for other people. He is not using his considerable empathy skills for Puerto Rico for a simple reason: they are not his base and he has little interest in them.心理学空间YD&sP v(T



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All successful politicians have unusually high levels of empathy. That is what makes their supporters feel and believe that they are understood, regardless of the true motives of the political figure.心理学空间/p;QT/J!Q K!w



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The same is true of successful demagogues and psychopaths who have an uncanny ability to read the mind of their victims in order to manipulate and control them. Thus, depending on the moral compass of a leader, empathy could be a very positive or very destructive force.心理学空间:v }#T7sB


Trump made a strong empathic connection with his supporters by acknowledging their pain and economic hardship and by promising to Make America (and by extension, them) Great Again. How? It hardly mattered once he made people feel he understood and liked them, something far more effective than policy details.心理学空间X2Bp`&b3@'_#t


特朗普承认支持者们经济困境的痛苦,并承诺使美国(以及他们)再次伟大起来,通过这些 ,他与他的支持者建立了强烈的共情链接。这是如何产生的呢?答案是:一旦他让人们觉得他理解他们,并且喜欢他们,一切就都好说了,这比政策细节更为有效。心理学空间 nw(Y [,{6?

But there is an extra twist to what Trump has done when it comes to empathy that helps us understand not only his success, but the puzzling and enduring loyalty of his core supporters, many of whom are unemployed, angry and stressed.心理学空间 Y+@w7k#zt(B

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Despite considerable evidence to the contrary, they still believe he will deliver on his campaign promises because the empathic connection he’s made with them, which emphasizes fear and threat, is psychologically and neurobiologically much more powerful than mere facts. Why?心理学空间3{:Bb:}as0V

%fp c)Z'}5U7b0尽管有许多相反的证据表明,他们仍然相信他会履行他的竞选诺言,由于强调恐惧与威胁,特朗普与他们产生了共情的连接,这些在心理学上和神经生物学上比仅有的事实更强大。为什么?


Studies of humans and other animals show that chronic stress tends to makes us more fearful while at the same time less critical and analytical in our thinking.心理学空间z&E'Div\

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The reason is that chronic stress is toxic to the prefrontal cortex, which is the brain’s reasoner-in-chief and allows us to rationally evaluate evidence, among other things. In response to chronic stress, neurons in our prefrontal cortex shrink and, as a direct result, we lose some of our ability for flexible and critical thinking.心理学空间#Kv8X~1u VJ:c

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其原因是,慢性应激导致了前额叶皮层的中毒反应,前额叶皮层掌管大脑最高级别的推理,并且总是让我们在其它方面之外,理性地评估证据。在对慢性应激作出反应时,我们大脑中的前额叶皮层的神经元萎缩了,这直接导致我们丧失了灵活思考和批判性思维的能力。心理学空间+M]I B]b5X1gx4c3il5[

[E0_5`6jFP&} i}$D0右杏仁核灰质密度变化与PSS评分变化的正相关doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsp034心理学空间3okb~%}(r

In stark contrast, chronic stress causes neurons in the amygdala, the seat of anxiety and fear in the brain, to get larger and more active, increasing a sensation of danger.心理学空间-hlblA3RGn.A |

zSsT Fu0与此形成鲜明对比的是,长期慢性的压力会导致杏仁核中的神经元——大脑中焦虑和恐惧的所在地——变得更大、更活跃,从而感觉到了危险的增加。心理学空间Wz X8L#PRC'M/|

(Both these effects are usually reversible so long as the stress is not too severe or prolonged.)心理学空间&NJ6tzU4G}

2d)ri [Ft1{0(只要压力不太严重,或者压力不是长期的,这些影响通常是可逆的。)心理学空间3W'bX1nH

Is it any surprise, then, that a fair chunk of President Trump’s core base – people who are probably chronically stressed – would be particularly receptive to “information” that conveys a sense of threat and more likely to dismiss reasoned argument and real facts as fake news?心理学空间B7T8aV[F


令人惊讶的是,特朗普总统的核心支持者们——可能长期处于压力之中的人们——会特别愿意接受那些传达着威胁感的“信息”,更可能把理性的论据和真实的事实当作假新闻加以摒弃。心理学空间\9T#B$I h;W

There is a clear adaptive advantage to being vigilant and anxious in the face of real danger. But you want to be able to dial down your fear once the danger has passed – or you discover there was little danger to start with – so that you have greater access to your critical faculties.


9As D h_#`I!g!A0在真正的危险面前保持警惕和焦虑的优势是其清晰的适应性。但是,一旦危险过去,你希望能够降低你的恐惧感,或者你发现,一开始时就没有什么危险,这样你就有更多的机会开启你的批判能力。心理学空间HnSu-T(Z@

That is exactly what President Trump is hoping his core supporters never get around to. From the moment of his inaugural speech where he declared that “this American carnage stops right here and stops right now” to the present, he never misses an opportunity to remind his base of their supposed enemies, be it Muslims or the liberal media, with a histrionic sense of threat and fear.

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So long as Trump continues to stoke his supporters’ fear, he strengthens their loyalty. It also explains, in part, why President Trump has been so eager to provide his base with convenient human scapegoats for their predicament.心理学空间6m\u.ieA'gx

;i.ww7m3`4m6q N0只要特朗普继续向他的支持者煽动恐惧,这就会加强他们对他的忠诚。这也部分说明了为什么特朗普总统一直急于向困境中的支持者提供便利的替罪羊。心理学空间.b4i[ Z&i

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After all, if you are angry about having lost your job, it is far more emotionally satisfying to blame an immigrant than the likely truth, which is that you lost your job to automation or a shift in the nature of the economy – an abstract explanation without a human target for your anger.


}$ll6e ?2s;Ec0毕竟,如果你愤怒于自己失去了工作,那么责备一个移民在情绪上获得的满足要远远大于可能的事实。这样,你失去工作的事实就会自动化切换到经济的本质之上了,经济的本质是一个抽象的解释,你的愤怒在这里找不到人性上的目标。


The disturbing truth is that we are most vulnerable to being exploited by an empathic demagogue like President Trump when we are stressed and anxious. In that state, we are hard-wired to favor fear over reason.

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c U0a2C!mwW0令人不安的事实是:当我们处在压力和焦虑中时,我们最容易被这种像特朗普总统的共情煽动者利用。在那种状态下,我们硬要找理由来战胜恐惧。

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Richard A Friedman is Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at Cornell Medical College心理学空间%uF"Hf"} vx

Richard A Friedman是康奈尔医学院的临床精神病学教授心理学空间A'Gl/`"VV!Q

TAG: 共情 特朗普
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