Bion 1959 Attacks on linking 对联结的攻击
作者: BION / 2403次阅读 时间: 2017年11月07日
来源: 杨立华 译 标签: Bion BION bion

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Attacks on linking对联结的攻击


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In previous papers (Bion 1957) I have had occasion, in talking of the psychotic part of the personality, to speak of the destructive attacks which the patient makes on anything which is felt to have the function of linking one object with another. It is my intention in this paper to show the significance of this form of destructive attack in the production of some symptoms met with in borderline psychosis.



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The prototype原型 for all the links of which I wish to speak is the primitive breast or penis. The paper presupposes假定 familiarity with Melanie Klein's descriptions of the infant's fantasies of sadistic attacks upon the breast (Klein 1934), of the infant's splitting of its objects, of projective identification, which is the name she gives to the mechanism by which parts of the personality are split off and projected into external objects, and finally her views on early stages of Oedipus complex (Klein 1928). I shall discuss phantasied attacks on the breast as the prototype of all attacks on objects that serve as a link and projective identification as the mechanism employed by the psyche to dispose of the ego fragments produced by its destructiveness.心理学空间3] HVC5E rD



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j Smp[J0{ M'V0I shall first describe clinical manifestations in an order dictated not by the chronology of their appearance in the consulting room, but by the need for making the exposition of my thesis as clear as I can. I shall follow this by material selected to demonstrate the order which these mechanisms assume when their relationship to each other is determined by the dynamics of the analytic situation. I shall conclude with theoretical observations on the material presented. The examples are drawn from the analysis of two patients and are taken from an advanced stage of their analyses. To preserve anonymity I shall not distinguish between the patients and shall introduce distortions of fact which I hope do not impair the accuracy of the analytic description.心理学空间/dGUVJ(muD"I


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Observation of the patient's disposition to attack the link between two objects is simplified because the analyst has to establish a link with the patient and does this by verbal communication and his equipment of psychoanalytical experience. Upon this the creative relationship depends and therefore we should be able to see attacks being made upon it.心理学空间;}1JI#oy'h:N`1O6NU C

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病人对两个客体之间的联结进行攻击的倾向的观察被简化了,因为分析师必须要与病人建立联结,并且通过口头交流和他的精神分析经验来做到这一点。创造性的关系取决于此,因此我们才能看到对它所做的攻击。心理学空间*^+p bi m

0]'p Ej`0})I0I am not concerned with typical resistance to interpretations, but with expanding references which I made in my paper on 'The differentiation of the psychotic from the non-psychotic personalities' (Bion 1957) to the destructive attacks on verbal thought itself.



h`&lY0VV;b8@9cUi0Clinical examples

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MO3mBjisx0I shall now describe occasions which afforded me an opportunity to give the patient an interpretation, which at that point he could understand, of conduct designed to destroy whatever it was that linked two objects together.心理学空间.pC}%_}.u



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These are the examples:

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(i) I had reason to give the patient an interpretation making explicit his feelings of affection and his expression of them to his mother for her ability to cope with a refractory倔强的 child. The patient attempted to express his agreement with me, but although he needed to say only a few words his expression of them was interrupted by a very pronounced stammer which had the effect of spreading out his remark over a period of as much as a minute and a half. The actual sounds emitted bore resemblance to gasping for breath; gaspings were interspersed with gurgling sounds as if he were immersed in water. I drew his attention to these sounds and he agreed that they were peculiar and himself suggested the descriptions I have just given.


/X mr0RoU4T0(1)我有足够的理由给病人一个解释,用来阐明他对情感的感受,以及他的这些感受对母亲的表达,因为她应付一个倔强的孩子的能力。病人试图表达他对我的赞同,但是虽然他只用几个词就能说出来,但是他对这几个词的表达被明显的口吃干扰了,这个口吃让他的话在长达一分半钟的时间里才说完。所发出的声音有点像喘息;喘息中点缀着咕噜声,就像是他浸在水里了一样。我让他注意到这些声音,他承认这些声音很独特,而且刚才我的描述就是他所建议的。心理学空间.x'oTq7D+lYa

g4`[{2p:B)c8J-u3pd.Z0(ii) The patient complained that he could not sleep. Showing signs of fear, he said, 'It can't go on like this'. Disjointed remarks gave the impression that he felt superficially that some catastrophe would occur, perhaps akin to insanity, if he could not get more sleep. Referring to material in the previous session I suggested that he feared he would dream if he were to sleep. He denied this and said he could not think because he was wet. I reminded him of his use of the term 'wet' as an expression of contempt for somebody he regarded as feeble and sentimental. He disagreed and indicated that the state to which he referred was the exact opposite. From what I knew of this patient I felt that his correction at this point was valid and that somehow the wetness referred to an expression of hatred and envy such as he associated with urinary attacks on an object. I therefore said that in addition to the superficial fear which he had expressed he was afraid of sleep because for him it was the same thing as the oozing away 慢慢消失of his mind itself. Further associations showed that he felt that good interpretations from me were so consistently and minutely split up by him that they became mental urine which then seeped uncontrollably away. Sleep was therefore inseparable from unconsciousness, which was itself identical with a state of mindlessness which could not be repaired. He said, 'I am dry now'. I replied that he felt he was awake and capable of thought, but that this good state was only precariously maintained.

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(iii) In this session the patient had produced material stimulated by the preceding week-end break. His awareness of such external stimuli had become demonstrable at a comparatively recent stage of the analysis. Previously it was a matter for conjecture猜测 how much he was capable of appreciating reality. I knew that he had contact with reality because he came for analysis by himself, but that fact could hardly be deduced from his behaviour in the sessions. When I interpreted some associations as evidence that he felt he had been and still was witnessing an intercourse between two people, he reacted as if he had received a violent blow猛击. I was not then able to say just where he had experienced the assault and even in retrospect I have no clear impression. It would seem logical to suppose that the shock had been administered给予 by my interpretation and that therefore the blow came from without, but my impression is that he felt it as delivered from within; the patient often experienced what he described as a stabbing attack from inside. He sat up and stared intently into space. I said that he seemed to be seeing something. He replied that he could not see what he saw. I was able from previous experience to interpret that he felt he was 'seeing' an invisible object and subsequent experience convinced me that in the two patients on whose analysis I am depending for material for this paper, events occurred in which the patient experienced invisible-visible hallucinations幻觉. I shall give my reasons later for supposing that in this and the previous example similar mechanisms were at work.心理学空间SC {c,Q*B4s



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Y6T!\a`J,p0(iv) In the first twenty minutes of the session the patient made three isolated remarks which had no significance for me. He then said that it seemed that a girl he had met was understanding. This was followed at once by a violent, convulsive movement which he affected to假装 ignore. It appeared to be identical with the kind of stabbing attack I mentioned in the last example. I tried to draw his attention to the movement, but he ignored my intervention as he ignored the attack. He then said that the room was filled with a blue haze蓝色烟雾. A little later he remarked that the haze had gone, but said he was depressed. I interpreted that he felt understood by me. This was an agreeable experience, but the pleasant feeling of being understood had been instantly destroyed and ejected. I reminded him that we had recently witnessed his use of the word 'blue' as a compact description of vituperative sexual conversation. If my interpretation was correct, and subsequent events suggested that it was, it meant that the experience of being understood had been split up, converted into particles of sexual abuse and ejected. Up to this point I felt that the interpretation approximated closely to his experience. Later interpretations, that the disappearance of the haze was due to reintrojection再次内摄 and conversion into depression, seemed to have less reality for the patient, although later events were compatible with its being correct.

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\"kk T3`W]0(v) The session, like the one in my last example, began with three or four statements of fact such as that it was hot, that his train was crowded, and that it was Wednesday; this occupied thirty minutes. An impression that he was trying to retain contact with reality was confirmed when he followed up by saying that he feared a breakdown. A little later he said I would not understand him. I interpreted that he felt I was bad and would not take in what he wanted to put into me. I interpreted in these terms deliberately because he had shown in the previous session that he felt that my interpretations were an attempt to eject feelings that he wished to deposit in me. His response to my interpretation was to say that he felt there were two probability clouds in the room. I interpreted that he was trying to get rid of the feeling that my badness was a fact. I said it meant that he needed to know whether I was really bad or whether I was some bad thing which had come from inside him. Although the point was not at the moment of central significance I thought the patient was attempting to decide whether he was hallucinated or not. This recurrent anxiety in his analysis was associated with his fear that envy and hatred of a capacity for understanding was leading him to take in a good, understanding object to destroy and eject it—a procedure which had often led to persecution迫害 by the destroyed and ejected object. Whether my refusal to understand was a reality or hallucination was important only because it determined what painful experiences were to be expected next.

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(vi) Half the session passed in silence; the patient then announced that a piece of iron had fallen on the floor. Thereafter he made a series of convulsive movements in silence as if he felt he was being physically assaulted from within. I said he could not establish contact with me because of his fear of what was going on inside him. He confirmed this by saying that he felt he was being murdered. He did not know what he would do without the analysis as it made him better. I said that he felt so envious of himself and of me for being able to work together to make him feel better that he took the pair of us into him as a dead piece of iron and a dead floor that came together not to give him life but to murder him. He became very anxious and said he could not go on. I said that he felt he could not go on because he was either dead, or alive and so envious that he had to stop good analysis. There was a marked decrease of anxiety, but the remainder of the session was taken up by isolated statements of fact which again seemed to be an attempt to preserve contact with external reality as a method of denial of his phantasies.

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s]o6G&bw-?,VW0These episodes have been chosen by me because the dominant theme in each was the destructive attack on a link. In the first the attack was expressed in a stammer which was designed to prevent the patient from using language as a bond between him and me. In the second sleep was felt by him to be identical with projective identification that proceeded unaffected by any possible attempt at control by him. Sleep for him meant that his mind, minutely fragmented, flowed out in an attacking stream of particles.




The examples I give here throw light on schizophrenic dreaming. The psychotic patient appears to have no dreams, or at least not to report any, until comparatively late in the analysis. My impression now is that this apparently dreamless period is a phenomenon analogous to the invisibles-visual hallucination. That is to say, that the dreams consist of material so minutely fragmented that they are devoid of 缺乏any visual component. When dreams are experienced which the patient can report because visual objects have been experienced by him in the course of the dream, he seems to regard these objects as bearing much the same relationship to the invisible objects of the previous phase as faeces seem to him to bear to urine. The objects appearing in experiences which we call dreams are regarded by the patient as solid and are, as such, contrasted with the contents of the dreams which were a continuum of minute, invisible fragments.心理学空间c}(Dc)s$Y7t*e.F


我这里给出的例子让精神分裂症的梦变得更为清晰。精神病病人貌似没有梦,或者至少是没有报告任何梦,直到分析的相对后期阶段。我现在的印象是,这种表面上无梦的阶段是一种类似于看不见的视觉幻觉的现象。也就是说,这些梦由如此破碎的材料组成,以至于他们缺乏任何可见的成分。当梦被体验为病人可以报告的东西的时候,那是因为在做梦的过程中他体验到了一些视觉物体,他似乎将这些物体与之前阶段不可见物体的关系看作是屎与尿之间的关系一样。在我们称之为梦的体验中出现的物体,被病人认为是固体的,照此,与那些内容是微小的,不可见的碎片的梦形成对比。心理学空间^B-Oy GT"~i;Q0i2J

O+HZ,z W G F0At the time of the session the main theme was not an attack on the link but the consequences of such an attack, previously made, in leaving him bereft of 失去a state of mind necessary for the establishment of a satisfying relationship between him and his bed. Though it did not appear in the session I report, uncontrollable projective identification, which was what sleep meant to him, was thought to be a destructive attack on the state of mind of the coupling parents. There was therefore a double anxiety; one arising from his fear that he was being rendered mindless, the other from his fear that he was unable to control his hostile attacks, his mind providing the ammunition, on the state of mind that was the link between the parental pair. Sleep and sleeplessness were alike inacceptable.心理学空间oUsp8G_G:v

0z Cq4{k0这个治疗时间段里面,主要的主题不是对联结的攻击,而是之前所做的这种攻击的后果,让他失去在他与他的床之间建立满意关系所必须的一种理智状态。虽然它没有在我所报告的那个时间段里出现,但是不可控制的投射性认同,也就是梦对他来说意味着的东西,被认为是对联结起源的理智状态的破坏性攻击。因此这里有双重的焦虑;一个源自于他对变成没头脑的恐惧,另一个是对他无法控制他的敌意攻击的恐惧,他的理智提供了弹药,用来攻击起源配对之间联结的理智状态。睡眠和无眠一样不可接受。心理学空间&M8yu;Utt n;_

1B;^.^9R2p\-p0In the third example in which I described visual hallucinations of invisible objects, we witness one form in which the actual attack on the sexual pair is delivered. My interpretation, as far as I could judge, was felt by him as if it were his own visual sense of a parental intercourse; this visual impression is minutely fragmented and ejected at once in particles so minute微小的 that they are the invisible components of a continuum. The total procedure has served the purpose of forestalling预防 an experience of feelings of envy for the parental state of mind by the instantaneous expression of envy in a destructive act. I shall have more to say of this implicit hatred of emotion and the need to avoid awareness of it.

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.U.?:t h [r7~BKg0在第三个例子中,我描述了不可见物体的视觉幻觉,我们见证了一种形式,其中对性配对进行了实际的攻击。我的解释,就我所能判断的,被他感觉成就像是他亲眼看见了父母的性交;这个视角印象不断碎片化然后立刻以微粒射出来,这些微小如此微小以至于它们成了一个连续体的不可见成分。整个程序的作用是,通过立即在一个破坏性的行为中表达嫉妒,预防体验到对父母理智状态的嫉妒。我将会更多地谈及这种隐含的对情绪的仇恨,以及回避意识到它的需要。心理学空间v+Vs.^#J O


In my fourth example, the report of the understanding girl and the haze, my understanding and his agreeable state of mind have been felt as a link between us which could give rise to a creative act. The link had been regarded with hate and transformed into a hostile and destructive sexuality rendering表示 the patient-analyst couple sterile.心理学空间]j9e"N^ Z.`y

z"l-M \e i?$e0在我的第四个例子中,对善解人意的女孩和烟雾的报告,我的理解和他的愉快理智状态,被感觉成我们之间的联结,这个联结可以引起一个有创造力的行动。这个联结被仇恨的态度对待,并且转化成了一个有敌意和破坏性的性行为,表示病人-分析师配对没有效果。心理学空间Y:F(gL d;tJ

)I;y M])U(k|A0In my fifth example, of the two probability clouds, a capacity for understanding is the link which is being attacked, but the interest lies in the fact that the object making the destructive attacks is alien to the patient. Furthermore, the destroyer is making an attack on projective identification which is felt by the patient to be a method of communication. In so far as my supposed attack on his methods of communication is felt as possibly secondary to his envious attacks on me, he does not dissociate himself from feelings of guilt and responsibility. A further point is the appearance of judgement, which Freud regards as an essential feature of the dominance of the reality principle, among the ejected parts of the patient's personality. The fact that there were two probability clouds remained unexplained at the time, but in subsequent sessions I had material which led me to suppose that what had originally been an attempt to separate good from bad survived in the existence of two objects, but they were now similar in that each was a mixture of good and bad. Taking into consideration material from later sessions, I can draw conclusions which were not possible at the time; his capacity for judgement, which had been split up and destroyed with the rest of his ego and then ejected, was felt by him to be similar to other bizarre objects of the kind which I have described in my paper on 'The differentiation of the psychotic from the non-psychotic parts of the personality'. These ejected particles were feared because of the treatment he had accorded符合 them. He felt that the alienated judgement—the probability clouds—indicated that I was probably bad. His suspicion that the probability clouds were persecutory and hostile led him to doubt the value of the guidance they afforded him. They might supply him with a correct assessment or a deliberately false one, such as that a fact was an hallucination or vice versa; or would give rise to what, from a psychiatric point of view, we would call delusions. The probability clouds themselves had some qualities of a primitive breast and were felt to be enigmatic and intimidating.心理学空间!A{yR o/Jx{r_

SJ c'kbV(^$Hx0在我的第五个,关于两个可能性的云的例子中,理解能力是受到攻击的联结,但是有趣的是,进行破坏性攻击的客体是违背病人本性的。而且,破坏者正在对投射性认同做出攻击,而投射性认同被病人感觉为是一种沟通的方式。至于我假定的对他的沟通方式的攻击,被感觉为可能是次于他对我的嫉妒的攻击的,他没有将自己与内疚和责任的感觉中解离。更深层的一点是在病人人格射出的部分中,判断的出现,而这被弗洛伊德认为是现实原则占主导的一个基本特征。那个时候有两朵可能性的云这一事实没有解释,但是在接下来的治疗中,我有了一些材料,可以让我假设,一开始想要将好的和坏的分开的企图,在两个物体同时存在的情况下幸存了下来,但是它们现在变得类似了,因为每一个都是好和坏的混合物。把后面治疗的材料考虑进来,我可以得出之前那个时候不可能得出的结论;他判断的能力,被分裂然后与他自我的剩余部分被毁灭,然后射出去,被他感觉是与其他的奇异客体类似,这种类型的奇异客体我在我的论文《人格中精神病性和非精神病性的区分》描述过。这些射出去微粒让人害怕,因为他所获得的治疗与它们相符。他感觉他异化了的判断——可能的云——表明我可能是坏的。他怀疑可能的云是迫害性的和有敌意的,导致他怀疑它们给予他的指导的价值。它们可能给他一个正确的评估,或者一个故意弄错的,比如,一个事实是一个幻觉或者反过来;或者从精神病学的观点来说,可能会导致幻觉。可能的云本身有原初乳房的一些特性,因此被感觉是神秘和吓人的。

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In my sixth illustration, the report that a piece of iron had fallen on the floor, I had no occasion for interpreting an aspect of the material with which the patient had by this time become familiar. (I should perhaps say that experience had taught me that there were times when I assumed the patient's familiarity with some aspect of a situation with which we were dealing, only to discover that, in spite of the work that had been done upon it, he had forgotten it.) The familiar point that I did not interpret, but which is significant for the understanding of this episode, is that the patient's envy of the parental couple had been evaded by his substitution代替 of himself and myself for the parents. The evasion回避 failed, for the envy and hatred were now directed against him and me. The couple engaged in a creative act are felt to be sharing分享 an enviable值得羡慕的, emotional experience; he, being identified also with the excluded party, has a painful, emotional experience as well. On many occasions the patient, partly through experiences of the kind which I describe in this episode, and partly for reasons on which I shall enlarge later, had a hatred of emotion, and therefore, by a short extension, of life itself. This hatred contributes to the murderous attack on that which links the pair, on the pair itself and on the object generated by the pair. In the episode I am describing, the patient is suffering the consequences of his early attacks on the state of mind that forms the link between the creative pair and his identification with both the hateful and creative states of mind.


;FY:W${IF ?4Az'I0在我的第六个例子,那个报告说一块烙铁掉在地板上的,我没有机会解释病人那个时候已经熟悉了的材料的一个方面。(我或许应该说经验告诉我,当我假定病人对我们正在处理的情境的一些方面很熟悉的时候,只会发现,尽管在此之上开展了工作,他已经忘掉它了。)我没有解释的熟悉的一点,但是理解这个片段很重要的一点是,病人对父母的嫉妒已经通过用他自己和我自己代替父母而回避了。这个回避失败了,因为现在嫉妒和仇恨现在是指向他和我的。参与一个创造性行动的两个人现在被觉得是在分享一个值得羡慕的,情感的体验;他,也与被排除的部分有认同,也有一个痛苦的,情感的体验。在许多时候,这个病人,部分通过我在这个片段中描述的这种体验,对情感有仇恨,因此,通过一个小的延伸,对生活本身也产生了仇恨。这个仇恨促成了对联结配对的东西,对配对,对这个配对产生的物体的攻击。在我描述的片段中,病人正在承受着他对形成创造性配对联结的理智状态和他与仇恨和创造性的理智状态的认同的早期攻击的后果。

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/gR`*l0u1]-q0In this and the preceding illustration there are elements that suggest the formation of a hostile persecutory object, or agglomeration of objects, which expresses its hostility in a manner which is of great importance in producing the predominance of psychotic mechanisms in a patient; the characteristics with which I have already invested the agglomeration聚集 of persecutory objects have the quality of a primitive原初的, and even murderous凶残的, superego.心理学空间!nE8X#M:k P_9P"D"p

H^:ueF M6?0在这里以及随后的阐述中,有一些元素表明一个敌意迫害性客体,或者客体的聚集的形成,这个客体以一种在产生病人身上显著的精神病机制方面极其重要的方式表达它的敌意;除了我已经赋予的特性,迫害性客体的聚集有原初的,凶残的超我的特性。

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Curiosity, arrogance, and stupidity

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In the paper I presented at the International Congress of 1957 (Bion 1957) I suggested that Freud's analogy of an archaeological investigation with a psychoanalysis was helpful if it were considered that we were exposing evidence not so much of a primitive civilization as of a primitive disaster. The value of the analogy is lessened because in the analysis we are confronted not so much with a static situation that permits leisurely study, but with a catastrophe灾难 that remains at one and the same moment actively vital and yet incapable of resolution into quiescence. This lack of progress in any direction must be attributed in part to the destruction of a capacity for curiosity and the consequent inability to learn, but before I go into this I must say something about a matter that plays hardly any part in the illustrations I have given.心理学空间)Ahr/I*{R{

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Attacks on the link originate in what Melanie Klein calls the paranoid-schizoid phase. This period is dominated by part-object relationships (Klein 1948). If it is borne in mind that the patient has a part-object relationship with himself as well as with objects not himself, it contributes to the understanding of phrases such as 'it seems' which are commonly employed by the deeply disturbed patient on occasions when a less disturbed patient might say 'I think' or 'I believe'. When he says 'it seems' he is often referring to a feeling —an 'it seems' feeling— which is a part of his psyche and yet is not observed as part of a whole object. The conception of the part-object as analogous to an anatomical structure解剖结构, encouraged by the patient's employment of concrete images as units of thought, is misleading because the part-object relationship is not with the anatomical structures only but with function, not with anatomy but with physiology生理学, not with the breast but with feeding, poisoning, loving, hating.

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对联结的攻击起源于梅兰妮•克莱因称之为偏执-分裂的阶段。这个阶段部分客体关系占显著地位。如果我们记住,病人与他自己以及不是他自己的客体都有一个部分客体关系,它让我们可以理解一种措辞,比如“它好像”,这种措辞通常是由病得很重的病人所采用,而病得较轻的病人在这些场合下可能会说,“我认为”或者“我相信”。当他说“它好像”的时候,他经常指的是一种感觉——一种“它好像”的感觉——这种感觉是他心灵的一部分,而又不被认为是整个结构的一部分。关于部分客体类似于解剖结构的观念,虽然被病人用具体的图像作为思维单元所鼓励,但其实是误导人的,因为部分客体关系不只是与解剖结构有关,而是与结构有关,不是与解剖学而是与生理学有关,不是与乳房有关,而是与哺乳,毒害,爱,恨有关。心理学空间lz"EH0k `

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This contributes to the impression of a disaster that is dynamic and not static. The problem that has to be solved on this early, yet superficial, level must be stated in adult terms by the question, 'What is something?' and not the question 'Why is something?' because 'why' has, through guilt, been split off. Problems, the solution of which depends upon an awareness of causation因果关系, cannot therefore be stated, let alone solved. This produces a situation in which the patient appears to have no problems except those posed by the existence of analyst and patient. His preoccupation is with what is this or that function, of which he is aware though unable to grasp the totality of which the function is a part. It follows that there is never any question why the patient or the analyst is there, or why something is said or done or felt, nor can there be any question of attempting to alter the causes of some state of mind.... Since 'what?' can never be answered without 'how?' or 'why?' further difficulties arise. I shall leave this on one side to consider the mechanisms employed by the infant to solve the problem 'what?' when it is felt in relation to a part-object relationship with a function.心理学空间SL$r9a|;m[v3r

da?)P1P"REE0这让人形成关于一个动态而不是静态的灾难的印象。在这个早期,还很肤浅的层面上,需要解决的问题,必须用成年人的话来说就是,“那样是什么样?”而不是“为什么是那样?”因为“为什么”通过内疚被分裂了。要解决问题取决于意识到因果关系,而此时问题都提不出来,何况解决。这形成了一种病人看起来没有任何问题的状况,除了由分析师和病人的存在所引起的问题之外。他关注的是这个或者那个功能是什么,他能够意识到功能,虽然不能抓住功能只是一部分的那个整体。结果就是,从来没有问到为什么病人或者分析师在那里,或者为什么说了某些话,做了某些事,有某些感受,也不会有任何想要改变某些理智状态的原因的问题……因为如果不问“如何”或者“什么”会产生进一步的问题,关于“什么”的问题永远得不到回答。我将会把这个放一边,来考虑当感觉与有一种功能的部分客体相关的时候,婴儿用来解决“什么”的问题所采用的机制。心理学空间 [P$D-um%K


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mWO0T)C-y0Denial of normal degrees of projective identification

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I employ the term 'link' because I wish to discuss the patient's relationship with a function rather than with the object that subserves a function; my concern is not only with the breast, or penis, or verbal thought, but with their function of providing the link between two objects.心理学空间%y ^6~aV U R



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In her 'Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms' (1946) Melanie Klein speaks of the importance of an excessive employment of splitting and projective identification in the production of a very disturbed personality. She also speaks of 'the introjection of the good object, first of all the mother's breast' as a 'precondition for normal development'. I shall suppose that there is a normal degree of projective identification, without defining the limits within which normality lies, and that associated with introjective identification this is the foundation on which normal developments rests.心理学空间'Fr8rl%z3\

N7F7[9P6fb ?m ?0在她的论文《一些分裂机制浅论》中,梅兰妮•克莱因谈到了分裂和投射性认同的过度使用在产生一种非常精神病性的人格中的重要性。她也谈到了“好客体的内摄,首先是母亲的乳房”,是“正常发展的前提”。我会假定有正常程度的投射性认同,而不界定正常的界限在哪里,并且它与内摄性认同有关,这是正常发展所依赖的基础。心理学空间m+B`}6Y b

2W_ Ew-MB4}$nf0This impression derives partly from a feature in a patient's analysis which was difficult to interpret because it did not appear to be sufficiently obtrusive at any moment for an interpretation to be supported by convincing evidence. Throughout the analysis the patient resorted to projective identification with a persistence固执 suggesting it was a mechanism of which he had never been able sufficiently to avail有益于 himself; the analysis afforded him an opportunity for the exercise of a mechanism of which he had been cheated. I did not have to rely on this impression alone. There were sessions which led me to suppose that the patient felt there was some object that denied拒绝 him the use of projective identification. In the illustrations I have given, particularly in the first, the stammer, and the fourth, the understanding girl and the blue haze, there are elements which indicate that the patient felt that parts of his personality that he wished to repose in me were refused entry by me, but there had been associations prior to this which led me to this view.心理学空间Gh$IDdBn'[.J

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这个印象部分来自于病人分析中的一个特点,它很难去做解释,因为在任何时候似乎都不够突出,使得解释无法获得确信的证据支持。整个分析中,病人固执地诉诸于投射性认同,表明它是一种他从来没有充分用来给他自己带来好处的心理机制;分析让他有机会运用一种他一直被欺骗的机制。我不需要只依赖这个印象。有一些治疗时间段让我假定,病人感到某个客体拒绝他使用投射性认同。在我给出的例子中,特别是第一个,有一些元素表明,病人感觉他想要放到我那里的部分人格被我拒绝进入,但是在这之前还有一些自由联想让我有了这个观点。心理学空间N)I:q {8YR

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When the patient strove to rid himself of fears of death which were felt to be too powerful for his personality to contain he split off his fears and put them into me, the idea apparently being that if they were allowed to repose停留 there long enough they would undergo modification by my psyche and could then be safely reintrojected. On the occasion I have in mind the patient had felt, probably for reasons similar to those I give in my fifth illustration, the probability clouds, that I evacuated them so quickly that the feelings were not modified, but had become more painful.

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"X)H4W6|Sf7u'C*B0当病人感到对死亡的恐惧太过于强大,他的人格无法容纳的时候,病人努力去去除自己身上对死亡的恐惧,他将他的恐惧分裂掉然后将它们放在我那里,这样做的原因好像是,如果它们被允许在那里停留足够长的时间,它们将会被我的心灵转化,然后可以安全地再次内摄。在我想到的那个场合,病人感觉,可能与我在第五个例子——可能的云——中给出的理由类似,我太快排出它们,那个感受没有转化,但是变得更加让人痛苦。心理学空间)r R0CAK2M0}%}

)V(M8M,F V3RS0Associations from a period in the analysis earlier than that from which these illustrations have been drawn showed an increasing intensity of emotions in the patient. This originated in what he felt was my refusal to accept parts of his personality. Consequently he strove to force them into me with increased desperation and violence. His behaviour, isolated from the context of the analysis, might have appeared to be an expression of primary aggression. The more violent his phantasies of projective identification, the more frightened he became of me. There were sessions in which such behaviour expressed unprovoked无缘无故的 aggression, but I quote this series because it shows the patient in a different light, his violence a reaction to what he felt was my hostile defensiveness. The analytic situation built up in my mind a sense of witnessing an extremely early scene. I felt that the patient had experienced in infancy a mother who dutifully responded to the infant's emotional displays.



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The dutiful response had in it an element of impatient 'I don't know what's the matter with the child.' My deduction was that in order to understand what the child wanted the mother should have treated the infant's cry as more than a demand for her presence. From the infant's point of view she should have taken into her, and thus experienced, the fear that the child was dying. It was this fear that the child could not contain. He strove to split it off together with the part of the personality in which it lay and project it into the mother. An understanding mother is able to experience the feeling of dread, that this baby was striving to deal with by projective identification, and yet retain a balanced outlook. This patient had had to deal with a mother who could not tolerate experiencing such feelings and reacted either by denying the ingress进入, or alternatively by becoming a prey to the anxiety which resulted from the introjection of the infant's feelings. The latter reaction must, I think, have been rare: denial was dominant.

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To some this reconstruction will appear to be unduly fanciful想象的; to me it does not seem forced不自然的 and is the reply to any who may object that too much stress is placed on the transference to the exclusion of 排除掉,不计及a proper elucidation说明 of early memories.


,iCwng(YrzDR0对某些人来说,这个重构似乎太过于幻想;对我来说它并显得不自然,并且它是对任何反对过于强调移情,没有对早期记忆给予一个恰当说明的回应。心理学空间-X"V d.NMafe\*Gt

diN8o5|&Pu~(r~2v0In the analysis a complex situation may be observed. The patient feels he is being allowed an opportunity of which he had hitherto至今 been cheated; the poignancy强烈 of his deprivation is thereby rendered释放 the more acute and so are the feelings of resentment at the deprivation. Gratitude for the opportunity coexists with hostility to the analyst as the person who will not understand and refuses the patient the use of the only method of communication by which he feels he can make himself understood. Thus the link between patient and analyst, or infant and breast, is the mechanism of projective identification. The destructive attacks upon this link originate in a source external to the patient or infant, namely the analyst or breast. The result is excessive projective identification by the patient and a deterioration退化 of his developmental processes.

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%D6z J4IjR i-`+Ol(L0I do not put forward提出 this experience as the cause of the patient's disturbance; that finds its main source in the inborn disposition of the infant as a I described it in my paper on 'The differentiation of the psychotic from the non-psychotic personalities' (Bion 1957). I regard it as a central feature of the environmental factor in the production of the psychotic personality.心理学空间cqa/_ wW"vy


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a?'lS ["sp0Before I discuss this consequence for the patient's development, I must refer to the inborn characteristics and the part that they play in producing attacks by the infant on all that links him to the breast, namely, primary aggression and envy. The seriousness of these attacks is enhanced if the mother displays the kind of unreceptiveness which I have described, and is diminished削弱, but not abolished废除, if the mother can introject the infant's feelings and remain balanced (Klein 1957); the seriousness remains because the psychotic infant is overwhelmed with hatred and envy of the mother's ability to retain a comfortable state of mind although experiencing the infant's feelings.心理学空间0La^1rr lC |



1f0Dzzi&r0This was clearly brought out by a patient who insisted that I must go through it with him, but was filled with hate when he felt I was able to do so without a breakdown(典型的边缘性人格障碍反应). Here we have another aspect of destructive attacks upon the link, the link being the capacity of the analyst to introject the patient's projective identifications. Attacks on the link, therefore, are synonymous with attacks on the analyst's, and originally the mother's, peace of mind. The capacity to introject is transformed by the patient's envy and hate into greed devouring吞食,毁灭 the patient's psyche; similarly, peace of mind becomes hostile indifference. At this point analytic problems arise through the patient's employment (to destroy the peace of mind that is so much envied) of acting out, delinquent acts 不良行为and threats of suicide.心理学空间F4n Rn:v9K4\





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6STj7~#[ e0To review the main features so far: the origin of the disturbance is twofold. On the one hand there is the patient's inborn disposition to excessive destructiveness, hatred, and envy: on the other the environment which, at its worst, denies to the patient the use of the mechanisms of splitting and projective identification. On some occasions the destructive attacks on the link between patient and environment, or between different aspects of the patient's personality, have their origin in the patient; on others, in the mother, although in the latter instance and in psychotic patients, it can never be in the mother alone. The disturbances commence with life itself. The problem that confronts the patient is: What are the objects of which he is aware? These objects, whether internal or external, are in fact part-objects and predominantly, though not exclusively, what we should call functions and not morphological structures形态结构.


对目前主要的特点做一个回顾:精神病态的起源是双重的。一方面是病人天生的性情,过度的攻击性,仇恨和嫉妒;另一方面是环境,在最糟糕的情况下,拒绝病人对分裂和投射性认同这两个心理机制的使用。在某些场合,对病人和环境,或者病人人格中不同面向的破坏性攻击,起源于病人;在另外一些场合,在母亲身上,虽然在后面那个例子和精神病病人身上,原因永远不可能是只在母亲身上。精神病是从生命一开始的时候就开始的。面对病人的问题是:他能意识到的是什么客体?这些客体,不管是内部还是外部的,实际上主要是部分客体,虽然并不完全是,我们应该称之为功能而不是形态结构。心理学空间,L(E n{8c~x5|(p

u l hXo0This is obscured because the patient's thinking is conducted by means of concrete objects and therefore tends to produce, in the sophisticated mind of the analyst, an impression that the patient's concern is with the nature of the concrete object. The nature of the functions which excite the patient's curiosity he explores by projective identification. His own feelings, too powerful to be contained within his personality are amongst these functions. Projective identification makes it possible for him to investigate his own feelings in a personality powerful enough to contain them. Denial of the use of this mechanism, either by the refusal of the mother to serve as a repository仓库 for the infant's feelings, or by the hatred and envy of the patient who cannot allow the mother to exercise this function, leads to a destruction of the link between infant and breast and consequently to a severe disorder of the impulse to be curious on which all learning depends.

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LCvd*k(b i0The way is therefore prepared for a severe arrest of development. Furthermore, thanks to a denial of the main method open to the infant for dealing with his too powerful emotions, the conduct of emotional life, in any case a severe problem, becomes intolerable. Feelings of hatred are thereupon directed against all emotions, including hate itself, and against external reality which stimulates them. It is a short step from hatred of the emotions to hatred of life itself. As I said in my paper on the 'The differentiation of the psychotic from the non- psychotic personalities' (Bion 1957), this hatred results in导致 a resort to依靠 projective identification of all the perceptual apparatus 知觉器官including the embryonic thought which forms a link between sense impressions and consciousness. The tendency to excessive projective identification when death instincts predominate is thus reinforced强化了.心理学空间N3af'zYnd gM!`

H/Ce;\|G ]8M0因此会导致发展的严重停滞。而且,由于对婴儿处理对他来说太过于强大的情绪的主要方式的拒绝,管理情绪生活,任何情况下都是一个严重的问题,变得无法忍受。于是仇恨的感觉导向了所有的情绪,包括仇恨自身,以及所有刺激起这些情绪的外在现实。从恨情绪到恨生活本身是顺理成章的。就像我在我的论文《人格中精神病性和非精神病性的区分》所说,这种仇恨导致依靠所有知觉器官的投射性认同,包括原始的在感觉印象和意识之间形成联结的原初思维。因此,当死亡本能占据主导地位的时候,过度投射性认同的倾向得到了强化。心理学空间Y^ c;VR@mT


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The early development of the superego is effected by this kind of mental functioning in a way I must now describe. As I have said, the link between infant and breast depends upon projective identification and a capacity to introject projective identification. Failure to introject makes the external object appear intrinsically hostile to curiosity and to the method, namely projective identification, by which the infant seeks to satisfy it. Should the breast be felt as fundamentally understanding, it has been transformed by the infant's envy and hate into any object whose devouring greed has as its aim the introjection of the infant's projective identifications in order to destroy them. This can show in the patient's belief that the analyst strives, by understanding the patient, to drive him insane. The result is an object which, when installed in the patient, exercises the function of a severe and ego-destructive superego. This description is not accurate applied to any object in the paranoid-schizoid position because it supposes a whole-object. The threat that such a whole-object impends contributes to the inability, described by Melanie Klein and others (Segal 1950), of the psychotic patient to face the depressive position and the developments attendant on it. In the paranoid-schizoid phase the bizarre objects composed partially of elements of a persecutory supergo which I described in my paper on 'The differentiation of the psychotic from the non-psychotic personalities' are predominant.


k9?D%OtC0有一种类型的心理功能会影响超我的早期形成过程,我现在必须描述一下产生这种影响的方式。就像我已经说过的,婴儿和乳房之间的联结取决于投射性认同,以及一种内摄投射性认同的能力。内摄的失败让外部客体显得对好奇心,以及婴儿用来满足好奇心的方法,也就是投射性认同,有固有的敌意。如果乳房被感觉到基本上是理解性的,它也被婴儿的嫉羡和恨转化成了要贪婪地吞食婴儿的投射性认同的内摄的任一客体,目的是要毁灭掉它们。这可以在病人的一种信念中显示出来,那就是认为分析师通过努力理解病人,让病人变得疯狂。结果就是形成一个客体,当被安置于病人心理结构中时,行使着严厉和自我破坏性的超我的功能。这一描述对于偏执-分裂心位的任何客体都不准确,因为它假定要有一个完整客体。这样一个客体即将到来的威胁,导致梅兰妮•克莱因和其他人所描述的,精神病病人无法面对抑郁心位,也无法获得随抑郁心位而来的发展。在偏执-分裂阶段,由一个迫害性的超我的元素部分地组成的奇异客体占据了主导地位,这种迫害性的超我在我的论文《精神病性和非精神病性人格之间的区分》进行过描述。心理学空间 K;a^8G8^M^6j @Q:G

M%D7n|ZGwc"q0Arrested development心理学空间4R3z~(T:C3{pL

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The disturbance of the impulse of curiosity on which all learning depends, and the denial of the mechanism by which it seeks expression, makes normal development impossible. Another feature obtrudes if the course of the analysis is favourable顺利的; problems which in sophisticated language are posed by the question 'Why?' cannot be formulated. The patient appears to have no appreciation of causation and will complain of painful states of mind while persisting in courses of action calculated to produce them. Therefore when the appropriate material presents itself the patient must be shown that he has no interest in why he feels as he does. Elucidation说明 of the limited scope of his curiosity issues in导致 the development of a wider range and an incipient初期的 preoccupation with causes原因. This leads to some modification of conduct 行为的改变which otherwise prolongs his distress.

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`%pg ~K_sA0所有的学习都仰赖于好奇心的冲动,而这一冲动的障碍,以及对它寻求表达的心理机制的拒绝,让正常的发展变得不可能。如果分析很顺利,另外一个特点又会闯入;病人无法问出以“为什么”起头的问题。病人貌似对因果没有觉察,并且会抱怨痛苦的理智状态,而同时坚持会导致痛苦的行为方式。因此,当有合适的材料出来的时候,病人肯定会表露出,他对他为什么会有那种感受不感兴趣。对他的好奇心的狭窄范围的说明,会导致好奇心范围的扩大,并且开始关注原因。这会导致那些会延续他的痛苦的行为的改变。

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4^;m#F3Dss m0结论

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The main conclusions of this paper relate to that state of mind in which the patient's psyche contains an internal object which is opposed to, and destructive of, all links whatsoever from the most primitive (which I have suggested is a normal degree of projective identification) to the most sophisticated forms of verbal communication and the arts.

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y sY^mfFP6b0这篇论文的主要结论是有关于一种理智状态,在其中病人的心灵包含着一个内部客体,它反对,并且破坏所有的联结,从最为原始的(我提出这是正常程度的投射性认同)到最为精细的言语沟通和艺术形式。心理学空间EX9C3I@:^-@Y

s1@ q9U8D#`F0In this state of mind emotion is hated; it is felt to be too powerful to be contained by the immature psyche, it is felt to link objects and it gives reality to objects which are not self and therefore inimical有敌意的 to primary narcissism.心理学空间-z U"LF1M(y




The internal object which in its origin was an external breast that refused to introject内摄, harbour涵容, and so modify修正 the baneful force of emotion, is felt, paradoxically, to intensify, relative to the strength of the ego, the emotions against which it initiates the attacks. These attacks on the linking function of emotion lead to an overprominence in the psychotic part of the personality of links which appear to be logical, almost mathematical, but never emotionally reasonable. 死板的理性Consequently the links surviving are perverse违反常情的, cruel残忍的, and sterile枯燥乏味的.心理学空间/D%e d$|#a/cp7X

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这个内部客体最初是外部的,拒绝内摄、涵容,因而修正有害的情绪力量的乳房,被感觉为相对于自我的力量,反而增强了它对其施加攻击的情感。这些对于情感的联结功能的攻击,导致人格中精神病性部分的联结过于占据主导地位,这个联结好像是符合逻辑,几乎像数学一样精确,但在情感上永远都不是合理的。因此,存活下来的联结都是违反常情,残忍和枯燥乏味的。心理学空间k~}%w&{W mI

v+Lz?D:o|-o*OH0The external object which is internalized, its nature, and the effect when so established on the methods of communication within the psyche and with the environment, are left for further elaboration later.

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Bion, W.R. (1954) 'Notes on the theory of schizophrenia', International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 35, 113-18; also in Second Thoughts, London: Heinemann (1967); paperback Maresfield Reprints, London: H.Karnac Books (1984).心理学空间*\u&I:D:~B

~LM:LN-}0       (1956) 'Development of schizophrenic thought', International Journal of

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Psycho-Analysis, 37, 344-6; also in Second Thoughts.心理学空间!c-n"KU,O0J.xv


       (1957) 'The differentiation of the psychotic from the non-psychotic personalities', International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 266-75; also in Second Thoughts and reprinted here on pp. 61-78.

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       (1957) 'On arrogance', International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 39: 144¬6; also in Second Thoughts.心理学空间 `(A2X.|.{Z^q

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Klein, M. (1928) 'Early stages of the Oedipus conflict' in The Writings of Melanie Klein, vol. 1, London, Hogarth Press (1975).

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:P yX(r"qG0       (1934) 'A contribution to the psycho-genesis of manic-depressive states',心理学空间1m I&Z#st)^E F

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13th International Psycho-Analytical Congress, 1934.


hZ*z9fP9p+N!p0       (1946) 'Notes on some schizoid mechanisms' in M.Klein, P.Heimann, S.Isaacs, and J.Riviere Developments in Psycho-Analysis, London, Hogarth Press (1952) 292-320 (also in The Writings of Melanie Klein, 1-24).

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       (1948) 'A contribution to the theory of anxiety and guilt', International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 29, 114.心理学空间Xo|Yb$[

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       (1957) Envy and gratitude, chap. II, in The Writings of Melanie Klein, vol.3, London, Hogarth Press (1975), 176-235.心理学空间 l(Gw ax;Lk5i,u

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Rosenfeld, H. (1952) 'Notes on the psychoanalysis of the superego conflict of an acute schizophrenic patient', International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 33, 111-31 and reprinted here on pp. 14-49.


]_3~K-Ga8I0Segal, H. (1950) 'Some aspects of the analysis of a schizophrenic', International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 31, 269-78; also in The Work of Hanna Segal, New York: Jason Aronson (1981) and the paperback London: Free Association Books (1986).心理学空间 M(? |*QX(?-O@

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       (1956) 'Depression in the schizophrenic', 'International Journal of Psycho¬Analysis', 37:339-43; also in The Work of Hanna Segal and reprinted here on pp. 52-60.心理学空间/E@p g P3{9_/Lq6]/S?0N.p

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       (1957) 'Notes on symbol formation', International Journal of Psycho¬Analysis, 38:391-7; also in The Work of Hanna Segal and reprinted here on pp. 160-77.心理学空间2C,v&[{Yh c

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«拜昂的容纳功能理论及其对精神病的理解 比昂/拜昂 Wilfred Bion
《比昂/拜昂 Wilfred Bion》