罗杰斯人本主义心理学
作者: by Dagmar Pescitelli / 9466次阅读 时间: 2010年8月31日
来源: 译言网 标签: 罗杰斯 人本主义
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z3L^!bh,F8tfm} Q9m0草白于2009-08-16 17:08:45翻译
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在1927年以来的半个多世纪中,罗杰斯主要从事咨询和心理治疗的时间和研究。他以首倡患者中心治疗而驰名。他还在心理治疗的实践基础上,提出了关于人格的"自我理论",并把这个理论推广到教育改革和其他人际关系的一般领域中。
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by Dagmar Pescitelli  达格玛·佩希特里心理学空间U6~/v@"fp:rB\

H*r8EJm0Rogerian therapy involves the therapist's entry into the client's unique phenomenological world. In mirroring this world, the therapist does not disagree or point out contradictions (Shaffer, 1978). Neither does he/she attempt to delve into the unconscious. The focus is on immediate conscious experience.罗氏疗法潜心于治疗师对来访者独特精神现象世界的投入。在了解来访者对现实世界的解读时,治疗师的关注点不在于制造分歧或点明来访者的解读存在的矛盾,也不在于对无意识的探究,而是在于来访者即时的有意识体验。
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  Rogers (1977) describes therapy as a process of freeing a person and removing obstacles so that normal growth and development can proceed and the client can become independent and self-directed. During the course of therapy the client moves from rigidly of self-perception to fluidity. Certain conditions are necessary for this process. A "growth promoting climate"requires the therapist to be congruent, have unconditional positive regard for the client as well as show empathic understanding (Rogers, 1961).罗杰斯将治疗描述为一个解放自我,扫除障碍的过程,治疗可以使来访者自我正常的成长与发展可以顺利进行,以期达到独立和自我指导的目的。在治疗过程中,来访者的自我知觉由僵化刻板转为清晰流畅,而在这一过程中某些条件是必须的。一个“促进成长的气氛”需要治疗师自我内部的和谐,对来访者的无条件的积极关注和移情
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 Congruence on the part of the therapist refers to her/his ability to be completely genuine whatever the self of the moment. While it is necessary during therapy ,he/she is not expected to be a completely congruent person all the time, as such perfection is impossible (Rogers, 1959). 自我内部的和谐(注:In psychology and NLP (Neuro-linguistic programming), congruence could be defined as rapport within oneself, or internal and external consistency, perceived by others as sincerity or certainty)从治疗师的角度来说就是,无论其自我处于什么状态,都能保持对来访者完全真诚态度的一种能力。尽管这在治疗中是必需的,但这也并不代表治疗师必须一直都保持自我内部完全的和谐,因为这种完美是不现实的。
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 Empathy refers to understanding the client's feelings and personal meanings as they are experienced and communicating this back to the person. While unconditional positive regard involves relating from therapist to clientnot as a scientist to an object of study, but as a person to a person. 移情指的是对来访者体验过并试图传达给另一个人的情感和个人意图的一种理解。而无条件的积极关注涉及治疗师与来访者的关系不是一个科学家对一个研究对象,而是一个人对另一个人的关系。
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 He feels this client to be a person of self-worth; of value no matter what his condition, his behavior or his feelings. He respects him for what he is, and accepts him as he is, with his potentialities (Rogers, 1965, p.22)罗杰斯把来访者当做一个有自尊,有价值的个体看待,而不论他的精神状态,行为和情感。他尊重来访者,既接受来访者真实的精神状态,也接受他们的潜力。
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#b7W;j;I7k*K L0 Rogers' strong belief in the positive nature of human beings is based on his many years of clinical experience, working with a wide variety of individuals (1961, 1965, 1977). The theory of person-centered therapy suggests any client, no matter what the problem, can improve without being taught anything specific by the therapist, once he/she accepts and respects themselves (Shaffer, 1978).The resources all lie within the client.罗杰斯多年来对大量来访者的临床经验,为他建立人类具有积极向善的天性的信念奠定了基础。来访者中心疗法的理论认为,来访者不管有什么问题,一旦他们接受并尊重自身,无需治疗师的特别指导,就能够自我发展,而这种发展的动力就存在于来访者自身。心理学空间2glb2Fjvi/`#Hn
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 While this may be so, this type of therapy may not be effective for severe psychopathologies such as schizophrenia (which today is considered to have strong biological component) or other disorders such as phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder or even depression (currently effectively treated with drugs and cognitive therapy). 或许事实确实如此,但这种治疗模式对严重的精神病却没有多大效果,诸如精神分裂症(当今发病原因被认为具有明显的生物学基础),或其他的神经症,比如恐惧症,强迫症甚至抑郁症(当前的有效治疗方法有药物治疗和认知疗法)。心理学空间l] r{9x c @
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   In one meta-analysis of psychotherapy effectiveness that looked at 400 studies, person-centered therapy was found least effective. In fact, it was no more effective than the placebo condition (Glass 1983; cited in Krebs & Blackman, 1988).参照400项研究成果,通过对心理疗法的有效性的荟萃分析得出,以来访者为中心的疗法是最不有效的。事实上,它甚至比医生给来访者直接开安慰剂也有效不到哪里去。心理学空间4o PXf%?9`O w
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 Rogers is reputed to have been a very gifted clinician. However, it is difficult to know whether the therapists that follow his model (or use some of the techniques) are truly practicing Rogerian therapy as it was intended. The concepts of congruence, empathy and unconditional positive regard allow too much room for interpretation, although Rogers likely possessed these qualities. 罗杰斯是一个非常具有天赋的临床医师。但是,对于那些遵循罗杰斯治疗模式(或是采用了部分技巧)的治疗师来说,是否真的就是在实行罗氏疗法就不得而知了。自我内部的和谐,移情以及无条件积极关注这些概念仍然拥有很大的阐释的空间,哪怕罗杰斯本人或许具备了这些品质。心理学空间}pM#O6`

.lA^ H-S)v0 To Rogers credit, he took the revolutionary step of recording his sessions and opened up the previously private domain of therapy for empirical study and assessment (Ryckmann, 1993). That few can match his stature is not due to a lack of sharing techniques.罗杰斯的贡献在于,他在心理学界跨出了革命性的一步,他将他的咨询过程录音,而且将原来隐秘的心理治疗的领域开放,以供他人学习与评价。他人之所以难以达到罗杰斯的造诣,其原因并不在于与来访者分享技巧的缺失。心理学空间/f(c-RgR7S\

2@vJ!n3O0JQ2I_,O0 Rogers (1959) himself noted that every theory, including his own, contains "an unknown (and perhaps at that time unknowable) amount of error and mistaken inference" (p.190). His belief was that a theory should serve as a stimulus to further creative thinking. I believe he has succeeded in this intention. This theory has very strong heuristic value and continues to generate debate and interest (Krebs & Blackman, 1988; Ryckmann, 1993).The theory further focuses on the whole individual as he/she experiences the world. 罗杰斯本人也表示任何理论,包括他自己的,都包含了一定量未知的(或许当时不可知的)错误推理。他的信念是一个理论应该能够激发进一步的,创造性的思考。我相信他在这一点上已经达到了他的目的。他的理论拥有很好的启发价值,并继续引起讨论和兴趣。理论进一步将关注点集中在来访者的整个个体,而这个个体本身是在体验这个世界。心理学空间 S)T_C(z4KB:Z
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 Agency and free will are not undermined in this model. It gives considerable attention to the concept of self and the suggestion that we can all overcome damages inflicted in childhood is very appealing.Full functioning is no the exclusive domain of a very lucky few. It is, at least theoretically, attainable for many. 在这个治疗模式中,来访者的自由选择和自由意志不受侵害。它对自我的概念以极大的注意,同时,每个人都能克服童年受到的伤害,罗杰斯的这一观点也非常夺人眼球。自我实现并非是少数幸运者的特权,至少在理论上,可以为多数人拥有。
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%K c0N/z7gk7j m}+R0 Rogers does not assume women are inferior to men and his "sexist" language was corrected in his later writings. Another strength is that Rogerian theory is grounded in the study of persons (not pigeons), leading to its strong applied value in many areas of life.罗杰斯并不认为女性比男性低等,并在其后期的著作中更改了他的带有“性别歧视的”措词。罗氏理论的另一优势在于理论是建立在对人的研究之上的(而非实验室里的小动物),这使得其在生活的多个领域都具有很强的应用价值。
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2Ox7Dd tyvE0 The main problems with this theory of personality are related to the lack of precision and specificity regarding some of the terms and concepts. Krebs & Blackman (1988) also rate the logical consistency as only "fair", maintaining that some connections are not completely clear. While this theory has become increasingly comprehensive over time, a major weakness is that it does not sufficiently address stages of development (Krebs & Blackman, 1988; Maddi, 1996).罗氏理论的主要问题在于,其人格理论中的部分术语和概念缺乏准确性和专一性。克莱布斯和布莱克曼也评价其逻辑的一贯性仅仅是“尚可”,意指其部分逻辑连接并不十分清晰。随着时间推移,虽然理论日益具有广泛性,但一个主要的缺陷就在于没有充分说明其发展的阶段。
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  Due to his emphasis on conscious experience, Rogers has also been criticized for a lack of attention to the unconscious (Hall & Lindzey, 1985; Nietzel, Benstein, Milich, 1994). This criticism is not entirely justified. He directly acknowledges the unconscious in later writings, seeing it as "positive" (Rogers, 1977, p.246). Furthermore, the whole idea of congruence/incongruence and organic wisdom involves the idea of an unconscious and he clearly posits an organism that has many experiences of which the person is not aware (Hall & Lindzey, 1985).由于他对有意识体验的强调,罗杰斯也时常被批评缺少对无意识的关注。这些批评并不完全有道理。在后期著作中,他直接肯定了无意识的存在是确定无疑的。此外,自我内部和谐/非和谐以及机体智慧的概念都涉及了无意识的思想,同时,罗杰斯也推断有机体具有大量自身没有意识到的体验。心理学空间$\J/c2P [G
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  While Rogers contribution in the area of psychotherapy is substantial, clinical applicability of his therapy may be limited to those segments of the population whose intellectual and cultural backgrounds are compatible with this therapy (Nietzel et. Al, 1994). 尽管罗杰斯在心理治疗领域的贡献是巨大的,但其治疗方法的应用或许只能限定于具备与其治疗方法匹配的知识与文化背景的人群。心理学空间1f;X"IK^,j-Rv5j

5~E+y.u)x0 This theory's development from therapeutic practice may be both a blessing a curse. It keeps it practical and bases it in human experience, yet leads to the extension of concepts that while appropriate to therapy may not be comprehensive or specific enough to apply to all people.理论在治疗实践中获得的发展有利有弊,这使得理论保持实用性,并建立在人类经验基础之上。但这也导致其概念的不断扩展,即理论缺乏足够的广泛性和专一性,或许适用于治疗,但并一定适用于所有人。心理学空间0y8Ky%oJ#VcI

H"O"Tsg.M6ix0 Some human conditions, such as psychopathy, do not make much sense according to this theory. The psychopath apparently feels no guilt, discomfort or remorse for his/her actions. There is no anxiety. Incongruence is not apparent, although the theory suggests it would be substantial indeed.人类精神的某些状态,比如说精神变态,用这种理论也说不通。精神变态者明显对自己的行为不感到内疚,不适或是自责。没有焦虑,自我内部的不和谐并不明显,尽管理论上这些的确都是应该存在的。心理学空间x1q ]f$I&j

R*kUIM&qs0  I also wonder about those human beings that have limited potentialities in the first place. Is one "fully functioning" if one has fulfilled all potential, even though there is an extremely limited amount in the first place? The capacity for creativity and free expression might not exist in such a case.我也想知道那些天生就存在能力缺陷的人,是否他们在完成自己的全部潜力时,也能称得上自我实现,尽管他们的潜力天生就已相当有限。在这种情形下,或许不存在创造性和自由表达的空间。
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(y&MQ cM4t {0 Despite my questions and criticism, this theory's value is substantial and should not be minimized. It offers a reasonable alternative to dominant theories that would have us objectify and control human beings. It also recognizes persons as the most important focus in the study of personality.尽管我的质疑和批评,这一理论的价值仍然是巨大的,不应该为之减少的。在客观化和控制人类的主流理论之下,这至少提供了一个不错的选择。并肯定了人是人格研究当中最重要的焦点。心理学空间+|$u+tvZ;V
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