作者: 简德林 / 18196次阅读 时间: 2010年12月07日
标签: 简德林 聚焦 人格
Basic Concepts-What Are Psychological Events?
1 。体验过程。
(a) The "ing" in the term "experiencing" indicates that experience is considered as a process. (We will have to define the theoretical conceptions which go to make up a process framework.)
(a) “过程”一字在“体验”后面表明,体验被看作是一个过程。 (我们必须确定它的理论概念,可以用来建立一个进程的框架。 )

Now, of course, the above is not really a definition, since the usage of the word "experience" is currently confused and various. The field of psychology lacks a theory of experience. However, the theory of experiencing (Gendlin, 1962b) attempts to provide a process for determining a theory of experience.
当然,上述的不是一个真正的定义,因为 “体验”这个词的使用目前混乱和多样。心理学领域缺乏对于体验的理论。尽管如此,关于体验的理论(简德林, 1962b )试图提供一个决定了体验理论的过程。
Since the term "experiencing" is extremely broad, more specific terms will be defined for specific aspects of experiencing. Anything in particular which we may consider will be a particular manner or mode of experiencing, or a particular function of it, or a particular logical pattern we choose to impose. The term "experiencing," then, denotes all "experience" viewed in terms of the process framework.
(b) The word "experience" in psychology, wherever employed, means concrete psychological events. The same is the case here. Experiencing is a process of concrete, ongoing events.

(c) Finally, by experiencing we mean a felt process. We mean inwardly sensed, bodily felt events, and we hold that the concrete "stuff" of personality or of psychological events is this flow of bodily sensing or feeling.
( c )最后,我们说的体验意味着一个感觉进程(a felt process)。我们是指内心感觉到的,身体感受到的事件,我们认为人格或心理活动的具体的“东西”,是这股流动的身体感知或感觉。

Experiencing is the process of concrete, bodily feeling, which constitutes the basic matter of psychological and personality phenomena.

Both in social talk and in theory we so largely emphasize external events and logical meaning that it almost seems as if it were difficult to notice that, in addition to external objects and logic, we also have an inward bodily feeling or sensing. This is, of course, a commonplace that can be readily checked by anyone.
At any moment he wishes, one can refer directly to an inwardly felt datum. Experiencing, in the mode of being directly referred to in this way, I term the "direct referent."

Of course, there are other modes of experiencing. Situations and external events, symbols, and actions may interact with our feeling process quite without any reflexive attention paid to the direct referent. We are aware and feel without this direct attention as well as with it.
One can always refer directly to experiencing.

3. IMPLICIT. 3 。暗在。
It is less apparent, but still easily checked by anyone, that this direct referent contains meaning. At first it may seem that experiencing is simply the inward sense of our body, its tension, or its well-being. Yet, upon further reflection, we can notice that only in this direct sensing do we have the meanings of what we say and think. For, without our "feel" of the meaning, verbal symbols are only noises (or sound images of noises).
虽然不太明显,但每个人都很容易发觉这种直接指涉所包含的意义。首先似乎体验过程看起来仅仅是我们向内的身体感觉,它的张力,或它的好的状态。然而,经过进一步思考,我们可以看到,只有在这种直接感知中我们才明白我们说的话和想法的意义所在。 因为,没有我们对意义的“感觉”,言语符号只是噪声(或噪音的声音图像)。
For example, someone listens to you speak, and then says: "Pardon me, but I don't grasp what you mean." If you would like to restate what you meant in different words, you will notice that you must inwardly attend to your direct referent, your felt meaning. Only in this way can you arrive at different words with which to restate it.
例如,有人听你说话,然后说:“对不起,但是我不懂你的意思。”如果您想用不同的话重述你的意思,你会发现,你必须向内留意到你的直接指涉,您的感觉意义(felt meaning)。只有这样,你才能用不同的话来重述它。
In fact, we employ explicit symbols only for very small portions of what we think. We have most of it in the form of felt meanings.

For example, when we think about a problem, we must think about quite a number of considerations together. We cannot do so verbally. In fact, we could not think about the meaning of these considerations at all if we had to keep reviewing the verbal symbols over and over. We may review them verbally. However, to think upon the problem we must use the felt meanings--we must think of how "this" (which we previously verbalized) relates to "that" (which we also previously verbalized). To think "this" and "that," we employ their felt meanings.
例如,当我们思考一个问题,我们必须一起思考相当多的因素。我们不能口头这样做。事实上,如果我们要不断重复语言符号,我们会无法思考这些事物的意义所在。我们会在口头上回顾它们;但是,当考虑问题时,我们必须使用感觉意义--我们必须考虑 “这个”如何 (我们之前说出的)涉及到“那个” (我们之前也说出了)。思考“这个”和“那个”,我们是在使用它们的感觉意义。
When felt meanings occur in interaction with verbal symbols and we feel what the symbols mean, we term such meanings "explicit" or "explicitly known." On the other hand, quite often we have just such felt meanings without a verbal symbolization.
Instead we have an event, a perception, or some word such as the word "this" (which represents nothing, but only points). When this is the case, we can term the meaning "implicit" or "implicitly felt, but not explicitly known."
当感觉意义与言语符号发生互动时,我们感觉到符号意味着什么,我们将之称为 “明在”或“明在的已知的” 的含义。另一方面,往往我们对这种感觉意义无法找到言语象征。相反,我们有一个事件,一种看法,或有些词,如“这个” (不代表任何事物,只是一些指代)。如果是这种情况,我们可以称为是“暗在”或“暗在地感觉到,但不明在和知道” 的意思。

Please note that "explicit" and "implicit" meanings are both in aware-ness. What we concretely feel and calf inwardly refer to is certainly "in awareness" (though the term "awareness" will later require some reformulations). "Implicit" meaning is often confusingly discussed as if it were "unconscious" or "not in awareness." It should be quite clear that, since the direct referent is felt and is a direct datum of attention, it is "in awareness." Anything termed "implicit" is felt in awareness.
请注意, “明在”和“暗在”的意思都是在意识中。我们具体的感受和内心(calf inwardly?)当然是指“意识中” (尽管“意识”一词以后将需要一些重构)。 “暗在”的含义往往是与“无意识”或“不在意识中” 混淆。应该很清楚,由于直接指涉是被感受到的,是一个可直接关注的已知数,它是“在意识中的”。任何被称为“暗在”的都是意识中感受到的。
Furthermore, we may now add that even when a meaning is explicit (when we say "exactly what we mean") the felt meaning we have always contains a great deal more implicit meaning than we have made explicit. When we define the words we have just used, or when we "elaborate" what we "meant," we notice that the felt meanings we have been employing always contain implicitly many, many meanings-always many more than those to which we gave explicit formulation. We find that we employed these mean-ings. We find they were central to what we did make explicit, that they made up what we actually meant, yet they were only felt. They were implicit.

4 。(在认知和行为上的)暗在功能。
So far we have thought of implicit meanings as existing only in the direct referent; that is to say, only if and when we directly refer to our experiencing as a felt datum. However, quite without such direct reference to experiencing, most of life and behavior proceed on implicit meanings. (Explicit meanings serve only a few special purposes.) We say, for example, that our interpretation of and reactions to present situations are determined by our "past" experiences. But in which way are our past experiences here now? For instance, if I am to observe an immediate situation and then describe it, in what way are there present my knowledge and experiences of past events, my knowledge of language, and my memories of this situation which I have just observed so that they function now? To describe the situation I just observed, my words will arise for me from a felt sense of what I have observed, reacted to, and now mean to say. Rarely, if at all, do I think in words what I now observe. Nor do I think each of the past experiences which function in this observing. Rarely do I think in explicit words what I will say. All these meanings function implicitly as my present, concretely felt experiencing.
迄今为止,我们认为暗在含义只存在于直接指涉中;这就是说,只有当我们直接提到我们的体验过程作为一种感知数据时。然而,尽管完全没有这种体验过程的直接指涉,大部分的生活和行为都在暗在含义中进行。 (明在含义只服务于少数特殊用途。 )例如,我们说,我们对目前情况的解释和反应,是由我们“过去”的经验决定的。但是我们过去的经验现在以何种方式在这里呢?例如,如果我观察到一个即时的情况,然后描述它,我的知识和过去事件的经验,我的语言知识,和关于这种我刚才观察到的情况的记忆,现在以何种方式在功能呢?为了描述我刚才看到的情况,我的话将从我观察后产生的体会(felt sense)和反应中产生,现在将要说出。很少,如果有的话,我会在观察时用话语思考。我也不会想到对此观察有起作用的过去的经验。我也很少用会说出的话来思考。所有这些含义都是暗在功能的,我目前的具体的感觉体验过程。
5 。完成; 带动着前进
6 。互动。
Implicit meanings are incomplete. Symbolic completion--or carrying forward--is a bodily felt process. There is an interacting, not an equation, between implicit meaning and symbols.
I must now make it quite clear that "implicit" and "explicit" meanings are different in nature. We may feel that some verbal statement says exactly what we mean; nevertheless, to feel the meaning is not the same kind of thing as verbal symbols. As we have shown, a felt meaning can contain very many meanings and can be further and further elaborated. Thus, the felt meaning is not the same in kind as the precise symbolized explicit meaning. The reason the difference in kind is so important is because if we ignore it we assume that explicit meanings are (or were) already in the implicit felt meaning. We are led to make the felt, implicit meaning a kind of dark place in which countless explicit meanings are hidden. We then wrongly assume that these meanings are "implicit" and felt only in that they are "hidden." I must emphasize that the "implicit" or "felt" datum of experiencing is a sensing of body life. As such it may have countless organized aspects, but this does not mean that they are conceptually formed, explicit, and hidden. Rather, we complete and form them when we explicate. Before symbolization, the "felt" meanings are incomplete. They are analogous, let us say, to the muscle movement in my stomach which I can call "hunger." This sensation certainly "means" something about eating, but it does not "contain" eating. To be even more graphic, the feeling of hunger .is not a repressed eating. It does not contain within itself the search for an animal, the killing and roasting of this animal, the eating, digesting, and absorbing of food particles, and the excretion and burying of wastes. Now just as all these steps (some of them patterned in the newborn organism, some of them learned) do not exist within the hunger sensation of muscle movement, so also the symbolic meaning "hunger" does not exist within it. Symbols must interact with the feeling before we have a meaning. The verbal symbol "hunger," just as "food," must interact with it before we carry forward the digestive process. The symbol "hunger," like other aspects of the search for food or my sitting down at a table, is a learned step of the digestive process and carries that process forward. Before that occurs, the feeling of the muscle movement implicitly contains the body's patterned readiness for organized interaction but not the formed conceptual units. Implicit bodily feeling is preconceptual. Only when interaction with verbal symbols (or events) actually occurs, is the process actually carried forward and the explicit meaning formed.[7] So long as it is implicit, it is incomplete, awaiting symbols (or events) with which it can interact in preorganized ways.
我现在必须非常明确地指出, “暗在”和“明在”的含义在性质上是不一样的。我们可能会觉得有些口头表述说出的正是我们的意思,尽管如此,感到的含义与作为口头符号的是不一样的两个事物。正如我们已经表明,一个感觉意义可以包含很多含义,可进一步做其它的阐述。因此,感觉意义与作为明确象征的确切意义是不一样的事物。其种类的不同是如此重要,原因是因为如果我们忽视它,我们会假设明在的意思是(或曾经是)在暗在的体会中。我们将会认为,感觉到的暗在的含意是一种黑暗的地方,其中无数的明在的含义在暗在藏。然后,我们就会错误地以为这些的意思是“暗在的” ,并认为它们只是“隐藏着”。我必须强调, “暗在”或“感觉”层面的体验是一种身体生命的感觉(a sensing of body life)。因此,它可能有无数的形成方面,但这并不意味着它们在概念上是成形的,明确的,并隐藏起来的。相反,当我们阐述时,才完整和形成它们。在符号化前, “感觉”的意思是不完整的。让我们打个比方,我肚子的肌肉运动,我可以称之为“饥饿” 。这种感觉肯定“是指”要吃一些东西,但它并不“包含”吃。更加具体地说,饥饿的感觉不是一种被压抑的吃。它本身不包含猎捕动物,杀害和烤这个动物,吃,消化,吸收食物微粒,排泄的废物和掩埋。现在,就像所有这些步骤(其中一些是新生有机体的遗传模式,有一些是后天学习得来的)不存在饥饿感的肌肉运动中,同样“饥饿”的象征意义也不存在其中。符号必须与感觉互动,然后我们才会有一个含义。“饥饿”的语言符号,正如“食品”,必须与它互动,在我们做消化过程之前。“饥饿”符号,像其他寻找食物的方面或我坐在一张桌子边,是一个消化过程中学来的一步,并将这一进程向前发展。在此发生之前,感觉的肌肉运动暗在性地包含了人体进行互动的准备模式,但不是成型的概念单位。暗在的身体感觉是前概念的(preconceptual)。只有当与言语符号(或事件)的互动实际发生时,才是这一进程真正前进,明确形成含义之时。 [ 7 ]因此,只要它是暗在的,它是不完整的,等待符号(或事件)以便于它可以以非成型的(preorganized)方式互动。

Thus, to explicate is to carry forward a bodily felt process. Implicit meanings are incomplete. They are not hidden conceptual units. They are not the same in nature as explicitly known meanings. There is no equation possible between implicit meanings and "their" explicit symbolization. Rather than an equation, there is an interaction between felt experiencing and symbols (or events).[8]
因此,阐明是带动身体感觉前进的一个过程。暗在的含义是不完整的。它们不是隐藏的概念单位。他们与明确已知含义的性质不同。暗在的含义和“它们的”明确的象征之间并不是等号。相反,体验过程和符号(或事件)之间有一个相互作用。 [ 8 ]

The Feeling Process-How Change Takes Place in the Individual

7. FOCUSING. 7 。聚焦。
"Focusing" (or, more exactly, "continuous focusing") will be defined in terms of four more specific definitions (8-11) below. "Focusing" is the whole process which ensues when the individual attends to the direct referent of experiencing.
“聚焦Focusing” (或更确切地说, “持续聚焦” )将被定义为以下四个更具体的定义( 8-11)。 “聚焦”是指,个人参与到直接指涉的体验中来后发生的整个过程。
We noted earlier that direct reference is one mode of experiencing. The feeling process we term "experiencing" also occurs in an individual's awareness without direct reference to it as a felt datum. In these other modes, also, experiencing has important functions in personality change. We will discuss them later.
"Focusing" refers to how one mode of experiencing, the direct referent, functions in ongoing personality change.

The foregoing definitions (I-6) will be employed in the following discussion, and four more definitions concerning focusing will be formulated.
上述定义( I - 6 )将在随后的讨论中采用,另外与聚焦相关的四个定义也将被制定。

Focusing will be analyzed in four phases. The division into these phases is more a 11,result of my way of formulation than of any inherent four-step divisibility in the process. Although it may occur in these clearly separable phases, more often it does not.

8. 心理治疗中的直接指涉物(聚焦的第一阶段)
A definitely felt, but conceptually vague referent is directly referred to by the individual. Let us say he has been discussing some troublesome situation or personal trait. He has described various events, emotions, opinions, and interpretations. Perhaps he has called himself "foolish," "unrealistic," and assured his listener that he really "knows better" than to react in the way he does. He is puzzled by his own reactions, and he disapproves of them. Or, what amounts to the same thing, he strongly defends his reactions against some real or imaginary critic who would say that the reactions make no sense, are self-defeating, unrealistic, and foolish. If he is understandingly listened to and responded to, he may be able to refer directly to the felt meaning which the matter has for him. He may then lay aside, for a moment, all his better judgment or bad feeling about the fact that he is as he is, and he may refer directly to the felt meaning of what he is talking about. He may then say something like: "Well, I know it makes no sense, but in some way it does." Or: "It's awfully vague to me what this is with me, but I feel it pretty definitely." It may seem as if language and logic are insufficient, but the trouble is merely that we are not used to talking about something which is conceptually vague, but definitely and distinctly felt.
是指个体确实感受到的,并直接与之关联的,但在概念上模糊的所指对象。比如说他正在讨论一个棘手的情况或个人特质。他描述了许多不同的事件、情绪、观点和解释。他可能会说自己“愚蠢”,“不现实”,并向他的倾听者保证他知道有更好的反应方式。他对自己的反应感到迷惑,且并不赞同。另外一种方式最终结果可能都一样,他强烈地为自己的反应进行辩护,以免受到确实存在或是想象中的批评,比如说认为他的反应毫无道理,是自我挫败的,不现实的,愚蠢的。如果他能够真地倾听并回应,他也许可以和这件事,及其对他的意义建立关联。他可以先搁置这些判断或是坏的感受,他可能会说:“好吧,我知道这看起来没什么道理,但我觉得就是这样。”或是,“这种东西非常模糊,但我觉得很确定。” 这些语言和逻辑可能看起来是不足够的,但麻烦仅仅是我们不习惯去谈论某种概念上模糊,却确实清楚地感受到的东西。
If the individual continues to focus his attention on this direct referent (if he does not break off attending to it because it seems too foolish, or too bad, or too doubtful whether he isn't just coddling himself, etc.), he may become able to conceptualize some rough aspects of it. For example, he may find: "I feel that way whenever anyone does to me." Or: "I think there is something about that kind of thing which could make something completely terrible and frightening happen to me, but that's silly. You have to accept things like that. That's life. But that's the way it feels, kind of a terror."
Having conceptualized some such rough aspect of "it," the individual usually feels the felt meaning more strongly and vividly, becomes more excited and hopeful about the process of focusing within himself, and is less likely now to settle for the conceptual explanations, accusations, and apologies. It is a profound discovery for most people when they find it possible to continue direct reference. It comes to be deeply valued as "I am in touch with myself."
As the individual continues to focus on such a direct referent, he may puzzle over what a funny kind of a "this" he is talking about. He may call it "this feeling," or "this whole thing," or "this is the way I am when such-and-such occurs." Very clearly it is an inwardly sensed referent in his present experiencing. Nothing is vague about the definite way he feels it. He can turn to it with his inward attention. Only conceptually is it vague.
当个体继续对直接指涉物进行聚焦,他会对他正在谈论的 “这个有趣的东西”感觉很迷惑。他可能会称呼它“这种感觉,”或“这整个东西,”或“当这样那样的事情发生时我是这样的感觉”。非常清楚,这是一个内在感受到的,当下体验过程(experiencing)中的指涉物。关于他感受这个东西的方式并不模糊,他能够将自己内在的注意力朝向它。只是在概念的意义上它是模糊的。
A very important and surprising fact about direct reference to felt meanings is that if the matter under consideration is anxiety producing or highly uncomfortable, this felt discomfort decreases as the individual directly refers to the felt meaning. One would have expected the opposite. Certainly the opposite is true, for example, when the individual chooses between various topics for discussion. The prospect of talking about this difficult, anxiety-provoking matter certainly makes the person more 12,anxious than the prospect of talking about some neutral or pleasant subject. Thus, he may be in quite a lot of inward pain as he decides to bring the matter up at all. However, once into the topic, the more directly he attends to the direct referent, the felt meaning, the less his discomfort and anxiety. If he momentarily loses track of it, the anxiety flares up again, and the diffuse discomfort of the topic returns.
一个非常重要且让人惊讶的关于感受意义的直接指涉物的事实是,如果正在考虑的事件是非常让个体焦虑,并且十分不舒服的,如果个体能够直接关联其感受意义(felt meaning),不舒服的程度会降低。这和人们通常以为的恰恰相反。当然了,如果个体选择了许多话题进行讨论,相反的情况确实会发生。设想讨论这种困难的,引发焦虑的事情当然会比设想谈论一些中性的或让人愉悦的主题要更让人焦虑。当他决定要带出这个问题时,他可能处于非常痛苦的状态中。然而,一旦进入这个话题,他越能够直接关注其内在指涉物及感受意义,他的不舒服和焦虑会越少。如果他某个时刻失去了线索,焦虑会再一次爆发,这个话题所弥漫的不舒服的感觉又会再回来。
As the individual symbolizes some aspect of the felt meaning, he senses its rightness partly by the degree of easing of the anxiety which he feels.
In contrast to the anxiety or discomfort, the felt meaning itself becomes sharper, more distinctly felt, as he refers to and correctly symbolizes what it is. In fact, his sense of whether or not he has "correctly" symbolized is partly just this sense of increased intensity of the felt meaning.[9]
This decreased anxiety is a very surprising fact, much against the general assumptions about anxiety-provoking material. We generally assume that to focus directly on the experiencing makes us more anxious. My observations indicate that increased anxiety comes from topic choice, and it is this which we generally expect. On the other hand, given the topic, the more we focus directly upon the felt meaning, and the more of it we symbolize correctly, the more relief we feel. Even a little error in symbolizing ("no, what I just said isn't quite it") again increases the anxiety.
We may theoretically interpret this observation in terms of definitions 5 and 6 and our use of the work of Mead and Sullivan. To symbolize a directly felt implicit meaning carries the organismic process a step forward. It is felt so. It also appears from this that we should consider the direct
reference (or the giving of attention), as itself, already a kind of symbolizing. Direct reference, as well as the resulting symbolizations, involves bodily felt tension relief.[10]
There are other ways of describing the individual's focusing on a direct referent of experiencing. We may say that, at such moments, his experiencing is "ahead of his concepts." It "guides" his concepts. He forms concepts and "checks them against" his directly felt meaning and, on this basis, decides their correctness.
As he continues to refer directly to the felt meaning (he is probably calling it "this"), he may find that his previous formulation which felt correct must be replaced by another which now feels more correct. The listener can help by pointing his words also at "this" and by helping to find words and concepts that might fit it.[11] The listener, of course, cannot judge the correctness. Not even the individual himself judges it but, we might say somewhat poetically, his direct referent does the judging. Both persons may thus be surprised by the direction which the symbolizing takes.
The above has been a description of how an individual may directly refer to or "focus on" a direct referent of experiencing which, for him, constitutes the felt meaning of some topic, situation, behavior, or personality aspect.
9. 展开 (聚焦的第二阶段)
Sometimes, in focusing on a directly felt referent, there is a gradual step-by-step process of coming to know explicitly what it is. Yet, it may "open up" in one dramatic instant. Most often there is both a gradual coming to know it better and some instants during which there is a very noticeable "opening up." With a great physical relief and sudden dawning, the individual suddenly knows. He may sit there, nodding 13,to himself, thinking only words such as "yes, I've got it" quite without as yet finding concepts to tell himself what it is he "has got." However, he knows that now he can say. It is possible that, if he is now suddenly interrupted, he may "lose it," so that later he can only say, "I really felt I knew what it was at that moment, but I've lost it now." Usually, however, he will as swiftly as possible find concepts and words to say what has opened up. It is almost always a number of things. For example:
聚焦于直接指涉物时,有时候我们可以使用渐进的步骤来了解那究竟是什么。不过有时候也可能突然间戏剧性地打开(Open up)。比较经常的是两者都有,有一个渐进的更为了解的过程,在一些时刻又会有明显的“打开”。伴随着明显的身体放松和突然的洞识,个体突然间了解了。他可能坐在那,对自己点点头,只能想到 “是的,我知道了”这样的一些词,却还并没有找到一些概念告诉自己究竟“知道”了什么。但是他知道现在可以说出来。有时候会这样,他突然被打断,他可能“失去了它”,之后他只能说,“我真地感觉刚刚有个时刻我是知道的,但我现在失去它了。”通常他会很快地找到一些概念和词语来讲出刚刚所打开的。几乎总是有一些事情。比如:
Yes, of course he is afraid, he realizes. He has not permitted himself even to think about dealing with this and this aspect of the situation, and this has been because he has not believed that these aspects really existed. Well, yes, he did realize they existed, but he also felt compelled to blame himself for them as if he merely imagined them. And if they do exist (and they do), he does not know how he could possibly live with them. He has not allowed himself to try to deal with them (he now realizes) or even to consider them anything other than merely his imagination, because, my God, if they are really there, then he is helpless. Then there is nothing he can do! But they are there. Well, it is a relief to know at least that.
This example illustrates the multiplicity one generally finds in an implicit meaning which was felt as one "this." It may, as in the example, be a multiplicity which can still be thought of as "one thing." Experiencing' has no given definite unit experiences.
这个例子阐明了个体通常在一个暗在的意义里发现很多多样的东西,这只是对“这个东西”(this)的感受。在这个例子中,这些可能就是在“一个东西”(one thing)里的许多东西。“体验过程”“Experiencing”并不是由一些确定的、单个的经历(experiences)组成的。
The example also illustrates that, often, the meanings one finds with such great relief are not at all pleasant or good. The problem is not at all resolved. Quite the contrary, now it really looks impossible. Now it seems clear why one has been so anxious. It does seem hopeless. Yet it is a great and physically experienced tension reduction when the directly felt referent "unfolds" in this way.
The unfolding of a direct referent always involves a surprising and deeply emotional recognition of the good sense of our own (previously so seemingly irksome) feelings. "Of course," we say over and over, "Of course!" Or, we say, "Well, what do you know, that's what that was!"
Because what was previously felt now actually "makes sense," problem resolutions can occur at this stage. For, we may see that given this or that judgment, or perception, or event, or situation, "of course" we felt as we did, but we do not now judge it in the same way. However, my example illustrated that even when the solution seems further away than ever, still the physiological tension reduction occurs, and a genuine change takes place. I believe that this change is really more basic than the resolution of specific problems.
A whole vast multiplicity of implicit aspects in the person's functioning and dysfunctioning is always involved. For, when a direct referent of experiencing "opens up," much more change has occurred than the cognitive realization of this or that. This is most dramatically evident when, after the "unfolding," the individual still sees no way out. He says, "At least I know what it is now, but how will I ever change it or deal with it?" Yet, during the following days and in the next therapy hour, it turns out that he is already different, that the quality of the problem has changed and his behavior has been different. And, as for a good explanation of all this resolution . . . "well, it just seems all right now." There is a global change in the whole manner of experiencing in this regard. From this felt change, with its lack of logical description, come some of our simple-minded notions: "Just accept it," we tell ourselves and others. We can recall that we have observed individuals, such as I just described, report a basic change in such a simplistic way:
一个人具有功能或功能不良总是卷入了整体的暗在复杂性。当体验的直接指涉物“打开”时,比纯粹认知性的了解更多的改变发生了。即使当“展开”之后,个体还是看不到任何出路,这一点也戏剧性地非常明显。他说,“最起码我现在知道它是什么了,但是我怎么才能够改变它或是处理它呢?”但是,接下来几天后,在下一个治疗时段里,事实上他已经不一样了,问题的性质也改变了,他的行为也变化了。对整个解决的解释可是只是:“恩,只是现在看起来没什么了。”在这点上,体验的方式有一个整体性的改变。这个感受到的改变,缺乏逻辑上的描述,而我们的主张看起来有些头脑简单:“只是接受它”,我们就这样告诉我们自己和其他人。和我刚刚描述的类似,我们观察过的另外一个个体也使用十分单纯的方式报告一个基础的改变: 14,
"How is everything different?"
"Well, it just seems OK now!"
"Do you still feel that such-and-such might happen and you couldn't deal with it?"
"Yes, but now I kind of feel, well, that's life. That's the way it is, you have to accept things like that."
And that is just what he had said to himself over and over again, without any effect, before the process in which he focused on the felt meaning and it unfolded!
Thus, as I have said, only sometimes does what is unfolded lead to a solution in an explicable way. More often, deep global feeling change occurs as one unfolds the direct referent, even when it seems to open into something which sounds worse and more hopeless than one had expected. Whether or not some specific resolution is noticeable, the change appears to be broad and global. It is not just this problem resolved, or that trait changed, but a change in many areas and respects. We can say that the broad multiplicity of aspects which are implicit in any felt meaning are all of them changed-thus the global change. Or we can say that meanings are aspects of the experiencing process and that the very manner of experiencing changes, hence also the quality of all of its meanings.
As one client put it: "Until now I always saw this problem in black and white terms, and I struggled for a solution that would be gray. But now, this new way isn't black or white, or gray. It's in color!" Thus the unfolding of a felt referent does not just inform one about what was involved but, rather, it changes the whole manner in which one experiences.
10. 整体应用 (聚焦的第三阶段)
This global way in which the process of direct reference and unfolding affects many aspects of the person is noticeable not only in his later reports of the resulting difference, but also in the moments which immediately follow the unfolding of a felt referent. The individual is flooded by many different associations, memories, situations, and circumstances, all in relation to the felt referent. Although conceptually they can be very different, they share the same felt meaning with which he has been dealing. Except for this they may concern quite different and unrelated matters.[12] "Oh, and that's also why I can't get up any enthusiasm for this-and-this." "Yes, and another thing about it is, this comes in every time somebody tells me what to do or think. I can't say, well, what I think is more important, because, see, this way of making myself wrong comes in there." "Oh, and also, back when this and this happened, I did the same thing."
During this "wide application" period which often follows the unfolding of a felt referent, the individual may sit in silence, only occasionally voicing some of the pieces from this flood.
I realize that some of the foregoing observations have been termed by others as "insight." I believe that is a misnomer. First, the global application is in no way a figuring out, nor is it chiefly a better understanding. Rather, insight and better understanding are the results, the by-products, of this process, as a few of its very many changed aspects call attention to themselves. One can be sure that for every relation or application the individual here explicitly thinks, there are thousands which he does not think of, but which have, nevertheless, just changed. Not his thinking 15,about the difference which the unfolding has made, but the unfolding itself, changes him in all these thousands of respects. The change occurs whether or not he thinks of any such applications, and whether or not he considers the unfolding to be a resolving. For, as I emphasized, he may well walk out saying, "I have no idea what I can do with this, or how I change it." But, it has already changed, and the great multiplicity of respects in which "it" implicitly functions have all changed.
11. 指涉运动(聚焦的第四阶段)
A definite alteration or movement in the direct referent is felt. This "referent movement" often occurs after the three phases just described. When there has been direct reference, dramatic unfolding occurs, and when the flood of global application subsides, the individual finds that he now refers to a direct referent which feels different. The implicit meanings which he can symbolize from this direct reference are now quite different ones. It is a new direct reference: and so the fourphase process begins again.
But focusing is not always such a neatly divisible four-phase process. As noted before, unfolding can occur with or without a noticeable flood of global application. Unfolding can also occur quite undramatically, in very small steps of successive symbolization. And, even without unfolding, even without any symbolization which feels "correct," the individual's direct reference can carry forward the feeling process and is experienced with bodily tension relief. What we are here calling the fourth phase of focusing, the referent movement, can occur at any of these times. Usually, direct reference alone does not change or move the direct referent, but does make it stronger, sharper, and more distinctly felt. It increases its intensity as a feeling and diminishes the diffuse tension, discomfort, and anxiety. However, sometimes the mere process of continuous direct reference will change or "move" the direct referent. More often, such a movement occurs after at least some unfolding and symbolizing, and especially after the felt flooding of global application.
The individual distinctly feels a change in the quality of the felt referent. It is not only a change but a directly experienced "give" or "movement" which feels right and welcome. Its tremendous importance lies in the fact that after such a referent movement (even very small), the implicit meanings are now different. The "scenery," as it were, which one confronts, changes.
个体清晰地发觉感受指涉物在性质上发生了变化。这不仅是一种改变,而是一种直接体验到的 “给予”(give)或“运动”(movement),这种体验是受欢迎的,而且感觉上是对的。其重要性在于指涉运动(每一个小的发展)发生的时候暗在意义不同了。场景仍然在那,但一个人所面对的内容改变了。
It is just this referent movement which is usually missing when one talks at oneself, when one has recited all the good reasons, considerations, and ways one should feel and would be more sensible to feel, etc. Most often, thereafter, the same unchanged felt referent is still there, and the same diffuse anxiety as well. From this lack of referent movement, one knows that nothing has really changed.
Conversely, after referent movement, the meanings and symbolizations one formulates are different. The relevant considerations are different. The whole scene is different. Of course, most often in one such step one does not find "solutions." The individual may say: "Well, that doesn't help me either, because now this helpless feeling, it just seems like the worst crime in the world to be helpless, weak, just let everything happen to you. I can't stand that either. I don't know what is so bad about it, I mean, if actually, in reality, I can't do anything about it anyhow." Here we see that there is no hint of anything like a solution, but the relevant surrounding considerations have now changed. What he looks at and symbolizes is different as the felt referent to which he directly refers is different.

Reference movement gives direction to the focusing process. The individual's attention and symbolizing tends to follow that direction which produces referent movement.
Without reference movement, what is said is "merely" talk, "merely" intellectualization, "merely" hair splitting, or "merely" reporting.
Reference movement is the direct experience that something more than logic and verbalization has occurred. The movement can often be logically analyzed (that is to say, logical relationships can be formulated between what he said earlier and what he says now). However, such logical analysis can be made between any verbalizations, whether or not there has been reference movement. And, often, for a small bit of reference movement the logical or conceptual shift is extremely large. Even a slight reference movement can make for what conceptually looks like a totally different vantage point.
Reference movement is a change in the felt meaning which functions in symbolizing.
I hope I have conveyed something of the overlapping character of what I call the four phases of focusing. To summarize them: phase one, direct reference to a felt meaning which is conceptually vague but definite as felt; phase two, unfolding and the symbolizing of some aspects; phase three, a flooding of global application; phase four, referent movement, and the process can begin again with phase one.
These four definitions (8-11) define "focusing." [13]

12. 自我推进的感受过程

AS the individual engages in focusing, and as referent movement occurs, he finds himself pulled along in a direction he neither chose nor predicted. There is a very strong impelling force exerted by the direct referent just then felt. The individual may "get off the track," "talk about something else," or put up with considerable distracting comments and useless deductions by his listener; and still the given felt, direct referent remains strikingly as the "next thing" with which he must deal.
当个体进行聚焦,指涉运动发生时,他发现他正在向一个并不是他选择或预测的方向靠近。他会感受到一种直接指涉物所施加的强大的、驱动性的力量。个体可能会“被从轨道上拉走”,“谈论一些别的事情” ,或是忍受倾听者的让人分心的评论及无用的推论,但仍然强烈感觉到直接指涉物是他必须处理的“下一件事情”。
If the listener's responsiveness makes it possible, the individual finds himself moving from one referent movement and unfolding to another and another.Each time the inward scene changes, new felt meanings are there for him. The cycles of the four phases set into motion an overall feeling process. This feeling process has a very striking, concretely felt, self-propelled quality.
As a psychotherapist I have learned that I must depend on this self-propelled feeling process in the client. This is an important principle, because I have the power to distract him. When I do so (by too many explanations or insights of my own into what he says), then this feeling process does not occur. On the other hand, I have also learned that my questions and self-expressions can be useful, provided I always intend what I say to refer to the individual's felt referent and I show that I would like him to continue to focus on it.
In order to permit the feeling process to arise, we must sometimes remain silent, at least for some brief periods. If either he or I talk all the time, little direct reference can take place. Therefore, when he has stopped talking and I have stopped responding, I am glad if there is a little silence in which he can feel the meaning of what we have been saying. I am especially glad if the next thing he then says follows not simply and logically from what we have said, but shows that he has been 17,immersed in something felt. In this way I can notice that a felt referent has provided the transition from what he did say to what he now says. This "descent" into himself, this focusing, and the overall feeling process which arises, give verbalization to the underlying flow of events of personality change. This self-propelled feeling process is the essential motor of personality change.
Once this feeling process has arisen, it continues even between the times the individual engages in the four-phase focusing process I have outlined. Thus, during the several days between two psychotherapy hours, the client may find important thoughts, feelings, memories, and insights "coming" to him. He may find a generalized "stirring," an inward "eventfulness," even without a specific symbolized content. Thus the overall feeling process comes to be self-propelled and broader than just the four phases of focusing I have described.
The Role of the Personal Relationship-How Another Person's Responses Affect the Individual's Experiencing, and How Personality "Contents" Are Inherently Changeable Thereby
We tend to be so concerned with content (symbolized meanings) that we sometimes discuss psychological questions as if personality were nothing but contents. We forget the obvious differences which exist not only in what an individual's experience is at a given moment, but also in how he experiences. Thus we ask a question such as this: What difference does the personal relationship make, since the individual can think and feel the same contents when he is alone as he can when he talks to another person?
Often a psychotherapist (or any listener who wants to be helpful) will feel that he must "do something," "add something," bring in some new content or insight, so that he will be helpful and make a difference.
Yet, there is already all the difference between how one thinks and feels alone and how one thinks and feels with another person. The conceptual content may (for a time) be the same as the individual can think and feel by himself; but, the manner of experiencing will be totally different. Consider, for example, the type of listener who interrupts with his own concerns and is inclined to be annoyed and critical long before he understands what is said. With him, my manner of experiencing will be quite constricted. I will think of less and feel less than I do when I am alone. I will tend to say what I must in round, general, swiftly finished terms. I will not tend to feel deeply, or intensely, or richly. Certain things will never occur to me when I am with him or, if they do occur to me, I will save them for the time when I am alone, and can feel them through without the constricting effects of his responses. We all know this difference between the manner of our experiencing with certain persons as compared with when we are alone.
Similarly, there are others (we are fortunate to know one) with whom we feel more intensely and freely whatever we feel, We think of more things, we have the patience and the ability to go more deeply into the details, we bear better our own inward strain when we are speaking to this person. If we are sad and dry-eyed alone, then with this person we cry. If we are stopped by our guilt, shame, and anxiety, then with this person we come to life again, inwardly, as being more than these emotions. If we have showered disgust and annoyance on ourselves to the point of becoming silent and deadened inside, then with this person we "come alive" again. As we tell 18,this person some old, familiar, many times repeated story, we find it richer and freshly meaningful, and we may not get all the way through it for the many facets of personal meaning which now unfold.
How shall we theoretically explain these differences in the manner in which we experience in different relationships and alone?

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