简德林:人格变化
作者: 简德林 / 16506次阅读 时间: 2010年12月07日
标签: 简德林 聚焦 人格
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13. MANNER OF EXPERIENCING.
13. 体验过程的方式
Whatever the content which we are said to experience, there is also the manner in which we experience. Few terms in our formal psychological language denote differences in manner of experiencing. Let us, therefore, define some more terms. (These terms overlap, so that fully explicating one of them would give us the others.)
不管我们体验的内容是什么,在其中还有不同的体验方式。在正规的心理学术语中用来解释体验方式不同的术语很少。因此,让我们来定义一些术语。(这些术语是相互重叠的,完整地说明其中一个会让我们理解其他相关的术语。)
Immediacy of Experiencing. Immediacy can be contrasted with disassociation or postponement of affect. Descriptive and poetic terms are usually invented by individuals to describe immediacy and its opposites: "I do everything right, but I'm not in it"; or "I am a spectator of my own behavior"; or "What it means to me so occupies me that I don't feel what is going on at all"; "Life is going on all right, but I'm in some back room. I merely hear about it, I'm not living it."
体验过程的直接性。直接性可以和一个效果的分裂和延迟相对比。个体会发明一些描述性的,诗意的用语来描述这种直接性及相反的特性:“我做一切对的事情,但我不在里面”;或是“我是我自己行为的观众”;或是“我感受不到这究竟是怎么回事,但我总是在想这对我意味着什么”;“生活在继续,一切都好,但我在后面的一个房间里,我几乎都不知道,我并不在我的生活里面”。
Presentness. Am I reacting to the present situation? Am I feeling a now, or is the present situation merely an occasion, a cue for a familiar, repetitious, structured pattern of feeling?
在场。我是对现在的情况做反应吗?我在感受的是现在吗?或是现在的情况仅仅是一个场合,是某种熟悉内容的线索,是某种重复的,结构化的感受模式?
Richness of Fresh Detail. Any moment's experience has a host of fresh details that I experience implicitly, some of which I could symbolize and differentiate. In contrast, the structured feeling pattern consists of only a few emotions and meanings. Sometimes, however, I have none of the richness of the present, only the same old, stale feeling pattern. In such instances psychologists are inclined to notice chiefly the content of the stale pattern. We say: "This is a protesting reaction against authority," or "this is a need to dominate," or a "partial" infantile sex drive such as "voyeurism," or "exhibitionism," or a "passive-aggressive need." We tend to neglect the fact that such feeling patterns are also different in manner from an immediate, present, and richly detailed experiencing. It is not only that I react poorly to authority. Rather, I react this way to every person whom I perceive as an authority. And, more important, I react only to his being an authority, not to him as a person, and to the very many present facets of him and our situation which are different from any other situation. The "authority pattern," or any similar pattern, is really only a bare outline. My experiencing is structure-bound in manner, when I experience only this bare outline and feel only this bare set of emotions, lacking the myriad of fresh detail of the present. I might resent my boss's behaviors even if my manner of experiencing were optimal. Too much time and attention is wasted in deciding whether my reaction to him is to be blamed on me or on him. It does not matter. What does matter is the manner of my experiencing. No matter how obnoxious he may really be, if my experiencing is structure bound, I do not even experience his obnoxiousness except as mere cues for the experience of my old bare structure.
新的细节的丰富性。任何时刻的体验都有许多新的细节,这些是我暗在性地体验到的,有一些我可以进行符号化,并能够区分。相反,结构性的感受模式是由一些很少的情绪和意义组成的。有时候我并没有任何当下的丰富性,只有那些陈旧的感受模式。在这些时候,心理学家倾向于主要注意那些旧模式的内容。我们说:“这是对权威的不满反应” ,或“这是对掌控的需要” ,或认为这是“被动攻击的需要” 。我们倾向于忽视这些模式和那种直接的,在场的,细节丰富的体验方式的不同。这不仅是我对权威不舒服。实际上,我对每一个我理解为权威的人都是这样的反应方式。我只是将他看作权威来反应,而不是将他作为一个人,或是他作为一个人的许多方面,或是对这一不同于其他情境的独特情境来反应。“权威模式”或是其他类似的模式,确实只是一个空的轮廓。我的体验是结构限制的方式,当我只体验到这一空的轮廓,只感受到这一组情绪,缺乏对当下感受的丰富的细节。即使我的体验方式是理想的,我可能还是会憎恨老板的行为。在确定我对他的反应是应该怪我还是怪他上面,我们浪费了太多的时间和注意力。这其实并不重要。重要的是体验的方式。无论他可能确实多么让人讨厌,如果我的体验是结构限制的,我甚至都没有体验到他的讨厌,而只是旧有模式体验的一些暗示而已。
Frozen Wholes. We often speak of contents or "experiences" as if they were set, shaped units with their own set structure. But this is the case only to the extent that my experiencing is structure bound in its manner. For example, when I listen as you tell me something of your feelings I may occasionally think of my own experiences. I need the feelings and meanings of my own experiences in order to understand yours. 19,However, if I must keep thinking of my experiences explicitly as such, then I cannot grasp the meanings yours have to you. I will then insist that your experiences are the same as mine (or, if I am wise, I will know that I am not understanding you). Unless my experiences implicitly function so that I can newly understand you, I cannot really understand you at all. Insofar as my experiencing is structure bound, it does not implicitly function. It is not "seamlessly" felt by me with its thousands of implicit aspects functioning so that I arrive at some fresh meaning, something you are trying to convey to me. Rather, in this regard, my experience is a "frozen whole" and will not give up its structure. Whatever requires the implicit function of experiencing in these regards makes me feel my whole frozen structure and nothing new.
冻结的整体。我们经常谈论一些内容或“体验”,就像它们被某种结构设定好了,并发展了自己的一组结构。某种程度上,这也是体验以某种方式被结构限制了。举例来说,当你告诉我你的一些感受时我可能时常想起我自己的一些体验。我需要从我自己体验的感受和意义以便理解你的。然而,如果我必须一直以某种明在的方式想起我自己的体验,以至于我无法抓住对你来说的意义。我可能会坚持你的体验和我的是一样的(或者,如果我很明智,我会知道我没能够理解你)。除非我的体验是以暗在的功能的形式存在,我能够以新的方式理解你,否则我将完全无法真地理解你。到现在为止,我的体验仍然是结构限制的,并不是暗在的功能。这并不是以这种方式:我流畅地感受到许许多多的暗在方面的功能,所以我可以到达你试图传达给我的新的意义。事实上,我的体验是“冻结的整体”,它并不会放弃其结构。这方面任何要求体验暗在功能的部分都只让我感受到我的整个冻结的结构,没有什么新的。
Repetitive versus Modifiable. Since within the bare structured frozen whole experiencing does not function in interaction with present detail, the structure is not modified by the present. Hence, it remains the same, it repeats itself in many situations without ever changing. So long as the manner of experiencing remains structure bound, the structures themselves are not modifiable by present occurrences.
重复对可改变的。因为在结构化的冻结整体体验并不具备和当下的细节互动的功能,这个结构不会被现在改变。它仍然和以前一样,它会在许多不同的场景下重复自己,不做任何改变。只要体验的方式仍然是结构限制的,结构本身便无法被当下所发生的改变。
Optimal Implicit Functioning. It is clear from the above that, to the extent the manner of experiencing is structure bound, the implicit functioning of experiencing cannot occur. Instead of the many, many implicit meanings of experiencing which must interact with present detail to interpret and react, the individual has a structured feeling pattern.
最佳暗在功能。从上述内容我们可以很清楚地看到,如果体验方式是结构限制的,体验的暗在功能便无法发挥作用。个体具有结构化感受的模式,而不是许多体验过程的暗在意义,这些暗在意义必须和当下细节互动以便去解释和反应。
These terms define manner of experiencing.
这些术语定义了体验的方式。
14. IN PROCESS VERSUS STRUCTURE BOUND.
14.处于过程中对结构限制
Experiencing is always in process and always functions implicitly. The respects in which it is structure bound are not experiencing. The conceptual content in an abstract way can appear to be the same with different manners of experiencing. However, in the structure-bound manner the experiencing process is, in given respects, missing. By "missing" we mean that from an external viewpoint we may notice that the implicit functioning of experiencing ought to be there, but there is only the process-skipping structure, and the experiencing surrounding it and leading up to it. Thus we say that structure-bound aspects are not in process.
体验 (experiencing)总是在过程中,并总是暗在地发挥作用。这样看来结构限制并不是体验过程。从抽象的角度来看,概念化的内容和体验的不同方式看起来可能是一样的。但无论如何在结构限制的方式中体验过程是缺失的。 “缺失”的意思是指从外部的视角来看我们只能注意到体验的暗在功能应该在那里,但这儿只有过程被跳过了的结构,而体验总是围绕着它,并总是准备着这样反应。因此我们说结构限制的方面并不在过程中。
15. RECONSTITUTING.
15.重建
Earlier we said that symbols, or events can carry forward the process of experiencing. Experiencing is essentially an interaction between feeling and "symbols" (attention, words, events), just as body life is an interaction between body and environment. In its basic nature, the physical life process is interaction. It requires not only the body's respiratory machinery but also oxygen. And the body's respiratory machinery itself consists of cells which again are chemical processes involving oxygen and particles. If we apply this conceptual model of interaction process to experiencing, we can consider it an interaction of feeling and events ("events" here includes verbal noises, others' behaviors, external occurrences--anything that can interact with feeling).
之前我们提到象征,或一些事件能够带动体验的过程。体验本质上是感受和“象征”(注意力,语词,事件)之间的互动,类似于身体生命(Body life)是身体和环境的互动。从本质上来讲,身体生命(Body life)是交互过程。它不仅需要身体的呼吸器官,还需要氧气。身体的呼吸器官也是由细胞组成的,而细胞又是包括了氧气和离子的化学过程。如果我们将这种互动过程的概念模型应用在体验过程上,我们可以认为体验过程是感受和事件之间的互动。(“事件”这里包括语词的声音,他人的行为,外部发生的事件——及其他任何可以和感受互动的内容)。
If we formulate the theory of experiencing in this way, we can formulate why the other person's responses so basically affect the individual's manner of experiencing.[14] For, if there is a response, there will be an ongoing interaction 20,process. Certain aspects of the personality will be in process. However, without the response, there will not (in these respects) be a process at all.
如果我们用这种方式建立关于体验过程的理论,我们便可以推论为什么他人的回应对个体体验的方式有如此重要的影响。[14]如果任何地方有某种回应,这里就有正在发生的互动过程。人格的某些方面就会处于过程中。而如果没有任何回应的话,(这些方面)就无法形成过程。
Subjectively, phenomenologically, people describe this as "coming alive inside," or as "feeling many more facets" of oneself. Responses can reconstitute the experiencing process in respects in which, before the response, there was no process (no interaction between feeling and something else and hence no ongoing interaction process).
人们从主观上、现象学上将这描述为“内在活了起来”,或是“感受到自己更多的方面”。从这个的角度来将,回应能重建体验,而在回应之前这儿没有过程(没有感受和一些其他东西的互动,因此,没有正在进行的交互过程)。
The peculiar condition of "experience" which is not in process has puzzled psychology for many years. It has been called "unconscious,"[15] "repressed," "covert," "inhibited," "denied," etc. The fact is that we observe individuals awarely and actively feeling (in ways which were missing before) when they are responded to in certain ways. The individual feels that the feelings "have always been there in some sense, but were not felt." Psychology cannot deny this common observation. One way of formulating it is as the reconstituting of the experiencing process.
许多年来,这种并不处于过程中的特殊情形的“体验”(experience)给心理学带来了困惑。于是这被称为“无意识”,[15] “潜抑的”,“隐藏的”,“抑制的”,“否认的”,等等。事实是当他们得到某种方式的回应时,我们才会观察到个体以觉醒地、活跃地方式感受。个体感受到那些“某种程度上一直在,但却没有感受到的”感受。心理学不能否认这种普遍的观察。而一种建构它的方式是将它看做是体验过程的重建。
16. CONTENTS ARE PROCESS ASPECTS.
16. 内容是过程的方面。
What is a "content" of experience (or "an experience," when that is meant to refer to a given content)? We noted (definitions 3 and 5) that the felt implicit meanings of experiencing can be put into interaction with verbal symbols. We then say that the symbols "mean" or "represent" what the experience is "of" or, more simply, that the symbols symbolize the experience. Such a symbolized unit is a content.[16]
体验的“内容”是什么?(或者说“一个体验”(an experience)是指关于某个特定内容的体验吗?)我们注意到(定义3和定义5)体验的暗在感受意义可以和语言表征互动。因此我们可以说表征是“指”或者说“表现”了体验的内容,或者简单地说,表征象征了体验。这样一个象征化(symbolized)的单元是一个内容[16]。

Thus, in order for there to be a content, some aspect of implicit function (see definition 4) must be ongoing in interaction with symbols.
因此,只有暗在功能(定义4)的某些部分在和象征进行互动,才会有内容出现。
But what if there are not, as yet, any verbal symbols? Is there then no ongoing experiencing either? The answer is that verbal symbols are not the only events with which feelings can be in an interaction process. External occurrences, other people's responses, even our own attention, can interact with feeling so as to constitute a process.
如果还没有任何语言的象征呢?是否就没有任何正在进行的体验呢?答案是语言象征并不是唯一感受可与之产生互动过程的对象。外部事件,其他人的回应,甚至我们自己的注意力,都可以和感受互动从而形成体验的过程。
Therefore, it is often the case that there is an ongoing experiencing process without verbal symbols. In fact, most situations and behaviors involve feeling in interaction with nonverbal events. Experiencing functions implicitly with countless meanings which, as felt (without verbal symbolization), are aspects of the ongoing interaction.
因此,非常普遍的情况是正在发生的体验过程中并没有语言符号(verbal symbols)。事实上,大多数情境和行为都含有情绪和非言语事件的互动。体验过程暗在地发挥功能,和无数的意义互动,这些可以(以没有语言象征的方式),这正是正在进行的互动的特点。
The respects in which experiencing is ongoing are also those in which we can verbally symbolize contents. The respects in which it is not ongoing (no matter how it may appear externally) cannot be verbally symbolized. Only pale, useless, general meaning can be given to concepts of the supposed contents which are not at this instant process aspects. Contents are aspects of ongoing felt process. That is to say, contents are process aspects.
体验中进行的内容我们也可以进行语词象征。而那些并没有正在进行的方面无法进行语言符号化(verbally symbolized)(即使看起来已经外在显现地出来)。对于那些并不是此刻发生的过程,我们所假定的内容只能是一些苍白的,无用的,一般的意义。内容是正在进行的感受过程的方面。这就是说,内容是各种过程的方面。
17. THE LAW OF RECONSTITUTION OF THE EXPERIENCING PROCESS.
17.体验过程重建的规律
An individual can symbolize only those aspects which are already implicitly functioning in ongoing experiencing.
个体能够象征化那些在进行的体验中已经暗在地发挥功能的方面。
In any experiencing (that is to say, in any ongoing interaction of feeling and events) a great many implicit meanings are process aspects (so-called "contents"). Thus, for any moment's ongoing experiencing one can symbolize a great many contents. These are incomplete (definition 5) until some symbols (or events) carry forward the 21,process in these respects.
在任何体验过程中(就是说,在任何正在进行的感受与事件互动的过程中),许多的暗在意义是过程的面向(或称为“内容”)。因此,每个时刻进行的体验可以符号化(symbolize)成为许多内容。而在象征符号在带动过程之前他们都是未完成(定义5)的。
Thus there are two different definitions: to carry forward, and to reconstitute. To "carry forward" means that symbols (or events) occur to interact with already implicitly functioning aspects of ongoing experiencing. To "reconstitute" means that the process has become ongoing and implicitly functions in respects in which it previously was not ongoing.
这是两个不同的定义:带动与重建。“带动”意味着象征符号(symbols)(或事件)和已经在进行的体验暗在功能进行互动。“重建”意味着过程正在进入进行的状态,在这些方面,暗在功能在此之前还没有发生。
We can now state a law of the reconstitution of experiencing process: When certain implicitly functioning aspects of experiencing are carried forward by symbols or events, the resulting experiencing always involves other sometimes newly reconstituted aspects which thereby come to be in process and function implicitly in that experiencing.
我们现在可以陈述体验过程重建的规律:当体验的特定暗在功能面向被象征或事件带动时,产生的体验过程总是会将一些其他的刚刚被重建的方面带入过程中,并在体验过程中暗在地发挥功能。
18. HIERARCHY OF PROCESS ASPECTS.
18.过程面向的层次
If contents are viewed as process aspects -- that is to say, as implicitly functioning aspects of ongoing experiencing -- then the law of reconstitution implies that certain contents (process aspects) must be symbolized before certain other contents (process aspects) can thereby become process aspects. that are capable of being symbolized.
如果内容被看作是过程面向,——就是说,被视为正在进行的体验过程的暗在功能面向——重建的规律便意味着特定内容(过程面向)能够被符号化(symbolized)之前,一些特定的其他内容(过程面向)必须成为过程面向,并被符号化。
This fact gives the individual's self-exploration an ordered or hierarchical character. It is as if he can "get to" certain things-only via certain other things. We must let him travel his "own road," not because we believe in democracy, and not because we like self-reliance, but because only when the experiencing process has been reconstituted, so that certain aspects become implicit in it, can he symbolize these.
这一事实赋予个体的自我探索一种次序的特征。就像是他必须通过某些特定其他的东西才能够“到达”一些另外的东西。我们必须让他走自己的路,并不是因为我们喜欢民主,也并非我们喜欢自我依靠,而是因为只有当体验过程重建,一些特定方面暗在地出现了,然后才可以被符号化。
19. SELF-PROCESS.
19.自我过程。
To the extent that experiencing does implicitly function, the individual may respond to himself and may carry forward his own experiencing. This interaction of the individual's feelings with his own (symbolic or actual) behavior,[17] we term "self." A more exact term: self-process.
从体验的某种暗在功能的方面来说,个体可以回应他自己,并能够带动他自己的体验。这一个体的感受和他自己(象征性的或实际的)行为互动的能力,[17]我们定义为“自我。”更为精确的术语是:自我过程。
To the extent that experiencing does not implicitly function, the individual cannot respond to himself and carry forward his experiencing. In what ever respects it does not function (is structure bound), responses are needed first to reconstitute the interaction process of experiencing in these respects.
而如果体验过程还不能够进行暗在功能,个体无法在那些方面回应自己,并带动其体验。在那些不能够工作(结构限制)的方面,首先需要回应来重建其体验的互动过程。
Why is it that the individual himself does not carry forward his already implicitly functioning experiencing in ways which would newly reconstitute structure-bound aspects of it? Of course, he cannot respond to the structure-bound aspects, as such (they are not implicitly functioning), but neither can the psychotherapist. The psychotherapeutic response can be defined as one which responds to aspects of experiencing which are implicitly functioning, but to which the individual himself tends not to respond. More precisely, his own response is a whole frozen structure which does not carry forward the felt experiencing process in these respects.
为什么个体自己无法带动他内在运作的体验过程,以重建体验限制的方面呢?当然,他无法回应结构限制的方面,对于那些并没有正在暗在运作的部分,心理治疗师也无法回应。治疗性的回应可以被定义为一个人对某些暗在运作的体验过程方面的回应,这些正在暗在地运作,而个体倾向于不去回应。更精确地说,他自己的回应是一个冻结的整体,无法带动他在这些方面的感受体验过程。
20. THE RECONSTITUTING RESPONSE IS IMPLICITLY INDICATED.
20.重建性回应是暗在性地指示的
The response which will reconstitute the experiencing process (in some now structure-bound respect) is already implied[18] in the individual's experiencing. One must respond to the functioning experiencing, not to the structure. In practice this means that one must take at face value and give a personal response to the 22,functioning aspect of the person. No one is greatly changed by responses and analyses of how he does not function (though we are often tempted in this direction). We see that the individual's work behavior actually defeats his desire to work, that his sexual behavior turns away opportunities for genuine sexuality, that his desire to please makes him annoy people, that his way of reaching out to people actually turns people away, that his self-expression is dramatized and hollow. Yet these structures are his responses to his actually functioning desire to work, his actually functioning sexuality, his actually functioning desire to relate to people and be close to them, and his actual self-expressive urge. Only if we respond to these actually functioning aspects of his experiencing (despite the obviously opposite character of his behavior and symbolic self-responding) can we carry forward what is now actual and reconstitute the process where he himself had (symbolically and actually) responded only with structure.
会使(在一些处于体验限制的方面)体验过程进行重建的回应其实已经暗在地[18]存在于个体的体验中了。我们必须对运作中的体验(functioning experiencing)进行回应,而不是对结构回应。从实际操作上讲,这意味着我们必须接受表面的价值,并对个体的正在运作的功能方面(functioning aspect)进行回应。只是对一个人回应和分析他为什么不能正常功能这不会带来大的改变(然而我们经常倾向于这样)。我们看到个体在工作上的行为实际上挫败他工作的愿望,他在关于性方面的行为实际上阻止了他真正的性行为,他想要取悦别人实际上让人们恼怒,他想要去接触人们的方式实际上赶走了别人,他的自我表达是戏剧化且空洞的。但是这些结构是他对自己在运作地(actually functioning)工作的愿望的回应,正在运作的性欲的回应,正在运作地和别人建立联结和亲密的回应,自我表达需要的回应。只有当我们回应这些真正运作的体验的方面,才能带动当下实际的过程,并重建他一直使用这些结构来(象征地或是真正地)回应的过程。

21. PRIMACY OF PROCESS.
21.过程首要性
We tend to neglect the fact that contents are process aspects. We pay the most attention to contents as symbolized meanings with specific logical implications (which they also are). Hence we often discuss self-exploration as if it were purely a logical inquiry in search of conceptual answers. However, in psychotherapy (and in one's private self-exploration as well) the logical contents and insights are secondary. Process has primacy. We must attend and symbolize in order to carry forward the process and thereby reconstitute it in certain new aspects. Only then, as new contents come to function implicitly in feeling, can we symbolize them.
我们倾向于忽视这一事实:内容是过程的方面。我们把大多数注意力放在符号化的意义,以及逻辑推理上(实际上他们已经是了)。因此我们经常讨论自我探索就像他们只有逻辑推理,寻找概念性的答案。然而,在心理治疗中(以及一些私下的自我探索也是)逻辑和洞察是次要的。过程具有首要性。我们必须留意并符号化以便带动过程,并重建一些特定的新的方面。只有当新的内容开始在感受中暗在地运作时,我们才能对它们进行符号化。
In definition 9 we noted that "unfolding" can occur as a felt "now I've got it," quite without symbolization. This is a direct experience of reconstituting. The process is felt as ongoing in newly reconstituted respects. Reconstituting occurs when one symbolizes meanings which, in the previous moments, have already been implicit. The carrying forward of these implicit meanings turns out to involve the wider process which reconstitutes the new aspects.
在定义9中我们提到“展开”会伴随着“现在我知道了”这种感受发生,这一过程中并没有符号化。这是一种重建的直接体验。我们会感受到那些新重建的方面正在过程中进行。当一个人符号化一些之前是暗在的意义时,重建便发生了。这些暗在意义的带动会产生更广泛的过程,从而会重建了一些新的方面。
In psychotherapy, therefore, the situation is not that first we figure out what is wrong with an individual and how he must change-and then, somehow, he does it. Rather, his experiencing with us is already vitally different with us than it previously could be. From this different experiencing arise the solutions of his problems. The changes are already occurring as he speaks. Our responses (as verbal symbols and as events) interact and carry forward his experiencing. Our gestures and attitude, the very fact that he is talking to us, the differences which each moment he makes to us-all of this interacts concretely with what implicitly functions in him, his felt experiencing. Conceptually it may look like a futile statement and restatement of problems. Or, conceptually, we may arrive at the most basic causes and factors-the ways in which an individual ought to change, the reasons and lacks which prevent him from so changing-but no genuine solution is conceptually arrived at. The conceptual search ends by shrugging and attaching some blameful label to the individual who, through bad will or constitution, is said to lack these or those basic essentials. Yet, given certain interpersonal responses, he is already different.
在心理治疗中,最首要的问题不是我们找到个体出了什么问题以及他必须如何改变,某种程度上,他确实已经不同了。他对于我们的体验已经和之前的不同了。从这些不同的体验中出现了对问题的解决方式。当他在诉说的时候这些改变已经在发生。我们的回应(作为语言符号及作为事件的)和他的体验互动,并带动他的体验。我们的姿势、态度,他和我们交谈本身,每一个时刻他带来的我们双方的改变都在和他自己暗在的功能,即他感受体验过程,在互动。这从概念上看可能是一个对问题无力的叙述及重述。还是从概念上看,即便假设我们到达了最基本的原因和因素——个体应该去改变的方式,阻碍他如此改变的原因和缺少的内容——但并没有任何真正的解决方式可以被概念性地到达。耸耸肩、带着恶意或使用惯例给个体贴上指责的标签,说他缺乏这些或那些最基本的因素,概念上的寻找如此结束。但是,从特定的人际关系回应上来讲,他已经不同了。
By primacy of process over conceptual content, we mean this fact: [19] The presently ongoing experiencing process must be carried forward concretely. Thereby it is in many respects reconstituted, made more immediate in its manner of experiencing, more full of differentiable detail. Thereby new process aspects (contents), "solutions," and personality changes arise. Most often these solutions seem terribly Simple,[20] conceptually (see definition 9), and cannot possibly be the 23, reason for the change. Rather, they are rough conceptualizations of a few aspects of a broadly different process.
通过陈述过程的首要性比概念性的内容重要,我们指出这个事实:[19] 当下正在进行的体验过程必须实实在在地被带动。因此从许多方面来看,一些直接的体验方式,一些更清晰的细节在重建的许多方面中产生了。常见的是,解决方式从概念上来看异常地简单,[20]不可能是改变的原因。但是,他们只是对一些广泛不同的过程的一些很少的方面的粗糙的概念化。
22. PROCESS UNITY.
22.过程整体性。
There is a single process which involves all of the following: environmental interaction, body life, feeling, cognitive meanings, interpersonal relations, and self. The concretely occurring process is one, although we can isolate and emphasize these various aspects of it. Our "thing Language" tends to present whatever we discuss as if it were a separable object in space. In this way we artificially separate environment, body, feeling, meanings, other people, and self.[21] When they are discussed as separable things, their obvious interrelations become puzzling: How can feelings be involved in (psychosomatic) body illnesses? How can cognitive thought be influenced by felt needs? How is it that expressing ourselves interpersonally results in changes in the self? At every juncture the "separate thing" view of these phenomena builds these puzzles into our discussions. Instead we can employ a frame of reference which considers the one process which concretely occurs. I want to give the name process unity to the way in which the one concrete process is basic to these various aspects.
这是一个单一的过程,但包含了以下所有的内容:和环境的互动,身体生命,感受,认知意义,人际关系和自我。具体发生的过程只有一个,但是我们可以分离这些不同的方面加以强调。我们使用一种“物化的语言”(thing language),把我们讨论的所有内容像空间中一个个可以分割的物体来呈现。通过这种方式,我们人工地分开了环境,身体,感受,意义,其他人以及自我。[21]当我们把他们当作相互独立的事情来讨论时,他们之间的联系看起来让人困惑:感受是怎样(躯体化)作用于身体疾病的呢?感受到的需求又是怎样影响认知的想法的呢?表达我们自己是怎样人际性地改变自我的呢?每一个结合点上“把事物分开”的观点产生了这些疑惑。与此相反,我们使用了一个参考性的框架,来思考这一确实发生的单一过程。一个具体过程却是许多不同方面的基础,对于这种方式我想称之为过程整体性。
We have tried to show that feeling is a bodily affair, an aspect of physiological process. We have shown that cognitive meanings consist not only of verbal or pictorial symbols, but also of a felt sense which is implicitly meaningful and must function in interaction with symbols. Interpersonal responses (like other types of events) can interact with feeling and carry forward the concrete process. Now we will try to show that the self (the individual's own responses to his implicitly functioning experiencing) is also an aspect of the one concretely felt process, continuous with body, feeling, meanings, and interpersonal relations.
我们已经试着呈现感受是身体性的事件,是身体过程的某一方面。我们已经呈现认知性的意义不仅是由语言或形象化的象征符号所构成的,也是一种体会(felt sense),具有暗在的意义,使用象征符号在互动中运作。人际回应(就像其他类型的事件)可以和感受互动,并带动具体的过程。现在我们试着呈现自我(个体自己对暗在功能体验的回应)也是一个具体的感受过程的方面,和身体,感受,意义和人际关系这些方面是连续的过程。
23. THE SELF PROCESS AND ITS INTERPERSONAL CONTINUITY.
23.自我过程和其人际连续性。
Throughout this discussion we have been dealing with one concretely occurring interaction process between feeling and events. Interpersonal events occur before there is a self. Others respond to us before we come to respond to ourselves. If these responses were not in interaction with feeling-if there were nothing but other people's responses as such-the self could become nothing but the learned responses of others. But interpersonal responses are not merely external events. They are events in interaction with the individual's feeling. The individual then develops a capacity to respond to his feeling. The self is not merely a learned repertoire of responses, but a response process to feeling.
通过这些讨论,我们已经处理了在感受和事件之间具体发生的互动过程。人际事件的发生在自我发展之前。在我们能够对自己回应之前,他人对我们进行回应。如果这些回应不能够和感受进行互动——如果这儿并没有什么内容,只有其他人的回应——自我可能什么都没有,而只是一些从他人那里学习到的回应而已。但是人际关系回应不仅仅是外部事件。他们是与个体感受进行互动的事件。个体会再发展回应自己的感受的能力。自我并不仅仅是学习得来的回应机能,而是对感受的一种回应过程。
If feeling did not have implicit meaning, then all meaning would depend totally on the events or responses which occur. Again then, the self could never become anything but the repetition of the responses of others. The individual would always have to interpret himself and shape his personal meanings just as others had interpreted him.
如果感受中并没有暗在的意义,所有的意义都只能依赖于发生的事件与回应。自我可能一直保持他人回应的重复而并不发展。个体可能一直像他人解释他那样去解释自己,并塑造其个人的意义。
But feeling has implicit meanings. Therefore, to the extent that a feeling process is ongoing, we can further respond to it differently than others have. However, to the extent to which we respond to our own feeling so as to skip or stop the process rather than carry it forward, to that extent we need others to help us be ourselves. Not only the genesis, but the adult development of the self also may require interpersonal responses. Such responses are required not because of their appraisal or content, but because we need them concretely to reconstitute the feeling process. 24, If in certain respects the process is not ongoing when we are alone, it does not help to recite to ourselves some content or happy appraisal which we may remember from a person with whom we felt "more ourselves"; that person's effect on us was brought about not by his appraisal or evaluation, which we can recite to ourselves. Rather, the effect occurred through his responses to our concrete feeling process and, in some respects, reconstituted it and carried it forward. If we can do that alone, we are independent selves in that respect.
但是感受具有暗在意义。某种程度上,感受过程正在进行,我们可以用和其他人曾有的不同方式来回应自己。然而,某种程度上,我们回应我们自己的感受以便跳过或停止过程,而不是带动这个过程,某种程度上我们需要他人帮助我们成为自己。不仅自我的起源,还有成人自我的发展也需要人际的回应。我们需要这种回应并不是因为需要他们的赞赏与内容,而是需要他们来重建感受过程。如果特定方面的过程我们独自待着的时候并不发生,回忆某个我们记得能让我们感受更像自己的人,回忆他们带来的满意或赞扬可能并没有什么帮助。那个人带来的影响并不是通过可以对自己重复的赞扬发生的。这种影响是通过他对我们具体感受过程的回应,从某些方面来讲,是重建和带动我们的感受过程。如果我们可以独自去做这些,从这方面讲,我们具有独立的自我。
Thus, personality change in us is not a result of our perceiving another's positive appraisals of us or attitudes toward us. It is true that rejecting attitudes toward us are unlikely to carry forward our implicit meanings. However, that is not because of the negative appraisal as such, but because rejection usually ignores the implicit meanings of my feeling. To reject is to turn away or push away. In contrast, someone's "unconditional positive regard" toward us is not only an appraisal or attitude. They respond and carry forward the concretely ongoing process with their responses.
因此,人格改变并不是理解另外一个人对我们积极的赞扬或是态度带来的结果。确实,拒绝自己的态度不太可能带动我们暗在的意义。然而,这并不是因为负性的态度,而是拒绝通常忽略感受的暗在意义。拒绝是赶走或推走。与此相对比的是,某些人对我们的“无条件积极关注”不仅是一种赞扬或态度,他们使用回应带动具体的正在进行的过程。
We must, therefore, reformulate Rogers' (1959b) view that personality change depends on the client's perception of the therapist's attitudes. The present theory implies that the client may perceive the therapist's attitudes correctly, or he may not. He may be convinced that the therapist must dislike him and cannot possibly understand him. Not these perceptions, but the manner of process which is actually occurring, will determine whether personality change results. In many cases, the client can perceive positive therapist attitudes only after the concrete personality change process has already occurred.
因此,我们必须重新陈述罗杰斯(1956)关于人格改变依赖于个案对治疗态度理解的观点。这一理论认为个案能够正确地理解治疗师的态度,也可能不会。他可能认为治疗师不喜欢他,不可能理解他。并不是这些理解,而是正在发生的这种过程的方式,决定了人格是否可以改变。在许多情况下,来访者只有在人格发生具体的改变之后,才能理解治疗师积极的态度。
The change-effective factor is not the perception of a content, an appraisal, an evaluation, or an attitude, considered apart from the concrete process.
我们不可以脱离具体过程的方面,只从内容、赞扬、评价、态度这些方面来理解使得改变发生的因素。
Personality change is the difference made by your responses in carrying forward my concrete experiencing. To be myself I need your responses, to the extent to which my own responses fail to carry my feelings forward. At first, in these respects, I am "really myself" only when 1 am with you.
是你在带动我的具体体验上的回应使得人格可以改变。我需要你的回应来成为自己,某种程度上,我自己的回应无法带动我的感受。从这些方面来讲,我只有和你在一起的时候才能成为真正的自己。
For a time, the individual can have this fuller self-process only in just this relationship.[22] That is not "dependence." It should not lead one to back away, but to fuller and deeper responses carrying forward the experiencing, which, for the time being, the individual says he can feel "only here." The continued carrying forward into ongoing interaction process is necessary to reconstitute the experiencing long enough for the individual himself to obtain the ability to carry it forward as self-process.
在一段时间,个体只有在这种关系中才能进行更为完整的自我过程。[22]这并不是“依赖”。这并不会让个体倒退,而是能够用更完整和深层的回应来带动体验过程,目前,个体说他只能在这里感觉得到。持续地带动进入互动对于重建体验过程是必要的,由此,个体自己也能获得带动其体验的能力,而这也是自我过程的方面。
Repression and Content Definitions Reformulated
重述潜抑和内容定义
24. THE UNCONSCIOUS AS INCOMPLETE PROCESS.
24.作为未完成过程的无意识
When "ego" or "self-system" are said to "exclude" some experiences from awareness, usually it is assumed that these experiences nevertheless exist "in the unconscious" or "in the organism." Our discussion, however, leads us to the conclusion that they do not. Something exists, to be sure, but it is not the experiences as they would be if they were optimally ongoing. Rather, what exists is a felt and physiological condition which results when, in some regards, the body interaction process is stopped - i.e., 25,is not occurring. What kind of condition is that?
当我们说“自我”(Ego)、“自我系统”被排除在意识的体验之外,通常的假设是这些体验存在于“无意识”中或是机体中。我们的讨论却导向一个不同的结论。有一些东西确实存在,但如果在最理想的情况下这些东西被体验到,这两者仍然是不同的。存在的是一种感受到的、身体性的情境,在某些方面,身体互动过程被阻断了,也就是说这一过程实际上并没有发生。而这是一种什么样的情境呢?
We have shown how the resulting dysfunction will be such that something is "missing," but we should not place what is missing into the unconscious (any more than we should place eating into the unconscious when someone is hungry). Rather, the unconscious consists of the body's stopped processes, the muscular and visceral blockage--just as a stopped electric current does not consist of a current that is going on under cover, but rather of certain electric potentials which build up in various parts (not only at the interruption) of the circuit. When a conductor re-establishes the electric current, different events occur than were occurring in its interrupted condition--yet, of course, the two are related. We say that this is the electrical energy which existed (in static form) before the current was reconstituted. This is "the unconscious."
我们已经说明使得功能不良的是“缺少”某些东西,但我们不应该将所缺少的归于潜意识(就像我们不能说当一个人饿的时候潜意识中存在着吃的动作)。无意识是由身体中被阻断的过程组成的,肌肉和内脏的阻断——就像是一个被阻断的电流并不是由隐藏的电流组成,而是在电路的许多部分中所产生(不仅只是阻断)的特定的电压组成。当一个电导体重新建立电流时,与在被阻断状态下不同的一些事件发生了——当然,两者是有联系的。我们可以说在电流重建之前,电的能量是存在的(以静态的方式)。这是“潜意识”。
When we say that certain experiences, perceptions, motives, feelings, etc. are "missing" from our awareness, it is not that they exist "below" awareness (somewhere under there in the body or in an unconscious). Rather there is a narrowed, or in some respects blocked, interaction and experiencing. The manner of experiencing which we have described is one in which, in a good many regards, the experiencing and body life process is not "completed" or fully ongoing.
当特定的体验,知觉,动机,感受等等从我们的觉知中“缺少”时,并不是它们存在于“下方的”觉知中(在身体或潜意识下面的某个地方)。而是这儿有一个狭窄的,某种被阻断的互动和体验。在这种体验方式里,体验和身体生命过程是未完结的,是没有能够完整进行的。
Does this mean that there is no "unconscious"? Only what we are aware of exists? To put the matter in that too simple way ignores important observations. The present theory must be able to account for these observations.[23] Therefore, we are basically reformulating the theory of the unconscious rather than in any simple way throwing it out. The unconscious is redefined as incomplete process.
这是不是说并不存在“潜意识”?只有我们能够意识到的内容才存在?这样简单的理解方式忽略了一些重要的观察。我们的理论一定要能够说明这些观察。[23]我们基本上是重述无意识的理论,而不是简单地直接丢掉。无意识被重新定义为未完成的过程。
Since there is no sharp distinction between carrying forward what is implicitly felt, and reconstituting experiencing in previously stopped respects (the former will involve the latter),[24] the felt datum which is there, in a sense, contains everything. In what sense does it? In the sense that, given fully carrying forward responses to it, everything will be here as aspects of ongoing process.
在带动一个暗在感受和在之前阻断的方面重建体验这两者没有很大的区别(前者包含后者),[24]感受数据,某种意义上包含了所有内容。为什么这样说?提供完整的带动性的回应,作为正在进行过程的方面所有东西都会出现。
Therefore, in practice the rule is: "Never mind what is not being felt. Respond to what is being felt."
因此,在实践方面的准则就是:“不要在意什么没被感觉到。回应感受到的。”
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