Klein 1963 论孤独的感受
作者: 克莱恩 / 9009次阅读 时间: 2013年3月10日
来源: 《嫉羡与感恩》 标签: 孤独 精神分析 克莱恩 客体关系
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网

fFc`G0在这篇他最后的论文中,梅兰妮·克莱恩开启了一个新的主题:孤独的内在感受——她所认为的一部分人类情景。她将它链接于她的发展理论,描述在发展的正常历程中,偏执的不安全感和整合的过程如何导致无可避免的孤独。她也描述精神分裂和躁郁疾患的孤独,补充她之前在《对某些分裂机制的评论》( 1946 ) 中对精神病患受苦的说明,并讨论了减轻孤独的因素和接受孤独的需要。这篇论文的整体气氛(虽然并未在任何地方详载)有一种趋近死亡的前兆。心理学空间unF P!Y!Lw

DqC&Tz;v G,wj ^(O0我们必须记得,梅兰妮·克莱恩在过世前并未交代要出版这篇论文,现在的版本是在她逝后编辑而出版的。或许是因为他也不觉得已经准备好,或许这篇论文确实会对更深入的工作有助益,这篇论文在某些地方似乎是未完成的,其中的思考也并未完全被解答。心理学空间j HQA5F:T/\

ON THE SENSE OF LONELINESS(1963)

心理学空间8X/q$B@u2^

IN the present paper an attempt will be made to investigate the source of the sense of loneliness. By the sense of loneliness I am referring not to the objective situation of being deprived of external companionship. I am referring to the inner sense of loneliness-the sense of being alone regardless of external circumstances, of feeling lonely even when among friends or receiving love. This state of internal loneliness, I will suggest, is the result of a ubiquitous yearning for an unattainable perfect internal state. Such loneliness, which is experienced to some extent by everyone, springs from paranoid and depressive anxieties which are derivatives of the infant's psychotic anxieties. These anxieties exist in some measure in every individual but are excessively strong in illness, therefore loneliness is also part of illness, both of a schizophrenic and depressive nature.心理学空间2IXO;WZ1S]e

心理学空间"bnF6P kw4d!i)@aK |

在这篇文章中,我企图要研究孤独感受的来源。所谓孤独感受,不是指被剥夺外在陪伴的客观情景,我指的是内在的孤独感受——感觉一个人,不论外在周遭环境为何,即使在朋友之中或已经接受了爱,仍然觉得孤独。我认为内在孤独这种状态,是一种对无法获得的完美内在状态无所不在的虎丘。每个人某种程度上都会经验到这样的孤独,它源自于偏执和忧郁焦虑,也是婴孩精神病焦虑的衍生物。这些焦虑,或多或少存在于每个人之中,但在疾患中是过度强烈的;因此孤独也是疾患的一部分,具有精神分裂和忧郁的本质。心理学空间Y3]k(cwyKpf{

4K4rW}oTAv0In order to understand how the sense of loneliness arises we have——as with other attitudes and emotions——to go back to early infancy and trace its influence on later stages of life. As I have frequently described, the ego exists and operates from birth onwards. At first it is largely lacking in cohesion and dominated by splitting mechanisms. The danger of being destroyed by the death instinct directed against the self contributes to the splitting of impulses into good and bad; owing to the projection of these impulses on to the primal object, it too is split into good and bad. In consequence, in the earliest stages, the good part of the ego and the good object are in some measure protected, since aggression is directed away from them. These are the particular splitting processes which I have described as the basis of relative security in the very young infant, in so far as security can be achieved at this stage; whereas other splitting processes, such as those leading to fragmentation, are detrimental to the ego and its strength.心理学空间Y Fs__a8j6Y/k.R

心理学空间(S.eI~Bcw4S

为了理解孤独是如何产生的,和其他的态度和情绪一样,我们必须回到婴儿早期,并追溯它对后面的生命阶段的影响。就像我们经常描述的,自我从出生开始就存在并运行着。起初它在很大程度上缺乏凝聚,并由分裂机制所主导。死本能对自体的破坏威胁,造成冲动分裂成好的和坏的。因为这些冲动被投射到原初客体,原初客体也被分裂为好的和坏的。结果是,在最早期的阶段,自我好的部分与好客体在某种程度上受到保护,因为攻击被导离它们。我将这些特殊的分裂过程描述为非常小的婴儿相对安全感的基础——就这个阶段所能达到的安全感而言;而其他的分裂过程,例如那些导致碎裂的分裂过程,是不利于自我及其强度的。心理学空间*Eq7?"kY2y

z R0D!zc'[)H:_?0Together with the urge to split there is from the beginning of life a drive towards integration which increases with the growth of the ego. This process of integration is based on the introjection of the good object, primarily a part object-the mother's breast, although other aspects of the mother also enter into even the earliest relation.If the good internal object is established with relative security, it becomes the core of the developing ego.心理学空间 yLt L(xq1U

x-Q } cb7_0伴随分裂冲动的,是一种从生命一开始就朝向整合的驱力,它随着自我的成长而增加。这种整合的过程是基于好客体的内化,最初是一个部分客体——母亲的乳房,虽然母亲的其他层面也进入到这一最早的关系之中。如果内在好客体被相对安全地建立起来,它就会变成自我不断发展的核心。心理学空间-I$SP q1m e)I@

心理学空间4U}(a(J&KO ?

A satisfactory early relation to the mother (not necessarily based on breast feeding since the bottle can also symbolically stand for the breast) implies a close contact between the unconscious of the mother and of the child. This is the foundation for the most complete experience of being understood and is essentially linked with the preverbal stage. However gratifying it is in later life to express thoughts and feelings to a congenial person, there remains an unsatisfied longing for an understanding without words~ultimately for the earliest relation with the mother. This longing contributes to the sense of loneliness and derives from the depressive feeling of an irretrievable loss.

Xa g9U-w]1Lw H2Z0

*T_FoP0与母亲之间令人满意的早期关系(不一定以乳房喂食为基础,因为奶瓶也可以象征性地代表乳房),意味着母亲和孩子无意识上的一种亲密接触,这为得到完全理解的经验奠定了基础,它从根本上与前语言阶段相关。在后来的生命中,他对志趣相投的人表达思想和情感,不论这有多么令人满足,依然会对无言的理解有一种无法满足的渴求——归根结底是渴求和母亲最早的关系。这种渴求会造成孤独感,它源自对一种无可挽回的丧失的抑郁感。心理学空间1[];`z$z'C/u

q7bH8Z;S3bel0Even at best, however, the happy relation with the mother and her breast is never undisturbed, since persecutory anxiety is bound to arise. Persecutory anxiety is at its height during the first three months of life--the period of the paranoid-schizoid position; it emerges from the beginning of life as the result of the conflict between the life and death instincts and the experience of birth contributes to it. Whenever destructive impulses arise strongly, the mother and her breast, owing to projection, are felt to be persecutory, and therefore the infant inevitably experiences some insecurity. This paranoid insecurity is one of the roots of loneliness.

&^I*c+`X R6OC0心理学空间4@*v{p Mc3op

然而即使是最好的状况,对母亲及其乳房的幸福关系从来就不可能不受干扰,因为势必会产生被害焦虑,它在生命的前三个月达到高峰,即在偏执-分裂心理位置的期间:它从生命一开始就出现,是生本能与死本能冲突的结果,出生经验也是造成它的原因之一。每当产生强烈的破坏冲动,母亲及其乳房通过投射被感觉为具有破坏性,因此婴儿不可避免地会经验到某种不安全感,这种偏执的不安全感是孤独的根源之一。心理学空间6j {"n c'X l

C2b/ePi'Z-E0When the depressive position arises -- ordinarily in the middle of the first half of the first year of life -- the ego is already more integrated. This is expressed in a stronger sense of wholeness so that the infant is better able to relate itself to the mother, and later to other people, as a whole person. Then paranoid anxiety, as a factor in loneliness, increasingly gives way to depressive anxiety. But the actual process of integration brings in its train new problems, and I shall discuss some of these and their relation to loneliness.心理学空间*kFl5jY {!ZD

i5A0]0cbn;b;L0当抑郁心理位置升起(通常是在出生后三、四个月),自我已经较为整合,这表现在一种更强烈的整体感中,所以婴儿更能作为一个完整的人与母亲建立联结,后来是与其他人建立联结。然后偏执焦虑(作为孤独的一个因素)逐渐让位于抑郁焦虑。但是整合的实际过程带来一连串的新问题,我将讨论其中的一些问题以及它们与孤独的关系。

)h;IW yh!@[,T*V0

q#QN#R7h4FQV$N0One of the factors which stimulates integration is that the splitting processes by which the early ego attempts to counteract insecurity are never more than temporarily effective and the ego is driven to attempt to come to terms with the destructive impulses. This drive contributes towards the need for integration. For integration, if it could be achieved, would have the effect of mitigating hate by love and in this way rendering destructive impulses less powerful. The ego would then feel safer not only about its own survival but also about the preservation of its good object. This is one of the reasons why lack of integration is extremely painful.心理学空间I)D-M$I]Z

心理学空间4o R+i2T*N2xe

刺激整合的因素之一是:早期自我试图用来抵消不安全感的分裂过程,从不只是短暂地有效;自我被驱使着尝试接受破坏冲动。这种驱力就产生了整合的需要,因为如果可以达成整合的话,结果就能通过爱而缓和恨,这样就能减少破坏冲动。自我会觉得较为安全,不仅是在它自身的存活方面,还在好客体的保留方面。这就是为什么缺乏整合是极端痛苦的理由之一。心理学空间6\~D+F[)x

心理学空间c-J(W w? z4`j_6CR3n

However, integration is difficult to accept. The coming together of destructive and loving impulses, and of the good and bad aspects of the object, arouses the anxiety that destructive feelings may overwhelm the loving feelings and endanger the good object. Thus, there is conflict between seeking integration as a safeguard against destructive impulses and fearing integration lest the destructive impulses endanger the good object and the good parts of the self. 1 have heard patients express the painfulness of integration in terms of feeling lonely and deserted, through being completely alone with what to them was a bad part of the self. And the process becomes all the more painful when a harsh super-ego has engendered a very strong repression of destructive impulses and tries to maintain it.心理学空间kH3IL,P3f

:jx\ HW2v {0L5@0然而,整合是难以接受的。破坏冲动和爱的冲动、客体的好坏层面汇聚在一起,会引起焦虑,担心破坏的感觉会胜过爱的感觉,进而危害好客体。因此,在寻求整合(将整合当作抵制破坏冲动的防范措施)与恐惧整合(害怕整合会使破坏冲动危害好客体及自体好的部分)之间是有冲突的。我听过病人表达整合的痛苦,由于陪伴他们的只有他们自体坏的部分,他们感到孤单,觉得遭到抛弃。而当严厉的超我对破坏冲动产生一种非常强烈的压抑,并试图维持这种压抑时,这个过程会变得更加痛苦。心理学空间@w X/nc3}

2K2tKf.Z1~E0i*O0It is only step by step that integration can take place and the security achieved by it is liable to be disturbed under internal and external pressure; and this remains true throughout life. Full and permanent integration is never possible for some polarity between the life and death instincts always persists and remains the deepeat source of conflict. Since full intergration is never achieved, complete understanding and acceptance of one's own emotions, phantasies and anxieties is not possible and this continues as an important factor in loneliness. The longing to understand oneself is also bound up with the need to be understood by the internalized good object. One experssion of this longing is the universal phantasy of having a twin-- a phantasy to which Bion drew attention in an unpublished paper. This twin figure as he suggested, represents those un-understood and split off parts which the individual is longing to regain, in the hope of achieving wholeness and complete understanding; they are sometimes felt to be the ideal parts. At other times tb twin also represents an entirely reliable, in fact, idealized object.

3w5[+D9z/s#v0| K,G:p c:T0

uo S|c-`8Wb0整合的发生只能是一步一步地,但是由此达成的安全感,却很容易在内在和外在的压力下受到干扰,并且在整个一生当中都是这样。完全和永恒的整合永远都不可能,因为生本能和死本能之间的对立始终都存在着,且仍然是冲突的最深根源。由于完全的整合从未达成,所以不可能完全理解和接受自身的情绪、幻想和焦虑。这种状态会持续下去,它是孤独的一个重要因素。理解自己的渴望也和需要被内化的好客体理解密切相关。这种渴望的一种表达是想有一个双胞胎手足的普遍幻想——比昂(Bion)在一篇未发表的论文中注意到了这种幻想。他认为,这种双胞胎的形象代表那些不被理解和分裂开来的部分,这些部分是个体渴求重新获得的,以便达成一个整体,并获得完整理解;它们有时候被感觉为理想的部分,另一些时候,双胞胎也代表一个可以完全信任的,事实上是理想化的内在客体。

I&UXkt7g)k0心理学空间`-Gmi6h,f/V n

There is one further connection between loneliness and the problem of integration that needs consideration at this point. It is generally supposed that loneliness can derive from the conviction that there is no person or group to which one belongs. This not belonging can be seen to have a much deeper meaning. However much integration proceeds, it cannot do away with the feeling that certain components of the self are not available because they are split off and cannot bb regained. Some of these split-off parts, as I shall discuss in more detail later, are projected into other people, contributing to the feeling that one is not in full possession of one's self, that one does not fully belong to oneself or, therefore, to anybody else. The lost parts too, are felt to be lonely.心理学空间%_/V9GV q-vv

心理学空间0r"B2gHj]u,L_o w

孤独和整合的问题之间还有更进一步的联系,需要在此加以考虑。一般而言,人们认为孤独是源于自认为没有可以归属的人或群体。这种没有归属感,可以视为具有更深层的意义。无论有多少整合在进行,都不能排除一种感觉,即自体的某些成分是不可得的,因为它们被分裂出来,不可再得。分裂出来的一些部分被投射到其他人身上,造成一个人不是完全拥有自己的感觉,或者一个人不完全属于他自己,因此不完全属于其他任何人。那些丧失的部分,也会被感觉为是孤独的。关于这一点稍后我还要详加讨论。

*uVw{~&~0~/j7p0心理学空间kg0? [ DQt9uxT

I have already suggested that paranoid and depressive anxieties are never entirely overcome, even in people who are not ill, and are the foundation for some measure of loneliness. There are considerable individual differences in the way in which loneliness is experienced. When paranoid anxiety is relatively strong. though still within the range of normality, the relation to the internal good object is liable to be disturbed and trust in the good part of the self is impaired. As a consequence, there is an increased projection of paranoid feelings and suspicions on others, with a resulting sense of loneliness.心理学空间%H^/c$rr3?#D3`B*A

心理学空间*S2Y G&J*]B.vML

我已经提到,即使是在没有生病的人身上,偏执焦虑和抑郁焦虑也从未被完全克服,它们在某种程度上是孤独的基础。人们体验孤独的方式有相当的个体差异。当偏执焦虑相当强烈,即使仍在正常范围内,和内在好客体的关系也很容易被干扰,对自体好的部分的信任也受到损害,结果是,对偏执感的投射和对他人的怀疑增加了,从而造成孤独感。

g4@_X0|`'s0心理学空间 bMw!w(u+Z+~

In actual schizophrenic illness these factors are necessarily present but much exacerbated; the lack of integration which I have so far been discussing within the normal range, is now seen in its pathological form-indeed, all the features of the paranoid-schizoid position are present to an excessive degree.

3\@ c0b AO:j'v0

7a${vEm0在真正的精神分裂症病人中,这些因素必然存在,而且更加严重。到现在为止,我一直讨论的都是在正常范围内整合的缺乏,现在来看看它的病理学形式——实际上,就是偏执-分裂心理位置的所有特征都过度地呈现出来。

9@P"u GyIjD0

*ch k*u{Y%Qk+u0Before going on to discuss loneliness in the schizophrenic it is important to consider in more detail some of the processes of the paranoid-schizoid position, particularly splitting and projective identification. Projective identification is based on the splitting of the ego and the projection of parts of the self, into other people; first of all the mother or her breast. This projection derives from the oral-anal-urethral impulses, the parts of the self being omnipotently expelled in the bodily substances into the mother in order to control and take possession of her. She is not then felt to be a separate individual but an aspect of the self. If these excrements are expelled in hatred the mother is felt to be dangerous and hostile. But it is not only bad parts of the self that are split off and projected. but also good parts. Ordinarily, as 1 have discussed, as the ego develops, splitting and projection lessen and the ego becomes more integrated. If, however, the ego is very weak, which I consider to be an innate feature, and if there have been difficulties at birth and the beginning of life, the capacity to integrate-to bring together the split-off parts of the ego-is also weak, and there is in addition a greater tendency to split in order to avoid anxiety aroused by the destructive impulses directed against the self and external world. This incapacity to bear anxiety is thus of far-reaching importance. It not only increases the need to split the ego and object excessively, which can lead to a state of fragmentation, but also makes it impossible to work through the early anxieties.心理学空间m(tJ"Lr U,HA&n6U9T

心理学空间lP3R OT-q

在继续讨论精神分裂症中的孤独之前,更加详细的考虑偏执-分裂心理位置的某些过程是很重要的,特别是分裂和投射性认同。投射性认同是基于自我的分裂,以及自体的部分投射到他人身上,首先是母亲及其乳房。这种投射源于口腔-肛门-尿道的冲动,为了控制和占有母亲,自体的部分被彻底地排出,以身体的实质形式进入母亲。于是,母亲就不会被感觉是一个分离的个体,而是自体的一个方面。如果这些排泄物是在憎恨中被排出的,母亲就被感觉为危险和有敌意的。但是,被分裂出来并投射出去的不仅有自体坏的部分,也有好的部分。通常,就像我描述过的,随着自我的发展,分裂和投射减少,自我就会变得更加整合。然而,如果自我非常虚弱(我认为这是固有的特征),并且如果在出生时和生命开始时曾有一些困难,那么其整合能力(将自我分裂开的部分聚集在一起)也是虚弱的。此外,为了避免导向自体和外在世界的破坏冲动所唤起的焦虑,还会产生一种更强烈的分裂倾向。于是无法忍受这些焦虑就造成深远的影响。它不仅增加了过度分裂自体和客体的需要,也导致一种碎裂的状态,而且使修通这些早期焦虑成为不可能的事。

v$g&uMJV ]0

t0Jhs5D2~0In the schizophrenic we see the result of these unresolved processes . The schizophrenic feels that he is hopelessly in bits and that he will never be in possession of his self. The very fact that he is so fragmented results in his being unable to internalize his primal object (the mother) sufficiently as a good object and therefore in his lacking心理学空间:H0I3|PRK1r1~,v
the foundation of stability; he cannot rely on an external and internal good object, nor can he rely on his own self. This factor is bound up with loneliness, for it increases the feeling of the schizophrenic that he is left alone, as it wore, with his misery. The sense of being surrounded by a hostile world, which is characteristic of the paranoid aspect of schizophrenic illness, not only increases all his anxieties but vitally influences his feelings of loneliness.心理学空间c&j5g6D+|!`!S[(Jb

心理学空间Ls9`-p LpC

在精神分裂症中,我们看到整合过程中没有解决这些问题的结果。精神分裂症患者觉得自己无望地变成碎片,觉得自己永远无法拥有自体。自体碎裂的事实,导致他无法充分地将他的原初客体(母亲)内化成一个好客体,也导致他缺乏稳定性的基础:他无法依赖一个外在和内在的好客体,也无法依赖他的自体。这个因素和孤独密切相关,因为它增加了精神分裂症患者的这样一种感觉:觉得似乎只剩自己孤单一人承受苦难。感到被一个敌意的世界包围,这是精神分裂疾病在偏执方面的特征。这种感觉不仅增加了他所有的焦虑,而且也严重地影响他的孤独感。

i} [1I E1O2ZY G0心理学空间W)m9XR1?:H

Another factor which contributes to the loneliness of the schizophrenic is confusion. This is the result of a number of factors, particularly the fragmentation of the ego, and the excessive use of projective identification, so that he constantly feels himself not only to be in bits, but to be mixed up with other people. He is then unable to distinguish between the good and bad parts of the self, between the good and bad object, and between external and internal reality. The schizophrenic thus, cannot understand himself or trust himself. These factors allied with his paranoid distrust of others, result in a state of withdrawal which destroys his ability to make object relations and to gain from them the reassurance and pleasure which can counteract loneliness by strengthening the ego. He longs to be able to make relationships with people, but cannot.心理学空间)Ehqf F:[0M

心理学空间/{d,D{2|5k

另一个造成精神分裂症患者孤独感的因素是混乱。这是由多个因素所致,特别是自我的碎裂和投射性认同的过度使用,所以他持续地感觉到自己不仅处于碎片的状态,而且还和别人搅合在一起。于是他无法区分自体好的部分和坏的部分、好的客体和坏的客体、外在现实和内在现实。因此,精神分裂症患者无法理解自己或信任自己。这些因素与他偏执地不相信他人相结合,就产生一种退缩状态。这破坏了他形成客体关系的能力,以及他从别人身上获得安慰和愉悦的能力——而这些能力是可以通过强化自我,消减孤独的。他渴望与他人建立关系,却不可得。心理学空间 p.~IO,KU2Zh:p VM

心理学空间,y h5u8B*V|pQ

It is important not to underrate the schizophrenic's pain and suffering. They are not so easily detected because of his constant defensive use of withdrawal and the distraction of his emotions.Nevertheless, I and some of my colleagues, of whom I shall only mention Dr Davidson, Dr Rosenfeld and Dr Hanna Segal, who have, treated or are treating schizophrenics, retain some optimism about the outcome. This optimism is based on the fact that there is an urge towards integration, even in such ill people, and that there is a relation, however undeveloped, to the good object and the good self.

wRo$jo @4}-{R0心理学空间4v(N5t._NJ\

不要低估精神分裂症患者的痛苦和苦难,这一点非常重要。因为他们经常防御性地使用退缩和情绪分散,所以不是很容易能觉察到自己的痛苦。然而,我和我的一些同事对治疗结果仍然保持某种乐观,这里我只提出其中的戴维森医生(Dr. Davidson)、罗森菲尔德医生和汉娜•西格尔医生,他们都曾经治疗和正在治疗一些精神分裂症患者。这种乐观是基于下面的事实: 即使是这类患者,仍然有一种朝向整合的冲动,而且不论发展有多么不充分,他们也都有一种与好客体和好自体的关系。心理学空间)k ?a_}Y(rS*um

B*|vtw*v m3B0I now wish to deal with the loneliness characteristic of a prevalence of depressive anxiety, first of all within the range of normality. I have often referred to the fact that early emotional life is characterized by the recurrent experiences of losing and regaining. Whenever the mother is not present, she may be felt by the infant to be lost, either because she is injured or because she has turned into I persecutor. The feeling that she is lost is equivalent to the fear of her death. Owing to introjection, the death of the external mother means the loss of the internal good object as well, and this reinforces the infant's fear of his own death. These anxieties and emotions a heightened at the stage of the depressive position, but throughout life the fear of death plays a part in loneliness.

*q5z.b:S&q"?!Q&?a0

2k[ n~O'D(W0现在,我首先想在正常范围内,来处理抑郁焦虑中的孤独的普遍特质。我常提到一个事实:早期的情绪生活是以丧失和失而复得的重复经验为特征的。每当母亲不在场,婴儿可能就会觉得失去了她,要么是因为她受伤了,要么她已经转变成一个迫害者。这种失去她的感觉等同于恐惧她的死亡。由于内摄的原因,外在母亲的死亡也意味着内在好客体的丧失,而这又增强了婴儿对自身死亡的害怕。在抑郁心理位置阶段,这些焦虑和情绪有所提高,但是在人的一生中,对死亡的恐惧都在孤独中扮演着重要的角色。心理学空间w7hb~.Y@UB(Hb X%]

心理学空间4w)v4ZK;}

I have already suggested that the pain which accompanies processes of integration also contributes to loneliness. For it means facing one's destructive impulses and hated parts of the self, which at times appear uncontrollable and which therefore endanger the good object. With integration and a growing sense of reality, omnipotence is bound to be lessoned, and this again contributes to the pain of integration, for it means a diminished capacity for hope,While there are other sources of hopefulness which derive from the strength of the ego and from trust in oneself and others, an element of omnipotence is always part of it.心理学空间ho L[+q'DxZ

心理学空间7PU'H:dx5YN_

我已经提过,伴随整合过程所产生的痛苦,也造成了孤独,因为它意味着面对一个人的破坏冲动和自体憎恨的部分,这些部分有时候似乎无法控制,因此会危害好客体。随着整合渐增的现实感,全能感势必会减弱,这再度造成整合的痛苦,因为它意味着希望的能力降低了。虽然希望有其他来源——源于自我的力量及对自己和他人的信任,但全能感总是希望的一个成分。

aJln3w K@:\ ^ A U0

"zeg8b.e2?X[0Integration also means losing some of the idealization -- both of the object and of a part of the self -- which has from the beginning coloured the relation to the good object. The realization that the good object can never approximate to the perfection expected from the ideal one brings about dc-idealization: and even more painful is the realization that no really ideal part of the self exists. In my experience, the need for idealization is never fully given up, even though in normal development the facing of internal and external reality tends to diminish it. As a patient put it to me, while admitting the relief obtained from some steps in integration, 'the glamour has gonc'. The analysis showed that the glamour which had gone was the idealization of the self and of the object, and the loss of it led to feelings of loneliness.心理学空间 FRE1^4Y

E^(}U m y(k0整合也意味着某些理想化(对客体和对自体一部分的理想化)的丧失。理想化从一开始就粉饰了和好客体的关系。当认识到好客体永远无法拥有近似于理想化客体的完美特质,便产生了去理想化(de-idealization),更加痛苦的是,认识到自己的理想部分是不存在的。从我的经验来看,虽然在正常的发展中,面对内在现实和外在现实,会倾向于减弱对理想化的需要,但是它从来没有被完全放弃。正如一名病人对我所说的,当接纳由整合中的某些步骤所得到的释放时,“令人心荡神驰的魔力就消失了”。分析显示,那已经消失的魔力,是对自体和客体的理想化,而失去它就导致了孤独的感觉。

Xu P]W.h#w$I _0心理学空间E@ P0m$U:E_8U!a

Some of these factors enter in a greater degree into the mental processes characteristic of manic-depressive illness. The manic-depressive patient has already made some steps towards the depressive position, that is to say, he experiences the object more as a whole, and his feelings of guilt, though still bound up with paranoid mechanisms, are stronger and less evanescent. More, therefore, than the schizophrenic, he feels the longing to have the good object safely inside to preserve it and protect it. But this he feels unable to do since, at the same time, he has not sufficiently worked through the depressive position, so that his capacity for making reparation, for synthesizing the good object, and achieving integration of the ego, have not sufficiently progressed. In so far as, in his relation to his good object, there is still a great deal of hatred and, therefore, fear, he is unable sufficiently to make reparation to it, therefore his relation to it brings no relief but only a feeling of being unloved, and hated, and again and again he feels that it is endangered by his destructive impulses. The longing to be able to overcome all these difficulties in relation to the good object is part of the feeling of loneliness. In extreme cases this expresses itself in the tendency towards suicide.

1Zn I]EJ_0

0S @,M'z*J0在这些因素中,有一些因素在更大程度上参与到了躁郁症所特有的那些心理过程中。躁郁症病人已经开始迈向抑郁心理位置,也就是说,他更能将客体经验为一个整体,而他的罪疚感尽管仍和偏执机制有关,却是较强烈和较不容易消失的。因此,较之精神分裂症患者,他会更加感觉到一种渴求——即想要内在安全地拥有好客体,来保存它,保护它。但是,他感觉自己无法做到这一点,因为同时,他并未充分地修通抑郁心理位置,所以它修复、合成好客体和达成自我整合的能力并未得到充分的发展。在这样的状况下,在他和好客体的关系中,仍然有大量的恨,因此他害怕无法充分修复它,他和它的关系带来的不是释放,而是一种不被爱、甚至被恨的感觉。一次又一次的地,他觉得好客体受到自己破坏冲动的威胁。个体渴求克服所有这些和好客体有关的困难。这是孤独感的一部分。在极端的情况下,这一点会表现为自杀倾向。心理学空间$m5vc ^*mvU&p

心理学空间*_8?\kZ Q0g~)AS

In external relations similar processes are at work. The manic-depressive can only at times, and very temporarily, get relief from a relation with a well-meaning person, since, as he quickly projects his own hate, resentment, envy and fear, he is constantly full of distrust. In other words, his paranoid anxieties are still very strong. The felling of loneliness of the manic-depressive centres, therefore, more on his incapacity to keep an inner and external companionship with good object and less on his being in bits.心理学空间 s w/pm1Q(l~(V4r;F {F

心理学空间@Q4@xf8MQ

在外在的关系中,类似的过程也运作着。躁郁症病人只能在有的时候且非常短暂地从和一个好心人的关系中得到释放。由于他会很快将自身的憎恨、愤恨、嫉羡和恐惧投射出去,因此他经常充满不信任。换言之,他的偏执焦虑仍然非常强烈。因此,躁郁症病人的孤独感,更多地集中在他无法与好客体保持一种内在和外在的陪伴,而较少地集中在他的碎片状态。

;G1U Nm(J rVZ0心理学空间O(mHQr Z\

I shall discuss some further difficulties in integration and shall deal particularly with the conflict between male and female elements in both sexes. We know that there is a biological factor in bi-sexuality, but I am concerned here with the psychological aspect. In women there is universally the wish to be a man, expressed perhaps most clearly in terms of penis envy; similarly, one finds in men the feminine position, the longing to possess breasts and to give birth to children. Such wishes are bound up with an identification with both parents and are accompanied by feelings of competitiveness and envy, as well as admiration of the coveted possessions. These identifications vary in strength and also in quality, depending on whether admiration or envy is the more prevalent. Part of the desire for integration in the young child is the urge to integrate these different aspects of the personality. In addition, the super-ego makes the conflicting demand for identification with both parents, prompted by the need to make reparation for early desires to rob each of them and expressing the wish to keep them alive internally. If the element of guilt is predominant it will hamper the integration of these identifications. If, however, these identifications are satisfactorily achieved they become a source of enrichment and a basis for the development of a variety of gifts and capacities.

D d.f [~#_o0

@+yWlU0我将讨论在整合过程中一些更深层的困难,特别是处理男女两性身上男性和女性要素之间的冲突。我们知道双性特质中有一种生物上的因素,但是我在这里所关心的是心理层面。在女性身上,有一种普遍的愿望是要成为男人。也许将这一愿望表达得最清楚的是阴茎嫉羡的说法。同样,在男性身上也发现有女性心理位置——即拥有乳房和生小孩的渴望。这样的一些愿望和对父母双方的认同有关,伴随着竞争和嫉羡的感觉,以及对所觊觎的东西的欣赏之情。这些认同在强度及质量上都有差异,取决于欣赏和嫉羡哪个更占优势。因而儿童身上整合欲望的一部分,是整合人格这些不同层面的欲望。除此之外,超我还提出自相矛盾的要求——即同时认同父母双方。而这一要求是因为早期抢夺父母双方的欲望导致后来想要修复他们二人的欲望,表达了想要于内在保留父母二人的愿望。如果罪疚感的元素居于主导地位,将会阻挠这些认同的整合,然而,如果令人满意地达成了这些认同,它们将成为丰富人生的源泉,以及不同才能和能力发展的基础。心理学空间 h L;t$WhS5?mM

;y!`d~*^3@#h0In order to illustrate the difficulties of this particular aspect or integration and its relation to loneliness, I shall quote the dream of a male patient. A little girl was playing with a lioness and holding out a hoop for her to jump through, but on the other side of the hoop was a precipice. The lioness obeyed and was killed in the process. At the same time, a little boy was killing a snake. The patient himself recognized, since similar material had come up previously, that the little girl stood for his feminine part and the little boy for his masculine part. The lioness had a strong link with myself in the transference, of which I shall only give one instance. The little girl had a cat with her and this led to associations to my cat, which often stood for me. It was extremely painful to the patient to become aware that, being in competition with my femininity, he wanted to destroy me, and in the past, his mother. This recognition that one part of himself wanted to kill the loved lioness-analyst, which would thus deprive him of his good object, led to a feeling not only of misery and guilt but also of loneliness in the transference. It was also very distressing for him to recognize that the competition with his father led him to destroy the father's potency and penis, represented by the snake.

'Nv)L"r$@(o9{@A0心理学空间~#nY%m%{qI mx

为了阐释整合在这个特殊层面的困难,及其与孤独的关系,我将引用一个男病人的梦。一个小女孩正在和一头母狮子玩,并且拿着一个铁环让母狮子跳过去,但是铁环的另一边是悬崖绝壁,这头母狮子服从了,并且在这个过程中被杀死。同时,一个小男孩正在杀一条蛇。因为相同的素材之前曾经出现过,病人自己确认这个小女孩代表她的女性部分,而小男孩代表他的男性部分。在移情情境中,母狮子和我有很强的关联。针对这一点,我想举一个例子:小女孩有一只猫,这让人联想到我的猫,而我的猫通常代表我。由于他和我的女性特质处于竞争之中,他想摧毁我,而在过去是想摧毁他的母亲。认识到这些对病人而言是极其痛苦的。他认识到自己的一部分想要杀死所爱的母狮子——分析师,这将剥夺他的好客体。这种认识所导致的不只是痛苦和罪疚的感觉,还有在移情中的孤独感。他还认识到和父亲的竞争导致让他摧毁父亲的潜能和阴茎(以蛇为表征),这也让他非常心痛。心理学空间4\|w|-WoA+Z

\4U]4[ ]8p/]0i0This material led to further and very painful work about integration. The dream of the lioness which I have mentioned was preceded by a dream in which a woman committed suicide by throwing her self from a very high building, and the patient, contrary to his usual attitude, experienced no horror. The analysis which was, at that time, very much occupied with his difficulty over the feminine position, which was then at its height, showed that the woman represented his feminine part and that he really wished it to be destroyed. He felt that not only would it injure his relation to women, but would also damage his masculinity and all its constructive tendencies, including reparation to the mother, which became clear in relation to myself. This attitude of putting all his envy and competitiveness into his feminine part turned out to be one way of splitting, and at the same time seemed to overshadow his very great admiration and regard for femininity. Moreover, it became clear that while he felt masculine aggression to be comparatively open and, therefore, more honest, he attributed to the feminine side envy and deception, and since he very much loathed all insincerity and dishonesty, this contributed to his difficulties in integration.

3g1~3l3_:igA0

yY LU(?7xP ^0这个材料指向非常痛苦的进一步的整合工作。在我所提的母狮子梦之前,是另一个梦,梦中一个女人从一栋很高的建筑往下跳,自杀了,而病人一点儿也不惊骇,这和他往常的态度相反。在当时,分析的主要内容都是他在女性心理位置上的困难,当时女性心理位置正处于高峰,梦中的女人代表他的女性部分,以及他真的想让这部分被摧毁的愿望。他觉得这部分不只会伤害他和女性的关系,也会损伤他的男性特质和所有建设性的倾向,包括对母亲的修复,这点在对我的关系中变得清楚。这种将所有的嫉羡和竞争放入他的女性部分的态度,就变成了一种分裂的方式,同时似乎掩盖了他对女性特质极大的欣赏和尊重。此外,非常清楚的是,他一方面觉得男性的攻击性相对更开放,因而也更诚实,另一方面他将嫉羡和欺骗都归诸于女性一方。由于他非常厌恶一切虚伪和不诚信,这就造成了他在整合上的困难。

+z OZ~o7zp0心理学空间Gq;j"Y!q

The analysis of these attitudes, going back to his earliest feelings of envy towards the mother led to a much better integration of both the feminine and masculine parts of his personality and to the diminution of envy in both the masculine and feminine role. This increased his competence in his relationships and thus helped to combat a sense of loneliness.

Gj5fT8@-N@-@&H0

mu*[#f n3d+Y0对这些态度的分析,追溯到他对母亲最早的嫉羡,导致他人格中女性和男性的部分有一种更好的整合,也导致在男性和女性两种角色中嫉羡的减少。这增加了他在关系中的胜任感,因此有助于对抗孤独感。

eQZ!KI9CAs"z0心理学空间[.V2X%Zbn1B

I shall now give another instance, from the analysis of a patient, a man who was not unhappy or ill, and who was successful in his work and in his relationships. He was aware that he had always felt lonely as a child and that this feeling of loneliness had never entirely gone. Love of nature had been a significant feature in this patient's sublimations. Even from earliest childhood he found comfort and satisfaction in being out of doors. In one session he described his enjoyment of a journey which led him through hilly country and then the revulsion he felt when he entered the town. I interpreted as I had done previously, that to him nature represented not only beauty, but also goodness, actually the good object that he had taken into himself. He replied after a pause that he felt that was true, but that nature was not only good because there is always much aggression in it. In the same way, he added, his own relation to the countryside was also not wholly good, instancing how as a boy, he used to rob nests, while at the same time he had always wanted to grow things. He said that in loving nature he had actually, as he put it, 'taken in an integrated object'.心理学空间wv:F}2U0`g

心理学空间@ |P9Ef5^!kQ0h

现在我举另一个例子,来自对一个病人的分析。他是一个并非不快乐也没有生病的男人,不论是在工作和关系中都相当成功。他觉察到自己总是感到像个孩子般的孤独,这种孤独感从来没有完全消失过。热爱大自然在这个病人的升华中是一个重要的特征,甚至从最早的童年时期开始,到了户外他就会找到抚慰和满足。在一次会谈中,他描述了在一趟旅程中穿过丘陵地带时的愉悦,之后当他进入城市却觉得反感。我像之前一样这样解释:对他而言,自然代表的不只是美丽,更是美好,事实上是他纳入自己之中的好客体。在一阵停顿之后他回答,他觉得确实如此,但是又表示自然不只是美好,因为总有许多攻击在其中。同样地,他补充说,他自身与乡村的关系也不是完全美好的。并举例说,当他是一个小男孩时,他常去掏鸟窝,但同时他又总是想要种点东西。他说,在对大自然的热爱中,他实际上,如他所言, “纳入了一个整合的客体”。

0UBQ @ A'La0心理学空间&b\ P(K8u]]s)e

In order to understand how the patient had overcome his loneliness in relation to the countryside, while still experiencing it in connection  with the town, we have to follow up some of his associations referring both to his childhood and to nature. He had told me that he was supposed to have been a happy baby, well fed by his mother; and much material-particularly in the transference situation-sup-ported this assumption. He had soon become aware of his worries about his mother's health, and also his resentment about her rather disciplinarian attitude. In spite of this his relation to her was in many ways happy, and he remained fond of her; but he felt himself hemmed in at home and was aware of an urgent longing to be out of doors. He seemed to have developed a very early admiration for the beauties of nature; and as soon as he could get more freedom to be out of doors, this became his greatest pleasure. He described how he, together with other boys, used to spend his free time wandering in the woods and fields. He confessed to some aggression in connection with nature, such as robbing nests and damaging hedges. At the same time he was convinced that such damage would not be lasting because nature always repaired itself. Nature he regarded as rich and invulnerable, in striking contrast to his attitude towards his mother. The relation to nature seemed to be relatively free from guilt, whereas in his relation to his mother for whose frailty he felt responsible for unconscious reasons, there was a great deal of guilt.心理学空间_I4DA1m` ?

hs`s9j+d)s_E0为了理解病人如何在与乡村的关系中克服了它的孤独,可是在与城镇的联系中又体验到孤独,我们必须考察某些他关于童年时期和大自然的联想。他告诉我,他应该是一个快乐的婴儿,受到母亲很好的喂养。有许多材料——特别是在移情的情境中——都支持这样的假设。他很快便意识到他对母亲健康感到担忧,也知道他对母亲纪律严明的态度感到愤恨。尽管如此,他和母亲的关系在很多方面都是愉快的。他仍然喜欢她。但是他觉得自己在家里是受到约束的,并且觉察到一种去户外的迫切渴求。他似乎很早就发展出对大自然之美的欣赏,一旦他有更多的自由到户外,这就会变成他最大的快乐。他描述自己以前和其他男孩有空闲时在树林和原野中游荡,也坦承有一些对大自然的攻击,比如掏鸟巢和破坏篱笆。同时,他相信这类损伤不会持久,因为大自然总是会自我修复。它将大自然视为富饶和不易受伤的,这与他对母亲的态度形成强烈的对比。和大自然的关系似乎相对地没有罪疚感,而在他与母亲的关系中,出于一些无意识的理由,他觉得自己要为母亲的脆弱负责任,因而存在大量的罪疚感。

+fTJdV2@CZf0

GR4b$i*Oht#y0From his material I was able to conclude that he had to some extent introjected the mother as a good object and had been able to achieve a measure of synthesis between his loving and hostile feelings towards her. He also reached a fair level of integration but this was disturbed by persecutory and depressive anxiety in relation to his parents. The relation to the father had been very important for his development, but it does not enter into this particular piece of material.心理学空间7L _{,U2_9_/P5}*H-wEY

a8|-q _QiN.l9P{0从他的材料中,我可以得出结论:他在某种程度上内摄母亲为一个好客体,在对她的爱和敌意之间可以达到一定的合成。他同样也达到相当的整合水平,但是这受到他和父母关系中的被害焦虑和抑郁关系的干扰。对他的发展而言,他与父亲的关系非常重要,但是这并未进入这个特殊的素材片段中。

Y J^a\$a K3F0

%m F(AX dyX#Z4K;to0I have referred to this patient's obsessional need to be out of doors, and this was linked with his claustrophobia. Claustrophobia, as I have elsewhere suggested, derives from two main sources: projective identification into the mother leading to an anxiety of imprisonment inside her; and reintrojection resulting in a feeling that inside oneself one is hemmed in by resentful internal objects. With regard to this patient, I would conclude that his flight into nature was a defense against both these anxiety-situations. In a sense his love for nature was split off from his relation to his mother; his de-idealization of the latter having led to his transferring his idealization on to nature. In connection with home and mother he felt very lonely, and it was this sense of loneliness which was at the root of his revulsion against town. The freedom and enjoyment which nature gave him were not only a source of pleasure, derived from a strong sense of beauty and linked with appreciation of art, but also a means of counteracting the fundamental lone1iness which had never entirely gone.

8n1aC cT OhZ0心理学空间&R7u y3BXE? y

我已经提过这个病人想要出门的强迫需要,这和他的幽闭恐惧症(Claustrophobia)有关。正如我在其他地方说过的,幽闭恐惧症有两个主要来源:一是对母亲的投射性认同,这导致了被幽禁在她里面的焦虑;二是重新内摄,导致一种被怨恨的内在客体包围在自己内部的感觉。关于这个病人,我的结论是:他逃入大自然是对这两种焦虑情境的防御。在某种程度上,他对大自然的爱,从他与母亲的关系中被分裂开来。他对母亲的去理想化,导致他转移其理想化到大自然上面。与家庭和母亲的关系让他觉得非常孤独,这种孤独的感受,正是他对城镇反感的根源。大自然所带给他的自由和享受不只是愉悦的一个来源(这种快乐源于对美的强烈感受,并且联系着对艺术的欣赏),也是对从未完全消失的根本孤独的反抗。

TYR^rH+AEK0心理学空间,^,cq$lt#Qz

In another session the patient reported a feeling of guilt that on a trip into the country he had caught a field-mouse and put it in a box in the boot of his car, as a present for his young child who, he thought, would enjoy having this creature as a pet. The patient forgot about the mouse, remembering it only a day later. He made unsuccessful efforts to find it because it had eaten its way out of the box and hidden itself in the farthest corner of the boot where it was out of reach. Eventually, after renewed efforts to get hold of it, he found that it had died. The patient's guilt about having forgotten the field. mouse and thus caused its death led in the course of subsequent sessions to associations about dead people for whose death he felt to some extent responsible though not for rational reasons.心理学空间a!Bq @$k-]s

%@8G ^'O$ag0在另一次会谈中,这个病人报告了一种罪疚感。在一次去乡村的旅途中,他捉到一只田鼠,并且把它放在汽车后备箱的一个盒子中,要当作送给他孩子的礼物。他想孩子会很高兴有这只小动物作为宠物。但是后来他忘了这只田鼠,想起来已经是一天以后了。他努力去找,却找不到它,因为它已经咬破盒子跑了出来,藏在后备箱无法触及的最偏远角落处。终于,他再次努力捉住它之后,发现它已经死了。病人对忘记这只田鼠而造成它死亡的罪疚感,导致他在后续会谈中关联到一些死去的人。他觉得自己在某种程度上对这些人的死亡负有责任,尽管没有理性的原因。心理学空间$`Kw-g'x&T;Zq%A'[

心理学空间t8|-LI Z1k/|

In the subsequent sessions there was a wealth of associations to the field-mouse which appeared to playa number of roles; it stood for a split-off part of himself, lonely and deprived. By identification with his child he moreover felt deprived of a potential companion. A number of associations showed that throughout childhood the patient had longed for a playmate of his own age-a longing that went beyond the actual need for external companions and was the result of feeling that split-off parts of his self could not be regained. The field-mouse also stood for his good object, which he had enclosed in his inside-represented by the car-and about which he felt guilty and also feared that it might turn retaliatory. One of his other associations, referring to neglect, was that the field-mouse also stood for a neglected woman. This association came after a holiday and implied that not only had he been left alone by the analyst but that the analyst had been neglected and lonely. The link with similar feelings towards his mother became clear in the material, as did the conclusion that he contained a dead or lonely object, which increased his loneliness.

CO*Y6\z6h X `0心理学空间\ e['j?)JIc`;C

在后续的会谈中,他对田鼠有许多的关联。田鼠似乎扮演着好几个角色。田鼠代表着病人自己一个分裂开来的部分——孤独的和被剥夺的部分。通过认同于他的孩子,他更加觉得被剥夺了一个潜在的同伴。许多关联分析显示,在整个童年时期,病人都渴望有一个同龄的玩伴——这种渴望超越了对外在同伴的实际需要,是感觉无法再次获得自体分裂开来的部分的结果。田鼠也代表他的好客体,病人将它藏在他的内部(由车子所代表)。他对田鼠怀着罪疚感,也害怕它会报复。他的其他关联分析还和疏忽有关,田鼠也代表一个被忽视的女人。这个联想是在一次假期后出现的,这不仅意味着他被分析师孤独地留下来,也意味着分析师也是被忽略和孤独的。和他母亲有关的类似感觉在材料中变得清晰起来,如同所下的结论:他包含着一个死去的或孤独的客体,这增加了他的孤独。

Pc3k4UHyj0

2k'g K6rK#Y*wuW0This patient's material supports my contention that there is a link between loneliness and the incapacity sufficiently to integrate the good object as well as parts of the self which are felt to be inaccessible.

.N:_OU%W1D9O,oo,l WX0

#qiq(W/^s(`TF0这个病人的材料支持了我的观点,孤独与无法充分整合好客体,以及自己那些感觉无法触及的部分有关。

,k2S)[4i |0q Pj9tK0心理学空间Y C.T'F#\"U ] gY

I shall now go on to examine more closely the factors which normally mitigate loneliness. The relatively secure internalization of the good breast is characteristic of some innate strength of the ego. A strong ego is less liable to fragmentation and therefore more capable of achieving a measure of integration and a good early relation to the primal object. Further, a successful internalization of Ihc good object is the root of an identification with it which strengthens the feeling of goodness and trust both in the object and in the self. This identification with the good object mitigates the destructive impulses and in this way also diminishes the harshness of the super-ego. A milder super-ego makes less stringent demands on the ego; this leads to tolerance and to the ability to bear deficiencies in loved objects without impairing the relation to them,A decrease in omnipotence, which comes about with progress in integration and leads to some loss of hopefulness, yet makes possible a distinction between the destructive impulses and their effects; therefore aggressiveness and hate are felt to be less dangerous. This greater adaptation to reality leads to an acceptance of one's own shortcomings and in consequence lessens the sense of resentment about past frustrations. It also opens up sources of enjoyment emanating from the external world and is thus another factor which diminishes loneliness.

$`2`;}}J%T-D,B*C4d @0

LVUA9Xzu0现在,我要继续更仔细地考察那些通常可以减缓孤独的因素。好乳房相对安全的内化,是自我的某些天生力量的特征。一个强大的自我比较不容易碎裂,因此更能达到一定程度的整合,也更能与原初客体建立良好的早期关系。此外,好客体的成功内化是对它产生认同的根源,这种认同强化了对客体和自体美好和信任的感觉,减缓了破坏冲动,同样也减轻了超我的严厉性。一个比较温和的超我,对自我的要求没有那么严厉,这使他能容忍且有能力承受所爱客体的缺陷,而不致损伤和这些所爱客体的关系。随着整合的进展,全能感降低,并且导致一些希望感的丧失,然而全能感降低却使破坏冲动及其影响之间的区分成为可能,因此不再觉得攻击性和憎恨有那么危险。这种对现实更大的适应性导致能接受一个人自身的缺点,结果是个体对过去挫折的愤恨感减轻了。它还打开了源于外在世界的享受的来源,这也是降低孤独感的另一个因素。

!oSk0F"st#W2D0心理学空间,or7\9|!Fg ~Co UU

A happy relation to the first object and a successful internalization of it means that love can be given and received. As a result the infant can experience enjoyment not only at times of feeding but also in response to the mother's presence and affection. Memories of such happy experiences are a stand-by for the young child when he feels frustrated, because they are bound up with the hope of further happy times. Moreover, there is a close link between enjoyment and the feeling of understanding and being understood. At the moment of enjoyment anxiety is assuaged and the closeness to the mother and trust in her are uppermost. Introjective and projective identification, when not excessive, play an important part in this feeling of closeness, for they underlie the capacity to understand and contribute, to the experience of being understood.心理学空间6@-B|T2c~ A

"PA4`_o `#u{0婴儿和第一客体的愉快关系和对它的成功内化,意味着爱可以被给予和接受,结果是,不仅在喂食的时候,而且在回应母亲的在场和情感时,婴儿都能体验到享受。对儿童来说,这类快乐经验的记忆是挫折时的一种依靠,因为它们紧紧联系着对更多快乐时光的希望。此外,在享受及感到理解和被理解之间有一种紧密的联系。在享受的时候,焦虑得到缓和,而与母亲的亲密感及对她的信任也达到了最高点。内摄性和投射性认同如果没有过度,同样在亲密感中扮演重要的角色,因为它们是构成理解能力的基础,也是促成被理解经验的原因之一。心理学空间0g;j,t6pa-ds7L8V

心理学空间^Qt2lUfl7E2L%H p

Enjoyment is always bound up with gratitude; if this gratitude is deeply felt it includes the wish to return goodness received and is thus the basis of generosity. There is always a close connection between being able to accept and to give, and both are part of the, relation to the good object and therefore counteract loneliness, Furthermore, the feeling of generosity underlies creativeness, and this applies to the infant's most primitive constructive activities as well as to the creativeness of the adult.

`.O(nE6f"be L0心理学空间s ZB cp*n

享受总是和感恩密切相关。如果深深地感受到这种感恩,它包含着想要回报所接受的美好的愿望,于是感恩成为慷慨的基础。能够接受和能够给予之间总是有密切的联系,两者都是与好客体关系的一部分,因此能够对抗孤独。而且,慷慨的感觉构成了创造力的基础,这既适用于婴儿最原初的建设性活动,也适用于成人的创造力。心理学空间3^\u$P r1r

心理学空间:hhsk%T C

The capacity for enjoyment is also the precondition for a measure of resignation which allows for pleasure in what is available without too much greed for inaccessible gratifications and without excessive resentment about frustration. Such adaptation can already be observed in some young infants. Resignation is bound up with tolerance and with the feeling that destructive impulses will not overwhelm love, and that therefore goodness and life may be preserved.

m9Q3uS;m0

$N1D y%V L6k0享受的能力也是一定程度的顺从的前提。顺从表示接受可以触及的愉悦,而对无法触及的满足不过于贪婪,也不对挫折产生过度的愤恨。这种适应已经可以在一些幼儿身上观察到。顺从和容忍有关,也和觉得破坏冲动不会淹没爱有关,因此美好和生命可以被保留下来。

!s4{%xEjj`0

X%FC7t j%a Zz0A child who, in spite of some envy and jealollsy, can identify himself with the pleasures and gratifications of members of his family circle, will be able to do so in relation to other people in late life,In old age he will then be able to reverse , the early situation and identify himself with the satisfactions of youth. This is only possible if there is gratitude for past pleasures without too much resentment because they are no longer available.心理学空间U0M-X.Ltdx

心理学空间*?'Lg,}1]G7h

尽管感到有些嫉羡和嫉妒,如果一个孩子能够认同家族成员的愉悦和满足,那么他也能够在后来的生命中在与其他人的关系中这样做。从而在年老时,他将可以逆转早期的情境,认同年轻人的满足。但是,只有在感恩过去的愉悦,不因为它们不再可及而怀有太多愤恨时,这才有可能。心理学空间7J)M7F H'_%L q

!jb:a ~F9V d0All the factors in development which I have touched upon, though they mitigate the sense of loneliness, never entirely eliminate it; therefore they are liable to be used as defences. When these defences are very powerful and dovetail successfully, loneliness may often not be consciously experienced. Some infants use extreme dependence on the mother as a defence against loneliness, and the need for dependence remains as a pattern throughout life. On the other hand, the flight to the internal object, which can be expressed in early infancy in hallucinatory gratification, is often used defensively in an attempt to counteract dependence on the external object. In some adults this attitude leads to a rejection of any companionship, which in extreme cases is a symptom of illness.

rL/_b[0

i$mx d4x3c0我提到的所有这些发展中的因素,虽然它们缓和了孤独感,但是永远无法完全消除它,因此它们易于被用作防御。当这些防御非常强大并切合所需,孤独就可能不会在意识的层面被体验到。有些婴儿将极度依赖母亲作为对孤独的防御,对依赖的需要将持续一生,成为一种模式。另一方面,逃向内在客体(这在婴儿早期是以幻觉性满足的方式表达出来的)也经常被防御性地使用,试图以此来抵制对外在客体的依赖。在某些成人身上,这种态度导致拒绝任何陪伴,在极端的状况下,这就成为疾病的一种症状。心理学空间Kb BJj'\(n

lY/s @F-ya*\0The urge towards independence, which is part of maturation, can be used defensively for the purpose of overcoming loneliness. A lessening of dependence on the object makes the individual less vulnerable and also counteracts the need for excessive internal and external closeness to loved people.心理学空间(G/['@ BE(K^T

心理学空间]7FKL.S }S?{Dv

渴望独立是成熟的一部分,但是为了克服孤独,它也会被防御性地使用。减少对客体的依赖会使个体不那么脆弱,也削弱了对所爱之人内在和外在过度亲密感的需要。心理学空间 s^B,ebL(I

&qp8M+bZv"EKz0Another defence, particularly in old age, is the preoccupation with the past in order to avoid the frustrations of the present. Some idealization of the past is bound to enter into these memories and is put into the service of defence. In young people, idealization of the future serves a similar purpose. Some measure of idealization of people and causes is a normal defence and is part of the search for idealized inner objects which is projected on to the external world.

A3DP4sI#\/Y0

!T2N~&|U U QL!v0另一种防御,特别是在老年期,是沉溺于过去以避免现在的挫折,对过去的某些理想化势必进入这些记忆,作为防御之用。在年轻人中,对未来的理想化也有类似的用途。对人物和事业在某种程度上的理想化是一种正常的防御,也是寻找被投射到外在世界的理想化内在客体的一部分。心理学空间$oF'Kj#Lh.a

J V _v+kU0Appreciation by others and success-originally the infantile need to be appreciated by the mother-can be used defensively against loneliness. But this method becomes very insecure if it is used excessively since trust in oneself is then not sufficiently established. Another defence, bound up with omnipotence and part of manic defence, is a particular use of the capacity to wait for what is desired; this may lead to over-optimism and a lack of drive and may be linked with a defective sense of reality.

RaG)c i]-CM0

cpD,b&F:^0被他人赏识和自己的成功(起初是婴儿被母亲赏识的需要),都可以被防御性地用来对抗孤独。但是如果过度使用这个方式,它就变得非常不安全,因为对自己的信任那时并未充分建立起来。另一种防御和全能感及某些躁狂防御有关,就是等待渴求之物的能力的特殊用法,这可能会导致过度乐观和缺乏动力,并与现实不完美的感觉有关。心理学空间q,V SY.K8S:ZD

"aa!b9P&{j)r6kS0The denial of loneliness, which is frequently used as a defence, is likely to interfere with good object relations, in contrast to an attitude Ir. which loneliness is actually experienced and becomes a stimulus towards object relations.

!o3i i,t3z O Yo_0心理学空间)i!C$?3hq1tPn,[:]{-?

对孤独的否认,经常被作为一种防御,很容易干扰好的客体关系。与之相反的是实际经验到孤独并将孤独当作步入客体关系的一种刺激。

8J m.}4Q1~$C0心理学空间+x,Y!U],jZ9Y

Finally, I want to indicate why it is so difficult to evaluate the balance between internal and external influences in the causation of loneliness I have so far in this paper dealt mainly with internal aspects -- but these do not exist invacuo. There is a constant interaction between internal and external factors in mental life, based on the processes of projection and introjection which initiate object relations.心理学空间Fm/w1i,zM]m2q){

心理学空间xN7p XZ0a

最后我想指出的是:为什么造成孤独的内在和外在因素之间的平衡很难评估。到目前为止,这篇论文所研究的都是内在层面——但是这些并不是孤立存在的。在心理生活中,内在和外在因素之间有一种恒常的互动,而这种互动的基础是开启客体关系的投射和内摄过程。

_ko+Ar Tu.? fLjb0

8R'm ?&{ u6e0The first powerful impact of the external world on the young infant is the discomfort of various kinds which accompanies birth and which is attributed by him to hostile persecutory forces. These paranoid anxieties become part of his internal situation. Internal factors also operate from the beginning; the conflict between life and death instincts engenders the deflection of the death instinct outwards and this, according to Freud, initiates the projection of destructive impulses. I hold, however, that at the same time the urge of the life instinct to find a good object in the external world leads to the projection of loving impulses as well. In this way the picture of the external world-represented first by the mother, and particularly by her breast, and based on actual good and bad experiences in relation to her-is coloured by internal factors. By introjection this picture of the external world affects the internal one. However, it is not only that the infant's feelings about the external world are coloured by his projection, but the mother'. actual relation to her child is in indirect and subtle ways, influenced by the infant's response to her. A contented baby who sucks with enjoyment, allays his mother's anxiety; and her happiness expresscs itself in her way of handling and feeding him, thus diminishing his persecutory anxiety and affecting his ability to internalize the good breast. In contrast, a child who has difficulties over feeding may arouse the mother's anxiety and guilt and thus unfavourably influence her relation to him. In these varying ways there is constant interaction between the internal and external world persisting through. out life.心理学空间(gv)Thi'V+?3A \

心理学空间.M3P.n9J_j4Z9wC/S m'\X

外部世界对小婴儿最初的强大影响,是出生时伴随的各种不适感,他觉得这些不适感的原因是敌意的迫害力量。这些偏执焦虑就成为他内在情境的一部分。内在因素也是从一开始就运作着的:生本能和死本能之间的冲突导致死本能转向外界,根据弗洛伊德的说法,这便开启了破坏冲动的投射。然而我认为,同时生本能在外在世界寻找好客体的冲动,也导致爱的冲动的投射。这样一来,外在世界的图像(首先由母亲来代表,特别是她的乳房,基于与她的实际关系的好坏体验)便被内在因素所影响。通过内摄,外在世界的图像又影响着内在世界。然而,不仅婴儿对外在世界的感觉受到其投射的影响,而且实际的母子关系,也以间接而微妙的方式,受到婴儿对母亲的反应的影响。一个享受吸允、心满意足的婴儿,缓解了母亲的焦虑,而母亲的快乐则表现在她怀抱和喂养婴儿的方式上,因此也降低了婴儿的被害焦虑,并影响到他内化好乳房的能力。相比之下,在喂养上有困难的孩子,可能会唤起母亲的焦虑和罪疚感,因而对母婴关系有不利影响。在这些不同的方式中,内在世界和外在世界之间有不断的互动,且持续一生。

KRDK|m)r0

$b-`'y Zd(dS W8P.a(X0The interplay of external and internal factors has an important bearing on increasing or diminishing loneliness. The internalization of a good breast which can only result from a favourable interplay between internal and external elements, is a foundation for intergration which I have mentioned as one of the most important factors in diminishing the sense of loneliness. In addition, it is Will recognized that in normal development, when feelings of loneliness are strongly experienced there is a great need to turn to external objects, since loneliness is partially allayed by external relation, External influences, particularly the attitude of people important to the individual, can in other ways, diminish loneliness. For exam pl., a fundamentally good relation to the parents makes the 1oss of idealization and the lessening of the feeling of omnipotence more bearable. The parents, by accepting the existence of the child's destructive impulses and showing that they  can protect themselves against his aggressiveness, can diminish his anxiety about the effects of his hostile wishes. As a result, the internal object is felt to be less vulnerable and the self less destructive.

z)t;GX#jb0

u:Edb-I \y0外在和内在因素之间的相互作用,对孤独感的增加或减少都有重要的影响。好乳房的内化,毕竟要依赖内在和外在要素之间有力的相互影响。好乳房的内化只能在内部与外部因素的良性互动中产生,它是整合的基础,正如我所提过的,也是降低孤独感最重要的因素之一。除此之外,我们已经清楚地认识到,在正常的发展中,当强烈体验到孤独感时,非常需要转向外在客体,因为孤独感可以通过外在关系而被部分缓和。各种外在影响,特别是对个体重要的人的态度,也可以在其他方面降低孤独感。例如,与父母基本良好的关系,会使理想化的丧失和全能感的减少变得更能忍受。父母通过接受孩子存在破坏冲动,并显示他们可以保护自己免遭孩子的攻击,就可以减少孩子对其敌意愿望的后果的焦虑。这样,内在客体在感觉上就没有那么脆弱,而自体也没有那么大的破坏性。

A)i)ZECP}5u0心理学空间T-S,SF6T sN&X

I can here only touch on the importance of the super-ego in connection with all these processes. A harsh super-ego can never be felt to forgive destructive impulses; in fact, it demands that they should not exist. Although the super-ego is built up largely from a split-off part of the ego on to which impulses are projected, it is also inevitably influenced by the introjection of the personalities of the actual parents and of their relation to the child. The harsher the super-ego, the greater will be loneliness, because its severe demands increase depressive and paranoid anxieties.

:r.W(TPNdl8U B0

o9N6rS.y@6e0这里我只触及超我在所有这些过程中的重要性。一个严厉的超我,永远不会在感觉上原谅破坏冲动,事实上,超我要求它们不应该存在。虽然超我在很大程度上是由自我分裂出来的一个部分建立起来的,并且一些冲动被投射在这个部分之上,但是它也不可避免地受到实际父母的人格及其与孩子的关系的内摄的影响。超我越严厉,孤独感就会越深,因为它的严格要求增加了抑郁焦虑和偏执焦虑。

"ew0lp7Ou0

s b1p/H3q0In conclusion I wish to restate my hypothesis that although loneliness can be diminished or increased by external influences, it can never be completely eliminated, because the urge towards integration, as well as the pain experienced in the process of integration, spring from internal sources which remain powerful throughout life.心理学空间]~$gZ1pFJ

心理学空间?I+g%Gsr)Bj q4N

在结论中,我希望重述我的假说:虽然可以通过外在影响而降低或增加孤独,但是它永远无法被完全消除,因为朝向整合的内驱力和整合过程中所体验到的痛苦,皆源于内在。而这些内在来源在一生中都是强有力的。

o;t4l/^3c%v0www.psychspace.com心理学空间网
TAG: 孤独 精神分析 克莱恩 客体关系
«Klein 1952 自我与本我在发展上的相互影响 梅兰妮·克萊茵
《梅兰妮·克萊茵》
Klein 1960 关于精神分裂症中忧郁症状之短评»
延伸阅读· · · · · ·