共情:一种未被欣赏的存在
作者: 罗杰斯 / 14298次阅读 时间: 2013年6月18日
来源: 协同翻译 标签: empathy Empathy 共情 罗杰斯 心理学经典文献
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网

'lE'`9VYl{4i0Empathic: An Unappreciated Way of Being

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Carl R. Rogers, Ph.D. Center for Studies of the Person La Jolla, California心理学空间6N#J/]:mKK

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(The Counseling Psychologist, 1975, Vol. 5, No. 2-10)

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卡尔·罗杰斯博士,加州拉荷亚人的研究中心心理学空间&l w^G ] Z'q

$LZBS'h/`7Q:i:}0《咨询心理学家》1975年,第5期心理学空间.R#zX-~ \+DC&J

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译者:郑世彦 简里里 胡永康 楼岑渡 杨妍 吴佳烨 褚安敏 刘杨心理学空间p'Cb{b$s/N

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 It is my thesis in this paper that we should re-examine and re-evaluate that very special way of being with another person which has been called empathic. I believe we tend to give too little consideration to an element which is extremely important both for the understanding of personality dynamics and for effecting changes in personality and behavior. It is one of the most delicate and powerful ways we have of using ourselves. In spite of all that has been said and written on this topic, it is a way of being which is rarely seen in full bloom in a relationship. I will start with my own somewhat faltering history in relation to this topic.心理学空间 z |:aW/neYE

ZHOfrB0这篇文章的主题是,我们应该重新检验和评估这种被称为共情(empathic)的与他人共处的特殊方式。我认为,我们对这一元素关注太少,而其对我们理解人格动力以及产生人格和行为的改变都极为重要。这是我们使用自身( using ourselves)的最为微妙和有力的方式之一。尽管这一主题经常被讨论和表述,但是作为一种存在方式,很少见到它在关系中全面展开。下面将开始讲述我关于这一主题的几分艰难历程。

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Personal Vacillations

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Very early in my work as a therapist I discovered that simply listening to my client, very attentively, was an important way of being helpful. So when I was in doubt as to what I should do, in some active way, I listened. It seemed surprising to me that such a passive kind of interaction could be so useful.

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在我作为治疗师的早期生涯中,我发现仅仅是倾听我的来访者,全神贯注地倾听,就是一种重要的有效方式。所以,当我不确定该以某种主动的方式做些什么的时候,我就只是倾听。令人惊奇的是,这样一种被动的交流方式竟如此有用。

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:Yk/S AV#I0up:E H0A little later a social worker, who had a background of Rankian training, helped me to learn that the most effective approach was to listen for the feelings, the emotions whose patterns could be discerned through the client's words. I believe she was the one who suggested that the best response was to "reflect" these feelings back to the client-- "reflect" becoming in time a word which made me cringe. But at that time it improved my work as therapist, and I was grateful.

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'@-R ~Q|s6v0后来,一位有着兰克学派(Rankian)背景的社会工作者,帮助我了解到最有效的方法是倾听来访者的情感情绪,通过他们的言语可以辨别出他们的互动模式。我相信她的建议是,最好的回应便是把这些情感“反映”(reflect)给来访者——“反映”立即成了我奉承的一个词。但是,那时它帮助了我作为治疗师的工作,因此我心存感激。

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Then came my transition to a full-time university position where, with the help of students, I was at last able to scrounge equipment for recording our interviews. I cannot exaggerate the excitement of our learnings as we clustered about the machine which enabled us to listen to ourselves, playing over and over some puzzling point at which the interview clearly went wrong, or those moments in which the client moved significantly forward. (I still regard this as the one best way of learning to improve oneself as a therapist.) Among many lessons from these recordings, we came to realize that listening to feelings and "reflecting" them was a vastly complex process. We discovered that we could pinpoint the therapist response which caused a fruitful flow of significant expression to become superficial and unprofitable. Likewise we were able to spot the remark which turned a client's dull and desultory talk into a focused self- exploration.

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"Jat m2T$}0再后来,我转到全职的大学岗位,在学生的帮助下,我终于能够找到一些设备来记录我们的面谈。当我们簇拥在能够听见自己的机器身旁,反复播放着一些疑点——会谈中明显出错的地方或那些来访者明显前进的时刻,此时我无法形容我们学习时的激动心情。(我仍然认为这是一种提升治疗师自己的最好方式。根据这些录音里的许多经验教训,我们逐渐认识到倾听情感并“反映”它们,是一个极为复杂的过程。我们发现,我们可以指出那些导致富有成效的重要表达变得肤浅和无效的治疗师回应。同样,我们也能够指出那些把来访者的呆滞和散漫变成专注的自我探索的标记。心理学空间5{ r&|E3`t!V

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(q-Upn6G@Qd(o:u0In such a context of learning it became quite natural to lay more stress upon the content of the therapist response than upon the empathic quality of the listening. To this extent we became heavily conscious of the techniques which the counselor or therapist was using. We became expert in analyzing, in very minute detail, the ebb and flow of the process in each interview, and gained a great deal from that microscopic study. But this tendency to focus on the therapist's responses had consequences which appalled me. I had met hostility, but these reactions were worse. The whole approach came, in a few years, to be known as a technique. "Nondirective therapy," it was said, "is the technique of reflecting the client's feelings." Or an even worse caricature was simply that, "in nondirective therapy you repeat the last words the client has said." I was so shocked by these complete distortions of our approach that for a number of years I said almost nothing about empathic listening, and when I did it was to stress an empathic attitude, with little comment as to how this might be implemented in the relationship. I preferred to discuss the qualities of positive regard and therapist congruence, which together with empathy I hypothesized as promoting the therapeutic process. They too were often misunderstood, but at least not caricatured.

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在这样一种学习环境下,我们很自然地强调治疗师的回应内容,而不是倾听的共情程度。这样一来,我们变得过于看重咨询师或治疗师的技术。我们变得熟练于分析,擅长分析每一个微小的细节,每一次面谈的起伏过程,并且从微观研究中获取大量的资料。但是,我们专注于治疗师回应这一趋势的影响使我感到震惊。虽然我曾遇到一些敌意,但是这些反应更为糟糕。一些年之后,这全部的方法被认为是一种技术。“非指导性治疗”,它被认为“是一种反映来访者情感的技术。”或者,更为糟糕的讽刺直接说道,“在非指导性治疗中,你就重复来访者所说内容的最后几个词。”我们方法被完全地扭曲,这使我感到非常震惊,因为一直以来,我对共情性倾听几乎没有说过什么;而且,当我在共情的时候,我强调的是一种共情的态度,至于在关系中它可以如何实施几乎没有发表意见。我更愿意讨论积极关注和治疗师一致性的质量,我假设它们与共情一起会促进治疗过程。虽然它们也经常遭到误解,但至少不是讽刺性的。心理学空间 BQ,qY Z%{c;S&Be

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Over the years, however, the research evidence keeps piling up, and it points strongly to the conclusion that a high degree of empathy in a relationship is possibly the most potent and certainly one of the most potent factors in bringing about change and learning. And so I believe it is time for me to forget the caricatures and misrepresentations of the past and take a fresh look at empathy.心理学空间$w2X#?n+W6b6d

q3VEebQn0然而,多年以来,研究证据持续增多并有力地指出,关系中高度的共情可能是引起改变和学习最有效的因素,至少确定是最有效的因素之一。因此,我相信现在是时候了——忘记过去的讽刺和误解,并以新的眼光来看待共情。心理学空间\l7^O Vd"i3xH

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For still another reason it seems timely to do this. In the United States during the past decade or two many new approaches to therapy have held center stage. Gestalt therapy, psychodrama, primal therapy, bio-energetics, rational-emotive therapy, transactional analysis are some of the best known, but there are more. Part of their appeal lie