我们都需要精神分析:这会让英国成为更快乐,更友善的地方
时间:2017年10月10日|1186次浏览|1次赞

We all need psychoanalysis – it would make Britain a happier, kinder place

我们都需要精神分析:这会让英国成为更快乐,更友善的地方
Susanna Rustin/卫报
陈明 译

‘A broken heart – that, is, a rejection so disappointing I couldn’t bring myself to accept it – was the trigger.’ Photograph: Mixmike/Getty Images

“一颗破碎的心是一个触发器:让我无法接受它,那是一个令人失望的拒绝。”
摄影:Mixmike/Getty Images

Was I mentally ill? I suppose I was, though the first time someone in my family used the phrase “verge of a nervous breakdown”, or something like it, I was taken aback. Probably I was about as far from well as it was possible to be while still going about my business: essays, lectures, friends and so forth (I was a student at the time). A broken heart – that, is, a rejection so disappointing I couldn’t bring myself to accept it – was the trigger. But it brought up all manner of shit. By the time I went to talk to a psychoanalyst, I had feelings so muddled that sharing them with anyone else would have been weird.

我的心理生病了么?我想是的,纵然在家人面前第一次使用了“精神崩溃边缘”之类的话,但是,这还是让我很震惊。当我还在继续写作、做讲座、和朋友约会的时候,可能我与心理疾病还有一段距离。一颗破碎的心是一个触发器:让我无法接受它,那是一个拒绝,令人失望的拒绝。但是,它给我带来了各种各样的麻烦。和精神分析师在交谈的时候,我的感觉是如此的混乱,当我和别人分享这些的时候,他们会觉得我很奇怪。

Eight months later, the shrink and I had somehow decided that once a week wasn’t enough, and I signed up for the full whack: 50 minutes five times a week. This was cut down to four, but I carried on going until I was 26. It was a huge help. I know lots of people who see, or have seen, a psychotherapist or counsellor of some sort, but hardly anyone has psychoanalysis. Literally, hardly anyone. There are no official figures, but I’d be surprised if there are more than 500 people in the UK currently “in analysis”, or intensive psychotherapy, by which I mean appointments at least three times a week.

八个月后,不知何故,心理医生和我一致认为一周一次的分析是不够的,于是我签了一周五次的分析,每次50分钟。最后还是减少到了一周四次,我继续接受分析,直到我26岁。分析的帮助是巨大的。我知道,很多人知道,或者早就知道治疗师或辅导员,但很少有人做精神分析。夸张的说,几乎没有人做高频精神分析。官方没有这样的数字,但是如果此刻有500多人在英国“接受分析”或高频心理治疗的话,我会感到惊讶,我的意思是说,这样的治疗一周至少要三次。

There are loads of good reasons for this. Non-neurotic, uninhibited people who cope well with life – family, work, money, sex, food, other people – don’t need any help. (Well done, those people.) But plenty of others, for reasons that range from obvious to unfathomable, don’t manage all that well. Some of those become ill, and mess up their lives and other people’s as a result. I think shrinks could help many of these people. Everyone should have psychoanalysis – that is, the chance to dig into their past and reflect critically on their personality, helped by a professional – if they want it.

接受精神分析有很多原因。可以很好的应对生活、家庭、工作、金钱、性、食物等等,不受这些约束、没有神经质的人,不需要任何的帮助(他们做得很好)。但是,其他人因为那些从显而易见的到深不可测不可思议的原因,他们都不能很好地处理这些问题。其中一些人生病了,并打乱他们自己和别人的生活。我想,心理医生可以帮助很多这样的人。每个人都应该接受精神分析——也就是说,有机会去挖掘自己的过去,并在专业人士的帮助下批判性地反思自己的性格——如果他们想要的话。

It doesn’t have to be five times a week in a private consulting room, either. Fiercely divided in their views of human nature, psychoanalysts also disagree about what psychoanalysis actually is: just how much time and money do you have to spend on the couch for it to count? But in the real world, including in the cash-strapped NHS, therapists have developed a variety of ways of working (once a week, therapy groups and so on) that don’t take years and cost the earth. Grouped under the broad heading psychodynamic – which refers to the idea, derived from Freud but with many twists and turns since, that human beings have unconscious as well as conscious minds – their aim is to provide insight and relief from distress.

在私人咨询室里,也不需要每周五次的分析。如同人性观的分歧一样,精神分析不认为精神分析的实质就是需要计算你要花费多少时间和金钱在躺椅上。但现实情况包括了国家健康服务(NHS)的资金短缺,为此,治疗师们已经开发出了各种各样的工作方式(一周一次、团体治疗等等),这不需要花费长年的时间和金钱。这行宽泛的精神动力学所指的都是弗洛依几经波折的思想,人类有意无意思想这些共同的目标是在痛苦中提供洞见和宽慰。

The prospect of so much state-sanctioned soul-searching will send many, perhaps even most people, running for the gym, the medicine cabinet or the hills. After all, there are plenty of therapists out there and if more people wanted to employ their services then presumably they would. While there is reams of interesting anecdotal evidence about psychoanalysis, not to mention The Sopranos, clinical trials have been thin on the ground. That is changing and a recent UK government-funded study found it to be as effective as psychiatry and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) at treating depressed adolescents.

国家认可的灵魂探索方式有如此之多,会让很多人、甚至是大多数人去健身房,药柜或在山丘奔跑。毕竟,哪儿有很多的治疗师,如果有更多的人想雇佣他们的服务,那么他们大概就会为你服务。虽然有很多精神分析的趣闻轶事,更不用说“黑道家族”了,精神分析的临床试验寥寥无几。但是,这种情况正在改变,英国政府最近资助的一项研究发现,精神疗法在治疗青少年抑郁症方面与认知行为疗法(CBT)一样有效。

With a recent survey showing one in four teenage girls is depressed, there is clearly no shortage of candidates for treatment. But there is more than one way to treat mental illness, and not everyone who is depressed, or just unhappy, wants to sit around talking about how awful life is, to someone whose job it is to ferret out hidden and sometimes bizarre-sounding meanings. So I am not proposing talking as a cure-all. What I am saying is that anyone who thinks introspection is the same as solipsism, or pictures a world in which many more people undergo psychotherapy as a self-indulgent, Beverly Hills nightmare, is wrong. A country in which reflection and curiosity about oneself is encouraged would be a wiser, kinder place.

最近的一项调查显示,每四个少女中就有一个情绪低落,显然我们并不缺少治疗候选人。但是精神疾病的治疗方法不止一种,并不是所有抑郁的人、或者不快乐的人都想坐在那里谈论生活是多么的糟糕,也不想把这些事讲述给分析师,他们的工作就是挖掘隐藏的故事、寻找稀奇古怪事情的意义。所以,我并不是建议你们把谈话当作灵丹妙药。我想说,以下的想法是错误的:反思的人都是唯我论者;或者很多接受心理治疗的人将精神分析视为一种自我放纵或贝弗利山庄的噩梦,这些都是错误的。如果一个国家鼓励探索自己、反思自己,那么,那儿将会是一个更贤明、友善的地方。

I’d start with early years and primary schools, equipping teachers and other staff with more training, including psychoanalytic concepts, so they have the best possible tools to support children with emotional difficulties. Teenagers, students and young adults, so vulnerable and surely more so, with their oceans of debt, than my generation was in the 1990s, should have easy access to free, one-to-one support.

我将从幼儿园和小学开始,为教师和其他工作人员提供更多的培训,包括精神分析的概念,这样,他们就有了最好的工具来支持有情感障碍的儿童、青少年、学生和年轻人,他们是脆弱的,当然,他们和我们这些90年代的人相比,应该很容易获得免费的、一对一的支持。

After that, where the need is: prisons, health centres and care homes; for couples and families in crisis. Many, if not most of us, would make use of such an opportunity, at some tricky passage of our lives. Not only would it make people happier, but better at thinking, and not only about themselves. As individuals, as a species, humans need more psychoanalysis.

除此之外,需要的这些培训的地方是:监狱、保健中心和养老院;对处于危机中的夫妇和家庭。许多人,如果不是我们中的大多数,会在我们生活中某些微妙的阶段利用这样的机会。这不仅会让人们更快乐,而且会让他们更好地思考,而不仅仅是关注自己。作为个人,作为一个物种,人类需要更多的精神分析。

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