• 依恋研究

    2018-01-15 16:40

    The parents mediate the effect of the context upon the infant, including risk to the infant.



    A1-2: Socially facile/Inhibited
    The A1-2 strategy uses cognitive prediction in the context of very little real threat. Attachment figures are idealized by over-looking their negative qualities (A1) or the self is put down a bit (A2). Most A1-2s are predictable, responsible people who are just cool and businesslike. Type A strategies all rely on inhibition of feelings and set danger at a psychological distance from the self. This strategy is first used in infancy.

    婴儿期发展起来的策略: B型组策略

    B1-2: Reserved
    Individuals assigned to B1-2 are a bit more inhibited with regard to negative affect than B3s, but are inherently balanced.

    The Type B strategy involves a balanced integration of temporal prediction with affect. Type B individuals show all kinds of behavior, but are alike in being able to adapt to a wide variety of situations in ways that are self-protective, that protect their children, and that as often as possible cause others no harm. They communicate directly, negotiate differences, and find mutually satisfactory compromises. They distort cognitive and affective information very little, especially not to themselves. Finally, they display a wider range of individual variation than people using other strategies – who must constrain their functioning to employ their strategy. This strategy functions in infancy. By adulthood, two sorts of Type B strategies can be differentiated. Naive B’s simply had the good fortune to grow up in safety and security. Mature B’s, on the other hand, 1) have reached neurological maturity (in the mid-30’s), 2) function in life’s major roles, e.g., child, spouse, parent, and 3) carry out an on-going process of psychological integration across relationships, roles, and contexts. Where naive B’s tend to be simplistic, mature B’s grapple with life’s complexities.
    B型策略涉及对认知(时序预测)与情感的平衡整合。 使用B型策略的个体表现出各种各样的行为,但均能够以保护自己及他们的孩子,并且尽可能地使他人不受伤害的方式有效地应对各种各样的情形。他们直接沟通,讨论分歧,并找到双方满意的妥协。他们很少歪曲认知和情感信息,尤其不会歪曲自己。最后,他们比使用其他策略的个体表现出更大范围的个体差异——其他策略的个体需要通过约束自己的能力来运用他们的策略。B型策略从婴儿期开始被运用。到了成年期,可以区分出两类B型策略。天真B型全凭幸运得以生活成长于充足的安全和保障之中。而成熟B型:1)达到了神经成熟(30岁中期),2)在生活中承担了一些主要角色,如孩子,配偶,父母,以及3)持续进行着心理整合过程,涉及关系、角色和环境。天真B型往往趋于简单化,而成熟B型则努力应对生活的复杂性。

    B4-5: Reactive
    Individuals assigned to B4-5 exaggerate negative affect a bit, being sentimental (B4) or irritated (B5), but are inherently balanced.


    C1-2: Threatening/Disarming
    The C1-2 (threatening-disarming) strategy involves both relying on one=s own feelings to guide behavior and also using somewhat exaggerated and changing displayed negative affect to influence other people=s behavior. Specifically, the strategy consists of splitting, exaggerating, and alternating the display of mixed negative feelings to attract attention and manipulate the feelings and responses of others. The alternation is between presentation of a strong, angry invulnerable self who blames others for the problem (C1,3,5, 7) with the appearance of a fearful, weak, and vulnerable self who entices others to give succorance (C2,4,6,8). C1-2 is a very normal strategy found in people with low risk for mental health problems and a great zest for life. Infants display the C1-2 strategy.


    Preschool 学前期
    Learning safe forms of self-reliance for short periods of time.
    学前期发展起来的策略: A型组策略

    A3-4:compulsively caregiving/compliance
    Individuals using the A3 strategy (compulsive caregiving, cf., Bowlby, 1973) rely on predictable contingencies, inhibit negative affect and protect themselves by protecting their attachment figure. In childhood, they try to cheer up or care for sad, withdrawn, and vulnerable attachment figures. In adulthood, they often find employment where they rescue or care for others, especially those who appear weak and needy. The precursors of A3 and A4 can be seen in infancy (using the DMM method for the Strange Situation), but the strategy only functions fully in the preschool years and thereafter.

    A4: Compulsively compliant individuals (Crittenden & DiLalla, 1988) try to prevent danger, inhibit negative affect and protect themselves by doing what attachment figures want them to do, especially angry and threatening figures. They tend to be excessively vigilant, quick to anticipate and meet others’ wishes, and generally agitated and anxious. The anxiety, however, is ignored and downplayed by the individual and often appears as somatic symptoms that are brushed aside as being unimportant.
    A4:采取强迫顺从策略的个体(Crittenden & DiLalla,1988)试图阻止危险,抑制负面情绪,通过做依恋对象,尤其是愤怒情绪和具有威胁性的对象所希望的事来保护自己。他们往往过于警觉,容易预测和满足他人的愿望,通常焦虑不安。然而,这种焦虑被个人忽视和淡化,通常表现为不重要从而被漠然置之的躯体症状。

    学前期发展起来的策略: C型组策略

    C3-4: (aggressive-feigned helpless)
    The C3-4 strategy involves alternating aggression with apparent helplessness to cause others to comply out of fear of attack or assist out of fear that one cannot care for oneself. Individuals using a C3 (aggressive) strategy emphasize their anger in order to demand caregivers’ compliance. Those using the C4 (feigned helpless) give signals of incompetence and submission. The angry presentation elicits compliance and guilt in others, whereas vulnerability elicits rescue. The precursors of this strategy can be seen in infancy (using the DMM method for the Strange Situation), but the strategy only functions fully in the preschool years and thereafter.

    School-age 学龄期
    establishing symmetrical attachments with best friends while concurrently maintaining affiliative peer relationships。

    学龄期发展起来的策略: C型组策略

    The C5-6 strategy (punitively obsessed with revenge and/or seductively obsessed with rescue) is a more extreme form of C3-4 that involves active deception to carry out the revenge or elicit rescue. Individuals using this strategy distort information substantially, particularly in blaming others for their predicament and heightening their own negative affect; the outcome is a more enduring and less resolvable struggle.

    Those using a C5 (punitive) strategy are colder, more distant and self-controlled, and deceptive than people using C3. They appear invulnerable and dismiss other people’s perspectives while forcing others to attend to them while misleading others regarding their inner feeling of helplessness and desire for comfort. Individuals using the C6 (seductive) strategy give the appearance of needing rescue from dangerous circumstances that are, in fact, self-induced. C6 individuals mislead others regarding their anger.
    使用C5(惩罚性)策略的人比使用C3策略的人更冷酷、更疏远,更自我控制,更有欺骗性。他们表现得无懈可击,无视他人的观点,同时强迫他人注意自己,易使人忽视他们内心的无助感和对安慰的渴望。使用C6(诱惑)策略的个体,表现得似乎需要从危险的环境中被拯救出来,事实上,这些情形是自我诱导的。使用C6策略个体易使人忽视他们的愤怒 。

    This alternating pattern is often seen in bully-victim pairs, within gangs, and in violent couples where the hidden half of the pattern is usually forgotten or forgiven – until the presentation reverses. This strategy develops during the school years but does not function fully until adolescence.

    Adolescence 青春期
    transforming best friend attachments into romantic, reciprocal attachments with a sexual component。


    A5: A5 individuals use a compulsively promiscuous strategy (Crittenden, 1995) to avoid genuine intimacy while maintaining human contact and, in some cases, satisfying sexual desires. They show false positive affect, including sexual desire, to little known people, and protect themselves from rejection by engaging with many people superficially and not getting deeply involved with anyone. This strategy develops in adolescence when past intimate relationships have been treacherous and strangers appear to offer the only hope of closeness and sexual satisfaction. It may be displayed in a socially promiscuous manner (that does not involve sexuality) or, in more serious cases, as sexual promiscuity.

    A6: Individuals using a compulsively self-reliant strategy (Bowlby, 1980) do not trust others to be predictable in their demands, find themselves inadequate in meeting the demands or both. They inhibit negative affect and protect themselves by relying on no one other than themselves. This protects the self from others, but at the cost of lost assistance and comfort. Usually this strategy develops in adolescence after individuals have discovered that they cannot regulate the behavior of important, but dangerous or non-protective, caregivers. They withdraw from close relationships as soon as they are old enough to care for themselves. There is a social form of the strategy in which individuals function adaptively in social and work contexts, but are distant when intimacy is expected, and an isolated form in which individuals cannot manage any interpersonal relationship and withdraw as much as possible from others.

    Adulthood 成年期
    Establishing (1) symmetrical and reciprocal spousal attachments that foster both partners’ development, (2) the nurturance of children in non-reciprocal, and (3) non-symmetrical attachment relationships in which the adult is the attachment figure.


    A7: Delusionally idealizing individuals (Crittenden, 2000) have had repeated experience with severe danger that they cannot predict or control, display brittle false positive affect, and protect themselves by imagining that their powerless or hostile attachment figures will protect them. This is a very desperate strategy of believing falsely in safety when no efforts are likely to reduce the danger (cf., the “hostage syndrome”). Paradoxically, the appearance is rather generally pleasing, giving little hint of the fear and trauma that lie behind the nice exterior until circumstances produce a break in functioning. This pattern only develops in adulthood.

    A8: Individuals using an A8 strategy (externally assembled self, Crittenden, 2000) do as others require, have few genuine feelings of their own, and try to protect themselves by absolute reliance on others, usually professionals who replace their absent or endangering attachment figures. Both A7 and A8 are associated with pervasive and sadistic early abuse and neglect.

    成年期发展起来的策略: C型组策略

    C7-8: C7-8 (menacing-paranoid) is the most extreme of the Type C strategies and involves a willingness to attack anyone combined with fear of everyone. Type C strategies all involve distrust of consequences and an excessive reliance on one=s own feelings. At the extreme, this pattern becomes delusional with delusions of infinite revenge over ubiquitous enemies (a menacing strategy, C7) or the reverse, paranoia regarding the enemies (C8). These two strategies do not become organized before early adulthood.
    C7-8:C7-8(威胁偏执)是C型策略中最极端的,它包含了对所有人的攻击意图及对每个人和恐惧。 C类策略均包含对后果的不信任,以及过分依赖自己的感受。 在极端情况下,这种模式变成妄想,即对无处不在的敌人无限复仇的妄想(一种威胁性策略,C7)或与之相反的对敌人偏执狂式的妄想(C8)。 这两种策略的组织在成年早期之前不会形成。


    A/C: A/C strategies combine any subpatterns. In practice, most A/C’s consist of the more distorted patterns, i.e., A3-4 or higher and C3-4 or higher. Individuals using these strategies display either very sudden shifts in behavior or, in the case of blended strategies (AC), they show very subtle mixing of distortion and deception. The extreme of the blended form of AC is psychopathy.
    A / C:A / C策略是A、C策略中的任一种子模式的组合。 实际上,大多数A / C策略包含了更为扭曲的模式,如A3-4或更高和C3-4或更高。使用这些策略的个体显示出非常突然地行为变化,或者在混合策略(AC)的情况下,他们显示出非常微妙的扭曲和欺骗的混合。 AC混合形式的极端就是精神变态。


    Aging 老年期
    Attachments in later life when the adult is becoming less physically and mentally competent and in need of protection once again.


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