98 莫瑞尔O. Hobart Mowrer
Mowrer was a learning researcher and theorist who extended a unified learning theory into interpretations of the phenomena of psychoanalysis. APA President, 1954. O. Hobart Mowrer, an atheist who served as President of the American Psychological Association, produced a work called: The Crisis in Psychology and Religion (1962) in which he challenged the entire field of psychiatry for its dependence upon Freudian premises
The father of "integrity therapy," Mowrer believes that the solution to man's problems lies in the group milieu. The group provides all that is necessary to handle guilt (confession and restitution on the human level only), and then to develop a sense of self-worth.