埃丝特·比克(Esther Bick)小传
作者: mints 编译 / 7507次阅读 时间: 2014年2月18日
来源: Margaret Rustin 标签: Bick 婴儿观察 bick
埃丝特·比克(Esther Bick)小传心理学空间)BtF1w,s e'Q
Margaret Rustin 文
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7C.AeM%a*Y0Esther Bick’s best-known contribution to psychoanalysis is her discovery of the potential of infant observation undertaken within the home over the first year or two of life to underpin the growth of a psychoanalytic perspective within the observer. Her interest in very early infantile states of mind and in the relationships between babies and their primary carers also led her to clinical concepts which enrich the psychoanalytic understanding of infantile anxieties and defences.心理学空间,e(L Y7\-h+Z3_D

6u7O6t)lS.FG0埃丝特·比克(Esther Bick)对精神分析最著名的贡献是她发现了在婴儿出生的头一两年在家中进行婴儿观察的潜力,可以巩固观察者发展其精神分析视角。她对婴儿早期的精神状态以及婴儿与其主要照顾者之间的关系的兴趣也给她带来了许多临床概念,这些概念丰富了精神分析对婴儿焦虑和防御的理解。

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Early life and career心理学空间0Xc3R{.Nq unn#}

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Esther Bick (1902-1983) was born to an orthodox Jewish family in Poland. Her unusual intelligence and energy enabled her to continue her education in Vienna, where she studied with Charlotte Bühler and completed a doctorate. This background in systematic observation of young children was very important in her later creative invention of a new form of naturalistic observation of babies.心理学空间,`B%C@0b"\]g


埃丝特·比克(1902-1983)出生于波兰的一个正统犹太家庭。她不同寻常的智慧和精力使她能够在维也纳继续接受教育,在那里,她师从夏洛特·布勒( Charlotte Bühler)并完成了博士学位。她接受的这种对幼儿进行系统观察的背景,对于她后来创造性地发明了一种新的婴儿写实主义的观察形式而言,是非常重要的。心理学空间_6`Ise'GcK

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She came to Britain as a refugee just before the Second World War. Almost all her family died in concentration camps and the psychoanalytic community gradually became her replacement family. She settled in Manchester, working in wartime nurseries, and began an analysis with Michael Balint. She completed her psychoanalytic training in London and then started a second analysis with Melanie Klein. In 1948 she was invited by John Bowlby to head a child psychotherapy training at the Tavistock Clinic, which had just joined the new National Health Service. The training started the following year and she continued to run it until 1960. She remained an active supervisor of child psychotherapists in training in subsequent years, alongside teaching at The Institute of Psychoanalysis.心理学空间 }QQj3yX P6o6v

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她在第二次世界大战前夕以难民来到英国。她的家人几乎都死于集中营,精神分析界逐渐成为她的替代家庭。她定居在曼彻斯特,在战时托儿所工作,并开始接受迈克尔·巴林特(Michael Balint)的分析。她在伦敦完成了精神分析训练,然后与梅兰妮·克莱因开始了第二次分析。1948年,她应约翰·鲍尔比的邀请,在刚刚加入新的国家卫生服务局的塔维斯托克诊所领导儿童心理治疗接受培训。训练从第二年开始,她一直坚持到1960年。在随后的几年里,她一直是活跃的儿童心理治疗师的督导,同时在精神分析研究所任教。心理学空间#?6aXoy j

@ H;xo!i(|0Contribution to psychoanalytic training
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Although she worked for so many years primarily as an analyst in private practice, Bick’s long-term influence is most visible in the field of psychoanalytic training. Her discovery of the potential of infant observation, as she defined its method, has led to its inclusion in a great number of psychoanalytic trainings worldwide. In relation to the development of child psychotherapy, her legacy is enormous. The Tavistock child psychotherapy training was shaped by her original adaptation of psychoanalytic training for the special context of NHS work with children, adolescents and their parents. The emphasis on observing an ordinary baby at home for two years grounded child psychotherapists in an understanding of normal development, and put their subsequent encounter with pathology in a developmental trajectory. This is true of all UK child psychotherapy trainings (now five) and many in other parts of the world.

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A remarkable teacher心理学空间/vy(px$R

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Bick gathered an unusually talented group of students in the early years of the Tavistock training including Mary Boston, Martha Harris, Frances Tustin, Irma Pick, Isca Wittenburg and Edna O’Shaugnessy. The combination of Bick’s inspirational teaching and her intuitive grasp of talent achieved a great deal.

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Y`2O;~4Xe*h0比克最初在塔维斯托克接受训练的那几年,塔维斯托克聚集了一群才华横溢的学生,包括玛Mary Boston, Martha Harris, Frances Tustin, Irma Pick, Isca Wittenburg 以及 Edna O’Shaugnessy。比克在她的鼓舞人心的教学中结合了其天赋的直观把握,成绩斐然。

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Her contributions to psychoanalysis are not properly represented by her few published papers for two reasons. She was not a natural writer, despite the fact that her two best-known papers have classic status. Rather her forte was as a teacher. Her imaginative sensitivity to the forms of infantile experience were vividly communicated through her teaching of infant observation and her clinical supervision, especially of severely disturbed children. Her acute mind, love and grasp of relevant detail, and her unflinching directness made her a remarkable, if at times alarming, teacher. She could bring to life the psychosomatic experience of a baby and the overwhelming anxieties evoked in new parents with memorable eloquence. She conveyed a passion for enquiry, in which close observation was the tool and theory was to be put to one side. Detailed notes were therefore of the essence and devotion to the task was expected.


a7X|#Swz'`0由于两个原因,她为数不多的发表论文不能恰当地代表她对精神分析的贡献。首先,她不是一个天生的作家,尽管她最著名的两篇论文都具有经典地位。其次,她的特长是当老师。她对婴儿观察的教学和临床监督,尤其是对严重障碍儿童的临床监督,生动的传达了她富有想象力的敏感于婴儿的各种经验形式。她敏锐的头脑、对相关细节的热爱和把握,以及她坚定不移的直率,使她成为一位非凡的、甚至有时会语破惊天的老师。她能够以令人难忘的雄辩将婴儿的身心体验和新父母身上引发的巨大焦虑带到生活中。她表达了一种探究的热情,在这种热情中,密切观察是工具,理论要放在一边。因此,详细的笔记是至关重要的,而且全心投入到这项任务重也是意料之中的事。心理学空间nGltN}&y0z B

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Infant observation and the early mother-child relationship心理学空间5QLMC Sc

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f"RM d5~b-W0The earlier of the two papers now so widely cited was ‘Notes on infant observation in psycho-analytic training’ (1964). This sets out clearly her model of infant observation and her view of how much can be learned from it — how to observe, the nature of early infantile anxiety, especially the baby’s fear of ‘falling to bits’, the impact of maternal anxiety and postnatal depression, and the significance of good observational capacities for future child analysts. She emphasised the gathering of data over time, the need to wait for meaning to emerge, and the observer’s responsibility to respect their role as learner and to behave with tact and reliability.

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The second is ‘The experience of the skin in early object relations’ (1968) which expounds her understanding of the function of the skin as a primary container. The skin can be felt to hold together the parts of the self which have as yet no coherence. Maternal containment is what supports the growth of the baby’s psychic skin, and when such containment is faulty, for whatever reason, the baby may resort to ‘second skin’ defences which are omnipotent pseudo-independent forms of protection using muscular tension to hold the self together and prevent disintegration. The infant without a sense of internal space makes adhesive links to his object, sticking to the surface in the absence of access to a three-dimensional object.


第二部分是《早期客体关 系中的皮肤体验》(1968),阐述了她对皮肤作为主要容器的功能的理解。可以感觉到皮肤将尚未连贯的自我部分结合在一起。母亲的控制是支持婴儿心理皮肤生长的因素,当这种控制有缺陷时,无论出于何种原因,婴儿都可能求助于“第二皮肤”防御,这是一种无所不能的伪独立保护形式,利用肌肉张力将自己固定在一起,防止解体。没有内部空间感的婴儿会与他的物体形成粘性连接,在无法接触到三维物体的情况下粘在物体表面。

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8WFk O tq O0Bick’s ideas took shape at the same time as Bion’s work on ‘A theory of thinking’, and these two explorations of the emotional and cognitive dimensions of the early mother-child relationship are profoundly complementary.心理学空间 mt8^%il0B

U BD7Io;hC:oQ5R0比克的思想与比昂的“思维理论”同时形成,这两次对早期母子关系情感和认知维度的探索是相辅相成的。

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0S)||f&q0Bick’s understanding of primitive forms of omnipotence and her delineation of ‘second skin’ phenomena have proved particularly fertile for work with the severely deprived, maltreated and neglected children so often now referred for treatment and also in understanding children on the autistic spectrum. This has made her work particularly salient for child psychotherapists working in clinics.


5yI7^jB,x[j0事实证明,比克对全能感的最初形式的理解以及她对“第二层皮肤”现象的描绘,尤其有助于与现在经常被转诊接受治疗的严重剥夺、虐待和被忽视儿童的合作,也有助于理解自闭症谱系的儿童。她的这些工作对于在诊所工作的儿童心理治疗师来说,尤为突出。心理学空间l/\ G0m/E'BYT? Y

;H.f W\l7E0The now well-established International Journal of Infant Observation is a testament to the breadth of her ongoing influence and its evolution.


3W,_F|N(B)M3B0现在已经出版的《国际婴儿观察杂志》证明了她持续影响力的广度及其演变。心理学空间 Mz-|]/R&GA W:C

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Margaret Rustin, 2013心理学空间z:cD"K:uJ EU @`

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