1911e精神分析中释梦的操作The Handling of Dream-Interpretation in Psycho-Analysis
作者: freud / 5029次阅读 时间: 2014年5月07日
来源: 班鸠 译 标签: 弗洛伊德
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精神分析释梦的操作(1911e) 弗洛伊德
The Handling of Dream-Interpretation in Psycho-Analysis (XII, 91-6)
译者:班鸠
审校:陈伟

《精神分析学文摘》并不仅仅是旨在使它的读者了解到在精神分析知识中取得的进步,还需要发表有关这个主题的比较简短的文章,它的目的也在于实现更进一步的任务,即向学生呈现一个对已经了解的东西的清晰轮廓并通过提供给初学者合适的介绍,来节省他们的在精神分析实践中的时间和努力。 因此,从今以后,说教性质的文章,关于技术主题的文章和不一定包含新内容的文章也将会出现在这份杂志中。

现在我打算处理的问题不是梦的解释的技术问题:既不是应该用以解释梦的方法,也不是考虑什么时候会利用这样的技术这个问题,而是分析家在病人的精神分析治疗中应该采用的解释的艺术的方法。毫无疑问,在这个问题上存在着着手工作的不同方法,然而,对分析中技术问题的回答从来都不是理所当然的。虽然可能存在着不止一条好的道路去追随,但仍然存在很多的不好的道路,即使走任何一条特殊的道路都不能得到一个结论,那么对各种各样的方法的一个比较不会还不能使我们有所启发。 

任何一个从释梦到精神分析的实践的人,都会保持着他对梦的内容的兴趣,并且他倾向于尽可能完全地解释病人提供的每一个梦。但是,他很快就会察觉到,他是正处于十分不同的条件下工作,而且如果他尝试去实行他的计划,他将会与治疗的最直接的任务相冲突。即使病人的第一个梦被证明是非常地适合作为被给予的第一次解释的引入,其他的梦也将会迅速地出现,它们出现得如此地漫长和如此地晦涩,以至于在一天工作的有限会面时间里,这些梦的全部的含义不能从它们中被全部地挖掘出来。如果在这接下来的几天里,医生继续这个解释的工作,在这期间,新的梦将会产生,而这些梦将会不得不被搁置在一边直到他能够把第一个梦看做是彻底地被解决。有时候,梦的产物是如此的丰富,而病人对这些梦的理解却是如此地迟疑不决,以至于分析家不得不怀疑,材料以这种方式的呈现可能仅仅是病人的阻抗的表现,病人发现他们不能掌控那些显现的材料。与此同时,治疗还会落后一段相当远的距离并且会和现状失去联系。 

与这样一种技术相反的一面是要坚持这个规则:对于治疗最重要的是,分析家应该在任何特定的时刻里都总是察觉到病人的心灵的表面,并且他应该知道在那时候在病人身上什么样的情结和阻抗处于活跃的状态、知道意识中对这些情结和阻抗的什么样的反应会支配他的行为。 牺牲这个治疗的目标去使释梦变得更有趣,这是不可取的。如果我们记住这个规则,那么我们在分析中对释梦的态度应该是什么呢?如下:在一次会面中能够完成的解释的数量应该被认为是适量的,并且如果梦的内含没有被完全地找到,这不会被当做是一次失败。在接下来的时期里,直到再没有任何其他的东西很明显地侵占病人的思想的最显著的位置,梦的解释才会作为理所当然的事而再次被采用。因此,有一个万能的原则就是第一个进入病人脑海的东西是第一个要处理的东西这个规则,在支持一个被中断的梦的解析中。如果,在更早的梦被处理之前,新的梦就出现,更多的最近的梦的产物将要得到注意,而且忽视这些更早的梦不需要感到不安。如果,这些梦因而变得太过分散和大量,那么,从开始的时候,希望完全地阐释的这一愿望也应该被放弃。 

通常,我们必须提防病人在梦的解析中展现出特别浓厚的兴趣,同时也要防止病人产生这样一个观念,即如果他没有提出梦,那么工作将会停滞不前;否则,在之后释梦工作结束的情况下,病人会有对梦的产物的阻抗的产生。正相反,病人必须被引导相信,不管他有没有提出梦或者有多少的注意力投注到这些梦中,分析家总是为了工作的继续而寻找材料。 

现在,还可以问到,我们是否不应该放弃太多有价值的材料,而如果梦的解析正好要在那样的方法的限制之情况下实行,这些材料也可能会照亮无意识。对于这样的质疑之声的回答就是,这个损失绝不会像浅薄地来看待这个问题中可能得出的那么大。 

首先,必须意识到,在一些神经症的的个案身上,任何详尽的梦的产物在事实上肯定是不可能完整的得到解决。这种类型的梦常以个案的全部致病的材料为基础,对于医生和病人都是未能理解的(所以它们被称作“程序性的梦”和“传记体的梦”),并且,有时候就等同于翻译成包含着神经症全部内容的梦的语言的译文。 

在解释这样一个梦的所有潜藏部分的尝试中,因为这些部分是不可触及的,阻抗会被激活并且很快会对梦的理解设置一个限制。对梦的全部解释将会与整个分析的步调达成一致;如果开始的时候,关于梦的全部解释仅仅只是一个提示,那么很多个月后,在分析结尾时,也许就能理解它了。这和对一个单一的症状(可能是主要的症状)解释的情况是一样的。完整的分析必须去解释它(单一的症状);在治疗的过程中,我们必须竭力首先抓住这点,然后抓住那是症状的意义的碎片,一个接着一个,直到它们能够全部被拼凑起来。 

同样地,对出现在分析的早些时候的一个梦,也不能期待更多的解释。如果这个解释上的尝试带来了一个单一的、致病的、热切的冲动,我们必须满足(于此)

因此,如果我们放弃对梦的完整的解释这一想法,那么也就必须要放弃我们可能因此而得到的;通常,如果我们暂停对比较旧的一个梦的解释,转向对一个比较新的梦的解释,我们也不会损失什么。从一些分析得比较彻底的梦的好例子中,我们发现,一个梦的几个连续的场景可能有相同的内容,在这些场景中,这些内容可能会越来越清晰地表达出来;并且,我们也了解到在同一个晚上出现的几个梦只不过是需要一些尝试,以各种各样的形式来表达,表现同一个意义。 

通常,我们可以确信无疑,今天创造了一个梦的热切冲动,会重现在其他的梦中,只要它还没有被理解,也没有从无意识的控制。因此,经常发生的是,完成对一个梦的解释的最好方法是离开它,然后把我们的注意力投注到一个新的梦中,这个新的梦可能以一种可能更好理解的形式,包含了相同的材料。 

我知道,不仅对于病人的,而且对于医生,期望他们放弃他们在治疗期间的、有意识的、有目的的目标是需要很多的理由的,况且还要并期望他们把自己抛向一个指引,而这个指引,无论如何,对我们似乎仍旧是“偶然的”。但是,我能够担保,如果在任何时候我们都决心去信任我们自己的理论原则,并说服我们自己在建立联接的链环时不去怀疑无意识的指引,我们会得到报答。因此,我主张,梦的解释,作为一种艺术,在分析治疗中,为了它自己的目的,不应该被纠缠,但是,总的来说,我认为它应该服从于那些控制治疗实施的技术规则。 

当然,偶尔,我们能够在其他方面这么做,并允许一些出于我们理论上的兴趣的自由操作,但我们应该随时意识到自己所做的。自从我们在对梦的象征的理解中获得更多自信,并且知道自己更加不依赖病人的自由联想后,另一种要考虑的情形就出现了。一个非常熟练的释梦者,有时候会发现他自己处在能够看穿一个病人全部的梦的位置上,而不需要他经受耗时乏味的研究过程。因此,这样的一个分析家免除了释梦的要求与治疗的要求之间的任何冲突。此外,一有机会,通过告诉病人他在他的梦中发现的所有东西,他乐于抓住释梦。然而,在这么做的时候,他已经采用一种治疗方法,这个方法明显地偏离了已确立的治疗方法,如同我在另一处相关的地方指出的。 

无论如何,对于精神分析实践中的初学者,我建议不要拿这个例外的情况当做模范。每一个我们已经设想过的分析家,在他们或多或少学到一些翻译梦的技术之后,对于病人带来的很早之前的梦,都处在了释梦者这个更加有利的位置上。 

这些最初的梦可能被描述成不谙世故的:它们向听众泄露了很多秘密,就像那些所谓的健康人的梦。于是,这个问题出现了:分析家是否马上就把他自己从病人的梦中领会的所有东西都解释给病人。然而,在这里并不急于回答这个问题,因为,显然,它演变成了一个更宽泛的问题:在治疗的什么阶段,或者说分析家应该多快地把对潜藏在他心理的东西的认识介绍给病人?病人从梦的解释的实践了解得越多,后来的梦就变得越晦涩。所有曾经获得的关于梦的知识,也都会去加强梦的建造过程的防卫力量。 

在关于梦的“科学”的作品里,这些作品,尽管它们否认对梦的解释,但已经收到了来自精神分析的一个新进展,我们经常发现,对于梦的内容的精确保存大多不需要细致的关注。在醒来后的几个小时之内应该立即加以保护以避免扭曲和遗忘。 

一些精神分析家,似乎都没有始终如一地信赖他们对梦的形成条件的认识,他们吩咐病人一醒来就立即写下每一个梦之吩咐中。在治疗工作中,这条规则是多余的;并且,病人会倾向于利用它对睡眠的打扰和需投注的巨大热诚而把它看成是无用的。 因为,即使用这个方法梦的内容辛苦地从遗忘中营救出来,也很容易让我们自己相 信,对于病人来说,什么东西也没有获得。

联想不能通向梦的内容,结局是相同的,就像梦的内容从没有被保存一样。毫无疑问,医生获得了一些在其他方面没有获得的认识。但是,是分析家知道了某些东西,或是病人知道,这不是一回事。精神分析技术之间的差别的重要性将会在别处被更加充分地考虑。 

最后,我将会提及梦的一种特殊类型,这种梦,必然只会出现在精神分析的治疗中,并且可能会迷惑和误导初学者。这些是确证的梦,这些梦如同是“随后紧跟着”;它们很容易被分析家理解,它们的译文仅仅表现了最近的几天里的治疗中从日常的联想材料中推论出来的东西。当这个发生时,病人好像已经足够友善地把我们带到梦的形成阶段,在这个阶段之前我们已经暗示过他了。毫无疑问,更有经验的分析家不会把任何这样的友善都归结于病人。他希望这些梦能证实他的期望。大多数的梦在分析家的协助下取得进展;所以,在已经知道并且理解的梦的中的一切减少之时,仍留存一条或多或少明确的线索,它迄今为止仍一直隐藏着。

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Freud, S. (1911). Editor's Note to "The Handling of Dream-Interpretation in Psycho-Analysis".The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XII(1911-1913): The Case of Schreber, Papers on Technique and Other Works, 89-96

The Zentralblatt fur Psychoanalyse was not designed solely to keep its readers informed of theadvances made in psychoanalytic knowledge, and itself to publish comparatively shortcontributions to the subject; it aims also at accomplishing the further tasks of presenting to thestudent a clear outline of what is already known, and of economizing the time and efforts ofbeginners in analytic practice by offering them suitable instructions. Henceforward, therefore,articles of a didactic nature and on technical subjects, not necessarily containing new matter, willappear as well in this journal.

The question with which I now intend to deal is not that of the technique of dream-interpretation:neither the methods by which dreams should be interpreted nor the use of such interpretationswhen made will be considered, but only the way in which the analyst should employ the art ofdream-interpretation in the psycho-analytic treatment of patients. There are undoubtedlydifferent ways of going to work in the matter, but then the answer to questions of technique inanalysis is never a matter of course. Although there may perhaps be more than one good road tofollow, still there are very many bad ones, and a comparison of the various methods cannot failto be illuminating, even if it should not lead to a decision in favour of any particular one.

Anyone coming from dream-interpretation to analytic practice will retain his interest in thecontent of dreams, and his inclination will be to interpret as fully as possible every dream relatedby the patient. But he will soon remark that he is now working under quite different conditions,and that if he attempts to carry out his intention he will come into collision with the mostimmediate tasks of the treatment. Even if a patient's first dream proves to be admirably suited forthe introduction of the first explanations to be given, other dreams will promptly appear, so long andso obscure that the full meaning cannot be extracted from them in the limited session of oneday's work. If the doctor continues the work of interpretation during the following days, freshdreams will be produced in the meantime and these will have to be put aside until he can regardthe first dream as finally resolved. The production of dreams is at times so copious, and thepatient's progress towards comprehension of them so hesitant, that a suspicion will force itself onthe analyst that the appearance of the material in this manner may be simply a manifestation ofthe patient's resistance taking advantage of the discovery that the method is unable to masterwhat is so presented. Moreover, the treatment will meanwhile have fallen quite a distance behindthe present and have lost touch with actuality. In opposition to such a technique stands the rulethat it is of the greatest importance for the treatment that the analyst should always be aware ofthe surface of the patient's mind at any given moment, that he should know what complexes andresistances are active in him at the time and what conscious reaction to them will govern hisbehaviour. It is scarcely ever right to sacrifice this therapeutic aim to an interest in dreaminterpretation.

What then, if we bear this rule in mind, is to be our attitude to interpreting dreams in analysis?More or less as follows: The amount of interpretation which can be achieved in one sessionshould be taken as sufficient and it is not to be regarded as a loss if the content of the dream isnot fully discovered. On the following day, the interpretation of the dream is not to be taken upagain as a matter of course, until it has become evident that nothing else has meanwhile forcedits way into the foreground of the patient's thoughts. Thus no exception in favour of aninterrupted dream-interpretation is to be made to the rule that the first thing that comes into thepatient's head is the first thing to be dealt with. If fresh dreams occur before the earlier ones havebeen disposed of, the more recent productions are to be attended to, and no uneasiness need befelt about neglecting the older ones. If the dreams become altogether too diffuse and voluminous,all hope of completely unravelling them should tacitly be given up from the start. One must ingeneral guard against displaying very special interest in the interpretation of dreams, or arousingan idea in the patient that the work would come to a standstill if he were to bring up no dreams; otherwise there is a dangerof the resistance being directed to the production of dreams, with a consequent cessation of them.The patient must be brought to believe, on the contrary, that the analysis invariably findsmaterial for its continuation, regardless of whether or no he brings up dreams or what amount ofattention is devoted to them.

It will now be asked whether we shall not be giving up too much valuable material which mightthrow light on the unconscious if dream-interpretation is only to be carried out subject to suchrestrictions of method. The answer to this is that the loss is by no means so great as might appearfrom a superficial view of the matter. To begin with, it must be recognized that in cases of severeneurosis any elaborate dream-productions must from the nature of things be regarded asincapable of complete solution. A dream of this kind is often based on the entire pathogenicmaterial of the case, as yet unknown to both doctor and patient (so called ‘programme-dreams’and biographical dreams), and is sometimes equivalent to a translation into dream-language ofthe whole content of the neurosis. In the attempt to interpret such a dream all the latent, as yetuntouched, resistances will be roused to activity and soon set a limit to its understanding. Thefull interpretation of such a dream will coincide with the completion of the whole analysis; if anote is made of it at the beginning, it may be possible to understand it at the end, many monthslater. It is the same as with the elucidation of a single symptom (the main symptom, perhaps).The whole analysis is needed to explain it; in the course of the treatment one must endeavour tolay hold first of this, then of that, fragment of the symptom's meaning, one after another, untilthey can all be pieced together. Similarly, no more can be expected of a dream occurring in theearly stages of the analysis; one must be content if the attempt at interpretation brings a singlepathogenic wishful impulse to light.

Thus nothing attainable is renounced if one gives up the idea of a complete dream-interpretation;nor is anything lost as a rule if one breaks off the interpretation of a comparatively old dream and turns to a more recentone. We have found from fine examples of fully analysed dreams that several successive scenesof one dream may have the same content, which may find expression in them with increasingclarity; and we have learnt, too, that several dreams occurring in the same night need be nothingmore than attempts, expressed in various forms, to represent one meaning. In general, we mayrest assured that every wishful impulse which creates a dream to-day will re-appear in otherdreams as long as it has not been understood and withdrawn from the domination of thedream is to leave it and to devote one's attention to a new dream, which may contain the samematerial in a possibly more accessible form. I know that it is asking a great deal, not only of thepatient but also of the doctor, to expect them to give up their conscious purposive aims duringthe treatment, and to abandon themselves to a guidance which, in spite of everything, still seemsto us ‘accidental’. But I can answer for it that one is rewarded every time one resolves to havefaith in one's own theoretical principles, and prevails upon oneself not to dispute the guidance ofthe unconscious in establishing connecting links.

I submit, therefore, that dream-interpretation should not be pursued in analytic treatment as an artfor its own sake, but that its handling should be subject to those technical rules that govern theconduct of the treatment as a whole. Occasionally, of course, one can act otherwise and allow alittle free play to one's theoretical interest; but one should always be aware of what one is doing.Another situation to be considered is one which has arisen since we have acquired moreconfidence in our understanding of dream-symbolism, and know ourselves to be moreindependent of the patient's associations. An unusually skilful dream-interpreter will sometimesfind himself in the position of being able to see through every one of a patient's dreams withoutrequiring him to go through the tedious and time-absorbing process of working over them. Suchan analyst is thus exempt from any conflict between the demands of dream-interpretation andthose of the treatment. Moreover he will be tempted to make full use of dream-interpretation onevery occasion, by telling the patient everything he has detected in his dreams. In doing so,however, he will have adopted a method of treatment which departs considerably from theestablished one, as I shall point out in another connection. Beginners in psycho-analyticpractice, at any rate, are advised not to take this exceptional case as a model.

Every analyst is in the position of the superior dream-interpreter, whom we have been imagining,in regard to the very first dreams that his patients bring, before they have learnt anything of thetechnique of translating dreams. These initial dreams may be described as unsophisticated: theybetray a great deal to the listener, like the dreams of so-called healthy people. The question thenarises whether the analyst is at once to translate to the patient all that he himself reads from them.This, however, is not the place for answering this question, for it evidently forms part of a widerone: at what stage in the treatment and how rapidly should the analyst introduce the patient to theknowledge of what lies veiled in his mind?2 The more the patient has learnt of the practice ofdream-interpretation, the more obscure do his later dreams as a rule become. All the knowledgeacquired about dreams serves also to put the dream-constructing process on its guard.In the ‘scientific’ works about dreams, which in spite of their repudiation of dream-interpretationhave received a new stimulus from psycho-analysis, one constantly finds that scrupulous care ismost unnecessarily attached to the accurate preservation of the text of the dream. This issupposed to need protection from distortions and attritions in the hours immediately afterwaking. Some psycho-analysts, even, in giving the patient instructions to write down everydream immediately upon waking, seem not to rely consistently enough upon their knowledge ofthe conditions of dream-formation. In therapeutic work this rule is superfluous;3 and patients areglad to make use of it to disturb their sleep and to display great zeal where it canserve no useful purpose. For even if the text of a dream is in this way laboriously rescued fromoblivion, it is easy enough to convince oneself that nothing has been achieved for the patient.Associations will not come to the text, and the result is the same as if the dream had not beenpreserved. No doubt the doctor has acquired some knowledge which he would not have doneotherwise. But it is not the same thing whether the analyst knows something or the patient knowsit; the importance of this distinction for the technique of psycho-analysis will be more fullyconsidered elsewhere.

In conclusion, I will mention a particular type of dream which, in the nature of the case, occursonly in the course of psycho-analytic treatment, and may bewilder or mislead beginners. Theseare the corroborative dreams which, as it were, ‘tag along behind’2 they are easily accessible toanalysis, and their translation merely presents what the treatment has inferred during the last fewdays from the material of the daily associations. When this happens, it looks as though thepatient has been amiable enough to bring us in dream-form exactly what we had been‘suggesting’ to him immediately before. The more experienced analyst will no doubt have somedifficulty in attributing any such amiability to the patient; he accepts such dreams as hoped-forconfirmations, and recognizes that they are only observed under certain conditions brought aboutby the influence of the treatment. The great majority of dreams forge ahead of the analysis; sothat, after subtraction of everything in them which is already known and understood, there stillremains a more or less clear hint at something which has hitherto been hidden.

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