IPA区际精神分析辞典:Enactment 扮演/活现
作者: Rosemary Balsam / 7608次阅读 时间: 2017年9月04日
来源: 陈明 译 标签: enactment ENACTMENT 扮演

Tri-Regional Entry Inter-Regional Consultants:
Rosemary Balsam (North America),
Roosevelt Cassorla (Latin America),
and Antonio Pérez-Sánchez (Europe) 
Coordinating Co-Chair: Eva D. Papiasvili (North America)
陈明 译




The concept of enactment does not have a stable place in psychoanalytic theory. Uses of the term vary widely from confinement to the analytic situation to a broad range of interactions and behaviors in life.


Following the first use of the term in a title of a paper by Theodore Jacobs (1986), enactment has often been thought of as a North American concept. However, in contemporary North American psychoanalytic literature, there is no single concept of enactment. Rather, there is a group of such concepts, more or less closely related to one another but also quite different from one another. The following sample of the uses absorbs, combines and expands on, the North American definitions of the concept by Akhtar (2009) and Auchincloss and Samberg (2012):

Theodore Jacobs(1986)在一篇论文的标题中首次使用了这个术语之后,扮演通常被认为是一个北美的概念。然而,在当代北美精神分析文献中,扮演的概念并非是单一的。相反,有一组这样的概念,这些概念彼此之间或多或少有着密切的联系,但也有很大的不同。在下面的示例中,吸收、结合并扩展了由Akhtar(2009)Auchincloss和Samberg (2012)对这一概念的北美定义:

  • Transference/Countertransference enactments (e.g., Jacobs 1986, Hirsch, 1998), where analyst and/or analysand express transference or countertransference wishes in action, rather than reflecting on and interpreting them. This use of the term was further expanded by McLaughlin (1991) to include 'evocative-coercive transferences of both patient and analyst’ and yet further developed by Chused (1991, 2003) as 'symbolic interactions' with unconscious meaning for both participants, potentially extending beyond the analytic situation. This phenomenon could be viewed as a version of ‘acting out’ or ‘acting in’ (Zeligs, 1957), extended to both participants.

    移情反移情扮演(例如,Jacobs 1986, Hirsch, 1998)的概念中,分析师和/或分析者的移情或反移情意愿是在行动中表达的,而不是通过反思和解释来表达移情/反移情。这个术语的使用进一步被McLaughlin(1991)扩展,包括“唤起了患者和分析师的强制移情”,同时,这个概念又进一步的被Chused (1991, 2003) 发展为:参与双方无意识意义的“象征性互动”潜在地扩展超越了分析情景。这种现象可以被看作是另一个版本的“咨询室内的付诸行动”或“咨询室外的付诸行动” (Zeligs, 1957),(将这一概念的适用范围)扩展到了参与双方。

  • The analysand’s unconscious induction of the analyst to live out the analysand’s unconscious fantasies. This idea is akin to 'projective identification' and/or 'role responsiveness'.

    分析者的无意识诱发了(induction)分析师对分析者无意识幻想的践行(live out)。这个观点与“投射性认同”和/或“角色响应性”是同源的。

  • An embedded series of often subtle, unconscious, interactive, mutually constructed dramas that are lived out' (Levine and Friedman, 2000, p.73; Loewald, 1975). Here, ‘enactment’ is being used to name a kind of intersubjectivity since the analyst is seen as a co-creator of what happens between the two parties.

    一系列的践行化身(embedded)通常是微妙的,无意识的,互动的,相互构建的戏剧,(Levine and Friedman, 2000, p.73; Loewald, 1975) 。在这里,“扮演”被用来命名一种主体间性,因为分析者被看作是双方之间发生的事情的共同创造者。

  • Any dramatic expression of transferential/countertransferential rupture of a fluid analytic containing exchange (Ellman, 2007), potentially extending beyond the psychoanalytic situation (Chused, Ellman, Renik, Rothstein, 1999), may be communicated nonverbally or verbally (see the “interpretative enactment” by Steiner, 2006a, below)

    任何移情/反移情的戏剧性的表达打断了分析性涵容交流的流动(Ellman,2007),潜在地扩展超越了精神分析情境 (Chused, Ellman, Renik, Rothstein, 1999),可能通过语言或非语言形式进行沟通(参见“诠释性扮演”的斯坦纳,by Steiner, 2006a, 下同)。

In Latin America this conceptual plurarity has been reduced, owing to the additional historical influences of authors like Racker (1948, 1988), Grinberg (1957, 1962), and Baranger & Baranger (1961-1962), and the further contemporary studies of Cassorla (2001, 2005, 2009, 2012, 2013, 2015), Sapisochin (2007, 2013) and others.

在拉丁美洲,这个概念的众多性有所简化,源自于像Racker(1948, 1988), Grinberg (1957, 1962), and Baranger & Baranger (1961-1962)这些作者的附加历史影响,以及Cassorla (2001, 2005, 2009, 2012, 2013, 2015)Sapisochin (2007, 2013) 和其他人对这一概念的进一步研究。

  • The predominant contemporary understanding of enactment in Latin America concerns phenomena where the analytical field is invaded by discharges and/or behaviors that involve both patient and analyst. Enactments arise from mutual emotional inducement without the members of the analytical dyad clearly realizing what is happening. Enactments reflect back to situations where verbal symbolization was impaired and, when words are available, they are used in limited and concrete ways. Enactments are ways of remembering early relationships through behaviors and feelings that are part of defensive organizations. (See below the differences between chronic and acute enactments)


European understanding of the term is closer to the Latin American than to the North American version, because the concept is rather exclusively confined to the analytical session.However, for some European analysts it differs from the Latin American version in that enactment is not so much a co-creation of patient and analyst, but rather the result of the interaction between them. The references to enactment being positioned within the countertransference or acting out are also fairly common


  • For example, Steiner’s (2006a) view of “interpretative enactment” is about the analyst's verbal communication, and is the idea that, though offered as interpretation, the utterance expresses the analyst's countertransferential feelings and attitudes.


The prevailing view of enactments in relation to psychoanalytic interpretation, within all three continental psychoanalytic cultures, is that whatever the formulation of the underlying processes and contents, enactments, as they relate to the psychoanalytic situation,are seen as developmentally and/or dynamically meaningful, and they need to be understood and ultimately, however gradually and in an individualized fashion, interpreted (Papiasvili, 2016).

在所有三个大陆的精神文化中,对于与分析性诠释相关的扮演的理解,占主导地位观点是,无论基本过程和内容是如何制定的,与精神分析情景有关的扮演,是具有发展的意义和/或具有动态意义的,而且他们需要被理解,并且最终逐渐地以一种个性化的方式被诠释(Papiasvili, 2016)。



The contemporary concepts of enactment all have roots in concepts that Freud articulated. From the time of Breuer’s treatment of Anna O. (Breuer, 1893) -- the first collusion described in the psychoanalytical literature -- Freud (1895) was concerned about actions that took place in the course of the patient unfolding his or her problems to the analyst. Transference (1905) was the first such discovery (the Dora case), where the fantasy structure of the patient is projected onto the analyst. Though first described in his selfanalysis in 1899 (The Interpretation of Dreams), in 1910 Freud gave the oedipus complex greater prominence, showing how children related sexually to their parents in patterns that they repeated in adult life, now with the analyst as parental substitute. Countertransference (1910) followed, referring to “the patient’s influence on his unconscious feelings” (1910, p.144). Acting out was next (1914) (though Freud had mentioned it earlier, seeing Dora’s premature termination as revenge on Freud, a substitute object for the punishing feelings that she felt towards Herr K). A further underpinning of the contemporary term ‘enactment’ came with his appreciation of the importance of the repetition compulsion (1914). This concept described how traumata unconsciously became repeated in treatment and in life. Freud wrote,

当代的扮演概念都源自于弗洛伊德所阐述的概念。自从布鲁尔治疗安娜·欧(Breuer,1893)开始——在精神分析的文献中描述的第一个共谋——弗洛伊德(1895)所关注的是病人在向分析师展开他或她问题的过程中所发生的行为。移情(1905)就是这样第一次被发现了(朵拉的案例),即,病人的幻想结构投射在分析师身上了。虽然弗洛伊德在1899(梦的解析中)第一次描述了他的自我分析,但是弗洛伊德1910的俄狄浦斯情结概念具有更显赫的地位,俄狄浦斯情结展现了孩子们是如何将性与父母联系起来的,这是他们在成年生活中重复的模式,现在,作为父母的分析师替代了父母。紧随其后的反移情(1910),指的是“病人对他(分析师)无意识情绪感受的影响”(1910,p.144)。接下来的是扮演(1914)(尽管弗洛伊德在之前提到过,参见朵拉过早地终止治疗,并以此报复弗洛伊德,这个行为是她觉得要针对Herr K的惩罚性情绪感受的替代物)。当代术语“扮演”更进一步的基础来自于弗洛伊德对强迫性重复之重要性的评估(1914)。强迫性重复的概念描述了创伤是如何不知不觉地在治疗和生活中再三重复的。弗洛伊德写道,

“He reproduces it not as a memory but as an action; he repeats it without, of course, knowing that he is repeating it… he cannot escape from this compulsion to repeat; and in the end we understand that this is his way of remembering…” (1914, p.150)


In 1923, the development of the structural theory led to a focus on the defense mechanisms and their relation to the ego. Defenses that would become central to the concept of enactment were projection, introjection, and re-projection. In sum, the current concepts of enactment embody, though of course also go beyond, many Freudian concepts.




The verb to enact is allied to the verb to act and one of the meanings of to act is to play a dramatic or theatrical role. The term to enact, together with its corresponding noun enactment, is found, imprecisely, in early and contemporary psychoanalytical literature, and refers to dramatic externalizations of the patient’s internal world either in a session or in everyday life. The term re-enactment has the same meaning.


In his seminal paper “On Countertransference Enactments”, Jacobs (1986) describes enactments as situations where an analyst is surprised by his own apparently inadequate countertransferential behavior. Later, the analyst may perceive the connections among his behavior, the emotional induction of the patient and personal factors of his own. Jacobs (1991, 2001) further clarified, emphasized, and popularized the term ‘enactment’. He used the term as the name for a specific occurrence in analysis in which one participant's psychology is played out vis-à-vis the other. What he tried to convey was the idea that enactments are behaviors on the part of patient, analyst, or both, that arise as a response to conflicts and fantasies stirred up in each by the ongoing therapeutic work. While linked to the interplay of transference and countertransference, these behaviors are also connected via memory to associated thoughts, unconscious fantasies and experiences of infancy and childhood. Thus, for Jacobs, the idea of enactment contains within it the notion of reenactment, that is, the reliving of bits and pieces of the psychological past of both parties in the analytic situation.


Jacobs’ concept of enactment resonates with Winnicott's (1963) somewhat paradoxical notion that, if the analysis goes well and the transference deepens, the patient will get the analyst to fail him as needed in the area of normal infantile omnipotence, i.e., in the transference.


However, Jacobs was not the first. Hans Loewald had used the term earlier, in “Psychoanalysis as an Art and the Fantasy Character of the Psychoanalytic Situation” (1975). He wrote that,

然而,雅可布不是第一个使用“扮演”这个词的人。Hans Loewald在他之前就曾经在“作为艺术的精神分析以及精神分析情境的幻想特征”(1975)”之中就使用过这个词。他写道,

“…[the] process in which patient and analyst are engaged with each other … involves a re-enactment, a dramatization of aspects of the patient’s psychic life history, created and staged in conjunction with, and directed by, the analyst”. (p. 278-9)


The patient and analyst co-create illusion within the transference neurosis. The patient takes the lead in the fantasy recreation, as if in a stage play. The analyst’s role is multidimensional. He or she is both the director and also different characters in the patient’s life. The patient and analyst are co-authors of this drama, which is experienced both as fantasy and actuality. Instead of simply assuming the roles, the analyst reflects them back and eventually the patient gains access to his or her inner life and gradually takes over the directorship, the script. Aristotle’s “imitation of action in the form of action” would in psychoanalytic terms be both re-enactment and repetition. Schafer (1982), a colleague of Loewald at the time, also believed that multiple self narratives or "storylines" could be recognized as differing versions of an analysand’s basic story played out with an analyst (say, dramas of imprisonment, rebirth, or oedipal rivalry).


Sandler (1976) drew attention to mutual induction between the members of a dyad and the spontaneous responses by the analyst to the patient's unconscious stimuli, which he called role-responsiveness.


Gradually the idea of enactment became more widely used and discussions on the topic became more common in the psychoanalytical literature (McLaughlin, 1991; Chused, 1991; Roughton, 1993; McLaughlin & Johan, 1992; Ellman & Moskovitz, 1998; Panel, 1999). For some, enactment simply replaced the term acting out, although we should recall that acting out is the English equivalent of the German word Agieren. In German “er agiere es” is the original for “but acts it out” (... [T]he patient does not remember anything of what he has forgotten and repressed, but acts it out.” Freud, 1914. p. 149).

扮演的观点,逐渐被更广泛的运用了,关于这个主题的讨论在精神分析文献中变得更为常见(McLaughlin,1991;Chused,1991; Roughton,1993; McLaughlin & Johan, 1992; Ellman & Moskovitz, 1998; Panel, 1999)。对于一些人而言,扮演仅仅是取代了“辅助行动”这个术语,虽然我们记得英语中的付诸行动等同于德语的举动(agieren[译注:兼具行动举动;对...的故意伤害;登台表演的意思])。在德语中“er-agiere-es”就是原来的“但是将其行动出来了”(…病人不记得任何他忘记的和压抑的事情了,但是将其行动出来了。“佛洛伊德,Freud, 1914. p. 149)。

In some psychoanalytical cultures the term acting out began to refer to more or less occasional and impulsive acts that broke into the expected free association, thus restricting the concept of Agieren. At the same time, the term came into use to label behaviors of impulsive and psychopathic personalities. The moralistic connotations of acting out contaminated the language of professionals in mental health and in law. The replacement of the term acting out with enactment aimed at eliminating the conceptual confusion and pejorative aspects of the term.

在某些精神分析文化中,术语付诸行动多多少少指的是偶然的和冲动的行为,这种行为打破了预期的自由联想,从而限制着举动概念。与此同时,付诸行动开始 被用来给冲动的行为和病态人格贴标签。辅助行动的道德内涵,腐蚀了(contaminated)精神健康和法律专职人员的语言。用扮演取代术语付诸行动旨在消除概念上的混乱和这个术语贬义的一面。

There is a legal connotation of the term enactment as a law, a mandate or a decree -- an order that must be obeyed, which was also taken into account. The psychoanalytical concept incorporated both meanings. There was also the fact that, by definition, both members of the dyad participate in an enactment and are insufficiently aware of what is happening. The analyst is driven by the relationship, subject to his own internal issues and blind spots. In contrast, in acting out the patient’s discharges can be noted by the analyst, as he does not allow himself to get involved in them.


Many analysts have described situations similar to those we call enactment, but without calling them such. The concept made it possible to bring together similar phenomena that had been associated with Freud and elaborated by psychoanalysts of various theoretical orientations in such terms as repetition, re-living, externalizing, acting-out, etc. The term gradually became part of the common ground of psychoanalysis. Recent discussions and studies can be found in Paz (2007), Ivey (2008), Mann & Cunningham (2009), Borensztejn (2009), Stern (2010), Waska (2011), Cassorla (2012), Sapisochin (2013), Bohleber et al (2013), and Katz, (2014).

许多分析师描述的情景类似于我们所说的扮演,但并没有这么认为(calling)。扮演的概念使得将相似的现象摆在一起变得可能,这些相似的现象与弗洛伊德有关,并且经由各种精神分析的理论取向阐述了,这些术语包括重复repetition、再经历reliving、具象化externalizing、辅助行动acting-out, 等等。这些术语逐渐成为了精神分析的共同部分。最近的讨论和研究,可以在以下文献中发现Paz (2007), Ivey (2008), Mann & Cunningham (2009), Borensztejn (2009), Stern (2010), Waska (2011), Cassorla (2012), Sapisochin (2013), Bohleber et al (2013), and Katz, (2014).。

Enactments vary in quality and intensity due to the different degrees of deficits, or impairment in the capacity to symbolize. The mildest might be “actualizations” (Sandler, 1976) that gratify transferential wishes toward the analyst. The most malignant involves an impaired capacity of the analyst, leading to behavioral abuses of his or her authority that go far beyond the limits of what would be considered analytical treatment (Bateman, 1998). The psychoanalytical literature discusses whether enactments are harmful or are necessary and useful. The trend is to consider that enactments arise naturally when an analyst is faced with traumatic, psychotic or borderline configurations, even when neurotic aspects predominate. They are certainly useful after they have been understood, and this understanding can only come about after they have been identified, that is, in Nachträglichkeit fashion (après coup, or in deferred action). Enactments that are not adequate

扮演的不同品质和程度是由于象征能力中不同程度的缺陷或损伤。最温和的扮演可能是“实现化actualizations”(桑德勒,1976),即,满足于对分析师的移情性愿望。最恶性的扮演巴包括:分析师能力的某个缺陷导致了他/她的权威之行为的滥用,这种滥用远远超出了被认为是分析治疗的限制(Bateman,1998)。精神分析的文献讨论了扮演是否是有害的、或者是必要的和有益的。趋势是认为,扮演是分析师在面对创伤、精神病性的或边缘的结构、甚至是以神经症为主导的(情景)之时自然地产的。当扮演被理解之后,也就是说,在事后的成形中(Nachträglichkeit fashion)(后知后觉的,或拖延的行动中)显然这些扮演是有用的。(只有)扮演是不够。

III. A. North American Evolution of the Concept: Additional Influence of the British Object Relations

3.1 北美概念的演变:英国客体关系的附加影响

Projective identification is an important element in enactment. It was first described by Klein (1946/1952), who defined it as an unconscious fantasy consisting(由…组成) of splitting and projection of good and bad parts of the ego into the object. Winnicott also used the concept. Bion (1962) expanded projective identification to include pre-verbal and/or pre-symbolic communication between mother and infant. To Bion’s concept, Joseph (1992) added the subject’s active-if-subtle behaviors (alongside his intrapsychic machinations), which work to produce an atmosphere in the room and to evoke in the analyst (object) certain emotions, sensations and ideas that might prod him or her toward behaving in otherwise unusual ways, ways that are nonetheless consistent with the internal schema of the analysand (subject). O’Shaughnessy (1992), describes two kinds of enactments, ‘enclaves’ and ‘excursions’, which may have destructive potential for the analytic process. The ‘enclave’ ensues when the analyst turns the analysis into a refuge from disturbance, and the ‘excursion’ ensues when the analyst turns the analysis into a series of flights. O’Shaughnessy recognizes that partial and limited acting out is an inevitable part of every clinical situation, but it becomes problematic when not contained so that it then deteriorates into enactments of a destructive type – enclaves and excursions (Shaughnessy, 1992).

由克莱因(1946/1952)首次提出的投射性认同是扮演中的一个重要元素。克莱因把投射性认同定义为由分裂组成的无意识的幻想,并且把自我的好的部分和坏的部分投身,进入了客体。温尼科特也使用概念。比昂(1962)将投射性认同扩展为,包括了婴儿和母亲前语言的和/或前象征性的沟通。约瑟夫(1992)补充了比昂的概念,增加了主体的“活跃又貌似微妙(active-if-subtle)”的行为(并行于他内心的诡计),这些在房间里产生一种氛围,并且在分析师(客体)中唤起某些情绪情感、感官感受和想法,这可能会促使他或她以一种不寻常的方式行事, 但是这种方式是与分析者(主题)内部图式如此的一致。O’Shaughnessy(1992)描述的两种扮演,“内飞地(enclaves)”和“外飞地(exclave)”可能会对分析过程具有潜在的破坏性。当分析师将分析变成了困扰的避难所的时候,“内飞地”得以确认,当分析师将分析变成了一系列的溃逃(flights)时,“外飞地”得以确认。O’Shaughnessy认为局部的和有限的付诸行动是每个临床不可避免的一部分,但是,当它未被牵制(contained)之时就会成问题,因此,付诸行动就会恶化为毁灭型的扮演——内飞地和外飞地(Shaughnessy,1992)。

Additionally, enactments can be viewed as an example of Winnicott’s (1963, p. 343) idea, discussed earlier, that we succeed by failing—failing the patient's way. This is a long distance from the simplistic theory of cure by corrective experience. To paraphrase Winnicott, enactment in a patient can be in the service of the ego if it is met by the analyst, and used to allow the patient to bring something toxic into the area of his or her control, where it can be managed by projection and introjection.


Thus, for North America, the concepts of enactment have deep roots in Freud, and also in the object relations tradition.


III. B. Latin American Evolution of the Concept: Wider Context and Conceptual Precursors

3.2 拉丁美洲概念的演变:更广泛的背景和概念的初期形式

Latin American psychoanalytical thought was influenced by pioneer authors who, in the 1940s and 1950s, developed deep studies about the analytical process taking into consideration what occurred between the members of the analytical dyad. Racker (1948, 1988) studied the “complementary countertransference”, as a consequence of the analyst’s identification with the patient’s internal objects. Grinberg (1957, 1962) described the “projective counteridentification”, a situation where analysts allow themselves to be taken over by the patient’s projective identifications and react to them without perceiving it. Later Grinberg modified some aspects of his ideas and showed the utility of this concept to the comprehension of what occurred between the members of the analytical dyad. Both Racker and Grinberg described situations similar to actual ideas of enactment. These and other authors influenced Willy and Madeleine Baranger who, taking the Kleinian ideas as a basis, described the analytical field (Baranger & Baranger, 1961-62, 1969, 1980).

拉丁美洲的精神分析思想受到以下先锋作者的影响,在1940和1950年代期间所形成的深入研究关乎于分析过程中所考虑的分析二元成员之间所发生的事情。Racker(1948, 1988)研究了“互补型反移情”,即,分析师对病人内部客体认同的结果。Grinberg(1957, 1962)所描述的“投射性反移情”的情景是,分析师们允许自己 被病人的投射性认同接管,并毫无察觉的对他们作出反应。后来Grinberg修正了他某些方面的思想,显示了这一概念对发生在分析二元成员之间所发生之事的理解效用。Racker和Grinberg都描述 了与扮演的实际想法类似的情况。这些作者以及其他的作者影响了Willy和Madeleine Baranger,他们两人以克莱茵思想作为基础描述了以下的分析性领域 (Baranger & Baranger, 1961-62, 1969, 1980)。

Such an analytical field is a place/time that involves two people (analyst and patient) who are taking part in the same dynamic process, one in which neither member of the dyad is intelligible without reference to the other. Both constitute a structure named the unconscious phantasy of the dyad, that goes beyond the sum of the aspects of each participant. In this context, the Barangers described a product of the field named bastions. They occur when parts of the patient and parts of the analyst become intertwined, engulfed, in a defensive structure. The bastion may appear as a static foreign body, while the analytical process seems to be continuing to run its course, or it takes over the whole field, becoming pathological. The idea of bastion is close to the idea of chronic enactment (Cassorla, 2005).

这样的分析领域涉及了两个(分析师和病人)正在参与着相同动力过程之人的场域/时间,是在相同的动态过程的一部分 ,如果没有对方的参照,分析双元关系中的任何一人都无法理解(如此的分析领域)。两者构成一个结构叫对子的潜意识幻想,超越每一个参与者的方面的总和。在这样的背景下,Barangers描述了 该领域中的被称为堡垒(bastions)的产物。当病人的一部分和分析师的一部分相互交织、相互吞噬、处于防御结构时,就会发生这些称为堡垒情况。 虽然分析过程似乎仍继续进行着,堡垒也可能显得是静止的异物,而分析过程似乎在继续运行,或者它接管整个领域,变成了病理性的了。堡垒的观念接近于慢性扮演的观念(cassorla,2005)。

Owing to these developments, the Latin American psychoanalytical culture rapidly absorbed the concept of enactment. Conceptual clarification was further facilitated by contemporary studies of Latin American contributions on the symbolization processes (Cassorla, 2001, 2005, 2009; Sanchez Grillo, 2004; Sapisochin 2007, 2013; Gus 2007; Paz, 2007; Borensztejn, 2009; Rocha, 2009; Schreck, 2011).

由于这些发展,拉丁美洲心理学文化迅速吸收了扮演的概念。当代拉丁美洲对象征化进程的贡献的研究进一步促进了扮演概念的澄清。(Cassorla, 2001, 2005, 2009; Sanchez Grillo, 2004; Sapisochin 2007, 2013; Gus 2007; Paz, 2007; Borensztejn, 2009; Rocha, 2009; Schreck, 2011).

TAG: enactment ENACTMENT 扮演
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