作者: 陈明 译 / 5662次阅读 时间: 2017年9月09日
来源: IPA 标签: Bion BION bion 被涵容者 涵容 涵容者 容器



Tri-Regional Entry
0g'DG o7a%e$o)|0Inter-Regional Consultants:
cJ4{1]Z9H"z0 Louis Brunet (North America);
k-rO:t%i9I0Vera Regina Fonseca(Latin America);
6E^5?nKq0Dimitris-James Jackson (Europe)心理学空间3c2L.r5m4Jz0CPO.DSX0i
Coordinating Co-Chair: Eva D. Papiasvili (North America)

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陈明 译

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【译者注】contain 的意思是对情绪情感的包容、抑制和遏制。最接近contain的中文词语是“容”。容字本意是盛放谷物的场所,容字的引申义容纳、宽容、从容、法规、防范之意。在中文精神分析语境中,通常将containment翻译为“容纳”、container翻译为“容器”、contained翻译为“被容纳者”。本文将其翻译为涵容、涵容者、被涵容者心理学空间DX6|L5Y'|8v

I. DEFINITION心理学空间B o"Ot8x

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Wilfred R. Bion’s concept of Container-Contained was meant to analogize the situation of the analytic couple in terms of the mother-infant nursing situation. It designates the mother not only as the donor of soothing and fulfilling milk, but also it is a receptive organ which receives the infant’s emotional pain and is able to sooth that pain for the infant and restore it to life-size management. In Bion’s terms, most generally, it represents the transformation of pain from O (in its meaning of nameless dread) to K (knowledge), as in “now I can think about the unthinkable!”


5t,|2b b4bH3s#Jc0威尔弗雷德·拜昂的涵容者-被涵容者概念所表达的意思是,以母婴护理的情况类比分析双方情景。这一概念不仅将母亲指派为慰藉和令人满足之奶水的捐献者,而且要成为一个有接受能力的器官,接受婴儿的情绪痛苦,并且有能力慰藉婴儿的痛苦,同时将其修复到生活尺度的管理之中。在拜昂的术语中,一般而言,它代表了痛苦从O(其意义是无以名状的惧怕)到K(知识)的转化,如同“现在我可以思考那些不可思议之事了”一样。心理学空间;^1a$x'{f4EUfS

From the evolution of theory point of view, the concept presents an extension of the theory of Projective Identification (see the separate entry PROJECTIVE IDENTIFICATION), from being a theory of primitive fantasy and defense into a theory of an archaic form of communication necessary for the development of thinking.心理学空间"B;_0t$A;@+Ee*PL


从理论观点的演化来看,这个概念代表了投射性认同理论的延伸(参见词条投射性认同),从一个原始幻想和防御的理论,转化成了一种思想的发展所必需的古老交流形式的理论。心理学空间&Ce"rS5u;E J

As a relational model of mental functioning, the Containment process extends a linear reciprocal interplay between the pair of Container-Contained, with the following steps: a mental state (‘content’) is communicated from a sender to a receiver; the receiver potentially ‘contains’ and transforms it through psychic work; the transformed content, together with the ‘function of containing’ itself may be then re-introjected by the sender.

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While the developmental prototype of this model is the mother-infant relationship, the concept is also applicable as a special kind of unconscious communication that takes place in both dyadic relationships and in groups as well as in the psychoanalytic process. It is also applied for understanding the intrapsychic process where the individual tries to contain, convert/transform and convey his/her emotions in words.


5C n n7r)Q8^0虽然该模型的发展原型是母婴关系,但是这一概念也适用于那些发生在双方的二价关系之中以及精神分析动力过程之中的一种特殊无意识沟通。它也应用于理解个体在试图以话语涵容、转换/转化和传递他/她的情绪的内部心灵过程。


In a clinical situation, the process of Containment has a special significance for understanding psychoanalytic processes and the development of thinking/symbolizing. Technically, it means more than silently bearing the infant/patient’s screams, or other displays of pain. Containment involves identification, transformation and interpretation in dealing with the pain when possible.

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The above multidimensional definition reflects, extrapolates from, and expands on the regional dictionaries and encyclopedias across the three continents (Lopez-Corvo, 2003; Skelton, 2006; Auchincloss and Samberg, 2012).心理学空间7j&q;LI?#m'j8pT8}


上述多维度的释义反映、推断、扩展了三大洲地区的词典和百科全书。(Lopez-Corvo, 2003; Skelton, 2006; Auchincloss and Samberg, 2012).

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g:] p Ct-nb'IL5E02、概念的起源

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The concept has its roots in the 1940’s England with the clinical research on schizophrenia (psychotic thought disorder), studied by Melanie Klein and her followers Herbert Rosenfeld, Hanna Segal and Wilfred R. Bion. (The term may also link to WR Bion’s experience as a war time tank commander. Containment as a military term implies restricting and minimizing conflict on the battlefield without necessarily eradicating it, thus making it more manageable.)

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~/{|Z5R@ } ~0这个概念根植于1940年代在英格兰进行的精神分裂的研究(精神病患者的思维障碍),研究由梅兰妮·克莱茵和他的追随者赫伯特·罗森费尔德、汉娜·西格尔和阿尔弗雷德·拜昂进行。(这个术语也与战时作为坦克指挥官的拜昂的经验有关。涵容作为一个军事术语,意味着在战场上限制和减少冲突而不必消灭它,从而使得其更易于管理。)【译注:Containment在军事语言中翻译成“遏制”。】


Klein’s “Notes on Schizoid Mechanisms” (1946) elucidated her view on the pathological fixation point of schizophrenia in the primitive early phase of infant life, from birth to 3 months, what she called the “paranoid-schizoid” position. In this position part object relations, persecutory and annihilation anxiety, and primitive defense mechanisms such as splitting, projective identification, denial and omnipotence are active. Rosenfeld (1959, 1969) particularly deepened the understanding of projective identification in his clinical studies (1950-1970). He revealed the process in the patient’s infantile, primitive world: patients project the inner objects, part objects and conflictual parts of self into the object – the mother’s breast and body/the therapist – to handle them through the object, subsequently making them part of the self by introjecting them back, and identifying with them. This projection and re-introjection process became a fundamental part of Bion’s research on container-contained.


克莱茵在《对分裂机制的若干评论》(1946)中阐明了她关于精神分裂症患者从出生到3个月婴儿早期之病理性固着的观点,她称之为“偏执-分裂”位。在这个位置中的部分客体关系,活跃着迫害与毁灭焦虑,以及诸如分裂、投射性认同、否认与理想化这些原始的防御机制。Rosenfeld(1959, 1969) 在他的临床研究(1950-1970)中详细深入地解释(understanding)了投射性认同。他在病人婴儿期的原始世界中揭示了这一过程:病人将内部客体,部分客体以及具有冲突的自我投射入了——母亲的乳房和身体/治疗师——通过客体控制他们,随后,通过将他们内摄回来,让他们成为自我的一部分,并且认同他们。这种投射和内摄过程成为了拜昂关于涵容者-被涵容者研究的一个基础部分。心理学空间WGZ.KW%M|3@&Z

The first incipient references to the Container-Contained theory appeared in Bion’s 1950’s writings, particularly in The Development of Schizophrenic Thought (1956, in: Bion, 1984); Differentiation between psychotic and non-psychotic personality (1957, in: Bion, 1984); On Hallucinosis (1958, in: Bion, 1984), and Attacks on Linking (1959). Making a reference to the baby’s relationship to the breast, within Melanie Klein’s theory on projective identification (Klein, 1946), he highlights the importance of the adaptation between the mother/her breast and the baby, in confronting the disintegration and death anxiety that the newborn experiences. The satisfactory presence of the container breast is the key when it comes to facing emotions and modifying them, allowing for emotional learning. Thus, Bion’s formulations of the projective identification concept as a primitive defense of the ego evolve into a description of a normative developmental realistic projective identification, implicit in the container – contained model.

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涵容者-被涵容者理论最初是在拜昂1950年的论文中出现的,尤其是在《关于精神分裂症患者思想的发展》(1956, in: Bion, 1984);《区分精神病性和非精神病性人格》(1957, in: Bion, 1984);在《幻觉》 (1958, in: Bion, 1984),《对联结的攻击》之中。借鉴于婴儿与乳房的关系,在梅兰妮·克莱茵关于投射性认同理论中(Klein, 1946),他强调了新生儿面对体验到的失整合和死亡焦虑时,母亲/她的乳房和婴儿之间的适应性改变的重要性。着令满意的容器乳房之存在是面对情绪和改变情绪、以及允许情绪学习的关键。因此,比昂的投射性认同的概念,作为一种原始的防御机制逐渐发展成为一个规范成熟的、栩栩如生的投射性认同之描述,隐含在涵容者-被涵容者的模型之中。心理学空间0}}_5d^o:j/Q


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In his 1959 paper “Attacks on Linking” (Bion, 1959), Bion described his experience with a psychotic patient who relied on projective identification to evacuate parts of his personality into the analyst, where, from the patient’s perspective, if they were allowed to repose long enough, they would undergo modification by the analyst’s psyche and then could safely be re-introjected. Bion describes how when the patient was left feeling that the analyst had evacuated the patient’s projections too quickly, that is that the feelings were not modified, the patient responded by attempting to (re)project them into the analyst with increased desperation and violence. Bion links this clinical process to the patient’s experience with his mother who could not tolerate taking in the infant’s projections and who did not contain the infant’s projected fears. Bion suggests that “an understanding mother is able to experience the feeling of dread that this baby was striving to deal with by projective identification and yet retain a balanced outlook” (Bion, 1959, p. 103-104).


@BaI/X^0拜昂在1959年的《对联接的攻击》中描述了他与一个精神病患者的体验,这个患者借助于投射性认同,将他的部分人格排除进入了分析师之内。在那里,病人的看法是,如果允许他们(在分析师那里)长时间的休息,他们能承受得起分析师心灵对其的改良,并且随后可以被安全的内摄。拜昂描述了当分析师过快的排除了病人的投射物之时,病人不舒服的情绪感受是怎样的,这种情绪感受是未被改良的,病人试图以增强了绝望和暴力将他们(再次)投射进入分析师来回应。拜昂将这一过程相关于病人和病人妈妈的体验,这个妈妈无法接纳(taking in)婴儿投射物,而且没有遏制(contain)婴儿投射的恐惧。拜昂认为“一个通情达理的妈妈有能力体验这种婴儿正在用投射性认同努力对付的恐惧情绪感受,并且还保有了平衡的前景”。

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In 1962, in his publication “Learning from Experience” and in a paper “A Theory of Thinking”, Bion (1962 a,b) develops these ideas further, describing the mother’s receptive state of mind when she can take in and contain the infant’s projected terror as reverie. By adding the idea of maternal reverie to the idea of projective identification, Bion includes how the environment, through primary relations, affects intrapsychic developments. Reverie refers to a receptive mental state where the mother unconsciously identifies and responds to what is projected by the child. Through maternal reverie the mother creates a new understanding of what the child tries to communicate. The mother transforms what Bion calls the beta elements into alpha elements, which can then be communicated back to the child. This becomes the first definition of the model Container-Contained. Specifically, the process involves the following steps: First, the mother, in a state of reverie receives and takes in those unbearable aspects of self, objects, affects and unprocessed sensory experiences (beta elements) of her infant that have been projected into her in phantasy. Second, she must bear the full effects of these projections upon her mind and body as long as need be in order to think about and to understand them, a process Bion refers to as transformation. Next, having thus transformed her baby’s experience in her own mind, she must gradually return them to the infant in detoxified and digestible form and (at such time as these may be of use to him) as demonstrated in her attitude and the way in which she handles him. In analysis, Bion refers to this last segment of the process as publication, what we commonly refer to as interpretation. The ability to ‘contain’ assumes a mother who has boundaries and sufficient internal space to accommodate her own anxieties as well as those acquired in relation to her infant; a mother who has a well-developed capacity to bear pain, to contemplate, to think and to convey what she thinks in a way that is meaningful to her infant. A mother who is herself separate, intact, receptive, capable of reverie and appropriately giving is thus suitable for introjection as a ‘containing’ object and little by little, over time, the infant’s identification with and assimilation of such an object leads to increasing mental space, the development of a capacity to make meaning, and the on-going evolution of a mind that can think for itself. This is what Bion came to call alpha function.


Ef#zd@m:k`ug0拜昂在1959年的书籍《经验中学习》和论文“思考的理论”中进一步发展了这些想法,描述了母亲在她能够接纳并涵容作为遐想的婴儿投射恐惧之时,其心智的乐于接受的(receptive)状态。拜昂通过将母亲遐想的观点加入到投射性认同的观点,包含了环境是如何经由原始的关系影响心灵内部的发展(的观点)。白日梦所指的一种接受的心理状态是母亲无意识地认同并回应了孩子的投射物。通过母亲的遐想,母亲创造了对儿童试图共同之物的新的理解。母亲将拜昂所称的贝塔元素转化为可以有效的反馈给孩子的阿尔法元素。这成为了涵容者-被涵容者模式的第一个定义,该过程涉及了以下的步骤:母亲在遐想的状态收到并接纳了她的婴儿的自体、客体、情感以及没有处理过的感官体验(贝塔元素)的那些无法忍受的方方面面。其次她必须在他的心智和身体上承受这些投身物的全部的效应,尽可能的根据需要去思考和理解他们,即拜昂所指的转化的过程。接下来,就这样把她婴儿的体验转化为了她自己的心智,她必须按部就班的,以解毒的和可吸收和的形式,并且(在她可以利用这些的时候)以她的态度所示范的、以及她对待的方式,将这些返还给婴儿。正如拜昂在出版物中所指的、我们通常称之为诠释的这个最后阶段的过程。“涵容”的能力假设了一位有边界和内部空间的妈妈,容纳了如同那些和她有关的婴儿一样,容纳了她自己的焦虑;这位妈妈很好的发展了忍受痛苦、默想、思考以及以一种对婴儿有益的方式转换她的想法之能力的母亲。这位妈妈,分离于自己,原封不动的、善于接受的、能够遐想的,并且作为一个“涵容者”的客体为内摄给予了如此适当的稳定的母亲。一点点的,随着时间的推移,婴儿对这样的客体的认同和同化会导致心智空间的增加,能力的发展制造了意义,以及持续不断心智演化。这个心智,能够独立的思。这就是拜昂说称的阿尔法功能。心理学空间jpy E"T-b*O

In his 1963 “Elements of Psychoanalysis”, Bion considers the dynamic relationship between the Container and Contained, marked by abstract signs of ♂ and ♀, to be the first element of psychoanalysis.The ♂ (Contained) here has a penetrating quality and the ♀ (Container) a receptive/receiving quality.In this context, ♀and ♂ are not restricted to the specific sexual meaning, but are without any specific sexual connotation.They represent variables or unknowns: the ♀ and ♂ functions present in all relationships, independently of gender.The ♂ (Contained) penetrates the ♀ (Container), who receives it and interacts with it, leading to a creation of a new product.The use of the ♂-♀ symbols highlights the biological nature of the mind, and also includes Freud’s and Klein’s concepts on sexuality and oedipal configuration.In his later writings, Bion emphasizes the reciprocity between the two parts, and the potential towards growth and interchange between them.The paradox of the dynamic relationship of Container-Contained lies in its reciprocal mutuality: Something that contains and something that is contained also perform the functions of mutually containing and being contained.Developmentally, this means that the breast as a container for the baby''s anxieties can also be the reverse: the baby as a container for some aspects of mother′s personality.



Later, in the clinical context, this reciprocity is highlighted: “The clue lies in the observation of the fluctuations which make the analyst at one moment ♀ and the analysand ♂, and at the next reverse the roles…” (Bion, 1970, p.108).心理学空间3rXN$R+T

Ld:Flk"_i,~PF0拜昂后来强调了临床背景中的这种互惠关系:“线索位于一瞬间分析师的♀角色和分析者的♂角色的变幻,并在下一秒角色发生了反转…”(Bion, 1970, p.108)。

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Throughout, Bion stresses that “to Contain” implies an activity and a process that allows for the formation of thought and its transformation into words; this is in opposition to the trivialized, constricted use of containing and receiving as merely passive receptivity. The full exposition of complexity and many facets and processes of transformation are at the center of his 1965 publication “Transformations: Change from learning to growth.” Here, Bion introduces a meta-theoretical concept of ‘O’, as the beginning but also potentially the end point of multidirectional transformative processes. It encompasses the unthinkable ‘nameless dread’, ‘beta elements’, ‘things in themselves’; but also the ‘Ultimate Reality’, ‘reverence’ and ‘awe’ (Bion, 1965; Grotstein, 2011a, p. 506).

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拜昂自始至终强调,“涵容”意味着允许思想形成并转化为话语的一种活动和过程;这是作为被动感受性地、轻视地、收缩地接受利用涵容和接纳的对立面。充分阐述的复杂性以及转化的诸多方面与过程,是他在1965出版的《转化:从学习到成长的变化》之中的中心思想。在这本书里,拜昂介绍了“O”的元理论概念,以此作为开始,O也可能是多方面转化过程的终点。O包括无法思考的“无名的恐惧”,“β元素”,“物自身”;也包括了“终极现实”、“尊重”和“敬畏”(Bion, 1965; Grotstein, 2011a, p. 506)。


As the Container-Contained is a part of Bion’s deductive scientific system, the theory of thought and thinking (Bion, 1962a, 1962b, 1963, 1965, 1970), it is important to place it in this context. According to this broad theory, “thoughts” and “thinking apparatus” have distinct origins, with “thoughts” existing independently of its thinking apparatus: “thoughts” are not generated by the thinking apparatus. In both, the Container-Contained relationship is seminal. Accordingly, Container-Contained relationship could be viewed as the embryo of mental life.心理学空间1p_&_ h0|

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由于涵容者-被涵容者是拜昂的演绎科学体系、思想和思考理论的一部分 (Bion, 1962a, 1962b, 1963, 1965, 1970),因此,重要的是要将其置入情景之中。根据这个概念的广义理论,“思想(thoughts)”和“思考装置”有着不同的起源,“思想”独立于它的思维装置而存在。“思想”不是由思维装置产生的。在这两者之中,涵容者-被涵容者的关系是种子(seminal)。因此,可以将涵容者-被涵容者的关系视为心智生活的胚胎(embryo)。

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According to this theory, the genesis of a “thought” is a process in which the Container-Contained relationship is the initial step. The condition for the psychic content (emotion, sensorial perception) to achieve mental quality (representation, thought) is the existence of the container capable of containing it. The prototypical object of this function (“Container”, with ♀ sign) is the mother’s breast, an innate preconception waiting to be realized.


-z1c @;og0^n.S5bE0根据这一理论,“思想”的起源是涵容者-被涵容者关系的最初一步,精神内容(表征、思想)获得心智品质(情绪、感官知觉)的条件是涵容其的涵容者存在的能力。这一功能的原型客体是母亲的乳房,一个与生俱来的前概念正等着去实现。


Sensorial and emotional stimuli (“contents”), conjugated with this adequate “container” transforms into a “Contained” (with ♂ sign), thus creating the “Container- Contained” relationship, an initial developmental moment of a thought by the thinker. This Container-Contained relationship (♀-♂) allows for the occurrence of an Emotional Experience, which will be characterized by the bond that qualifies it, L (love), H (hate), or K (knowledge, thought). Obtaining attention from Consciousness, this Emotional Experience can be transformed into alpha element, the monad of mental life, through the operation of the alpha function.心理学空间&waH0A E"E%Z


感官和情感刺激(“内容”),结合着这个胜任的“涵容者”(以 ♂符号)转化成“被涵容者”,从而创造了“涵容者-被涵容者”的关系,以及思想者思想的原初演化时刻。这个涵容者-被涵容者关系(♀-♂) 允许产生L(爱)、H(恨)和K(知识、思想)的结合为特点的情绪体验。为了从意识中获得关注,这种情感体验可以通过阿尔法功能的运作,转化为α元素,心智生活和单孢体。


The appearance of “thoughts” forces the creation of an apparatus to deal with them. Two foundational mechanisms conjugate for such, namely the Container-Contained (♀ ♂) and the dynamic relationship between the paranoid-schizoid and depressive position ((PS ↔ D)).

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“思想”的出现迫使建立一个装置来处理它们。这两种机制的配合是这样的,即涵容者-被涵容者(♀-♂) 以及偏执分裂和抑郁位之间的动力关系 (PS ↔ D)。

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The Container-Contained model also deals with the evolution of thought, as a factor in positive (+K) or negative growth (-K). Considering mental growth, in this relationship, ♂ and ♀ are reciprocally dependent with mutual benefit and with no harm to either party, characterizing what Bion would name, in 1962, a commensal link. In terms of a model, the mother and the child benefit when it comes to mental growth (Lopez-Corvo, 2002, p. 158). The child introjects this activity between the dyad in such a way that ♀ /♂ Container/Contained relationship is installed within herself, allowing the development of a function which will encourage the personality to become increasingly complex and creative in order to tackle the mental questions that will arise throughout the lifetime.

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涵容者—被涵容者的模型还涉及了作为积极 (+K) 或消极 (-K)成长因素之一的思想演化。考虑到心智的成长,在这种关系中,♂和♀互惠互利并且并不损害任何一方的利益,以拜昂1962年命名的“共栖链接(commensal link)”为特征。根据模型,母亲和孩子受益于心智的成长(Lopez Corvo,2002,p. 158)。孩子内摄了这种二元体的之间的心理活动,这种内摄的方式是,♀/♂涵容者/被涵容者额被装进了他自己之中,允许一个可以鼓励人格日益变得复杂和富有创造性之功能的发展,以解决会在一生中出现的心智的问题。心理学空间q5TB+ID0n]*a

Elliott Jaques’ (1960) ‘integrative reticulum’ is used by Bion to put together a model in which “the gaps are sleeves and the threads forming the meshes of the reticulum are emotions” (Bion, 1962, p. 92). The reticulum also receives growing ♂ “contents” through a process that necessarily includes a degree of tolerance of the unknown [the forming sleeves are still waiting for the contents]. On the other hand, learning depends on the ♀ capacity to stay integrated while expanding the degree of elasticity, much like a womb that expands to accommodate fetus’ growth (Sandler, 2009)


Lc QM1v$\["p0h"nF2\0拜昂用Elliott Jaques(1960)的“一体化的内质网”拼凑出一个模型,在这个模型中,“间隙是管状的,而且,丝线形成的网状网格是情绪”(Bion,1962,p. 92)。网状组织也接受到越来越多的♂的“内容”,这个接受的过程必然地包括了对未知事物的某种程度的容忍【形成的管状物依旧在等待着未知之物】。另一方面,学习取决于♀在扩大弹性程度的同时又逗留于使之一体化的能力,就像一个子宫,扩展以容纳胎儿的生长(桑德勒,2009)心理学空间D-s#E m dL

In a review of the concept in “Attention and Interpretation” (1970), Bion leaves aside the former formulation (Bion, 1962)of the links between Container and Contained (love, hate and knowledge) and proposes a new approach that stresses the relationship between Container and Contained. The three types of links are now characterized as commensal, symbiotic and parasitic. By commensal he means a relationship in which two objects share a third to the advantage of all three, for example fundamentals of the culture to which container and contained belong. By symbiotic he understands a relationship in which one depends on another to mutual advantage. We find this kind of relationship where one uses projective identification as communication, and the container transforms this into a new meaning for both. By parasitic he means a relationship in which one depends on another to produce a third which is destructive of all three. In such a case the projective identification is explosive and destructive of the container. The Container also is destructive of the content. The Container denudes the Contained of its quality of penetration, and the content denudes the Container of its receptive quality (Bion, 1970, p 95)


Ubr*]p0拜昂(1970)在对”关注与诠释”之概念的评论中,撇开了以前 (Bion, 1962) 对涵容者与被涵容者(爱、恨与知识)之间之链接的构想,并且在提出的新途径中强调了涵容者与被涵容者之间的关系。这三种类型的链接,现在具有了共生、共栖和寄生的特征。共栖意味着这样的一种关系,在这种关系中,两个客体共享了所有三种链接优势的第三方,例如涵容者和被涵容者隶属的文化基础。拜昂将共生的关系理解为互惠互利。我们发现在这种关系中,其中的一个人使用投射性认同进行沟通,而且,涵容者为双方将其转换为一个新的含义。在拜昂的寄生关系中,其中的一个人依赖于另一个以生成一个第三方,这个第三方对所有三种链接而言都是毁灭性的。在这种情况下,投射性认同对涵容者而言是爆炸性的和破坏性的。涵容者对于涵容之物也是破坏性的。涵容者剥蚀了被涵容者渗透的品质,同时,涵容物剥蚀了涵容者自身善于接纳的品质(Bion, 1970, p 95)。心理学空间5s4K\K|]6`9h S0_ X

The destructive link implies the failure of the Container/Contained: developmentally, when the baby has a disposition of a too strong aggressiveness or envy or when his/her tolerance against anxiety and fear in a frustrating experience is low, there are times when the mother cannot encourage growth well even if she has an ordinary Container function. The correspondences and actions the mother returns are not sufficient for the baby to alleviate the anxiety and fear and it becomes difficult for the baby to introject her containing function and identify to fit it into a part of him/herself. To the contrary, even if the baby’s disposition is normal, when the mother’s containing function is insufficient, the mother cannot understand well and grasp the experience of anxiety projected by the baby. In such situation, what the mother returns to the baby is not integrated and the meaning is confusing, therefore the baby cannot accept it as his/her own meaningful experience



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Thus, alongside +K which fosters growth, there is –K implying a symbiotic or parasitic relationship between ♂ sign contained and ♀ sign container, which would be other ways of dealing with the emotional situation as opposed to thought and its consequent growth. That is, a relationship that could lead to mutual destruction

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When applying the concept of containment to social systems, Bion described the conflict between the group (or fixed social order, the establishment), with that of the mystic, the individual bringing a new but potentially destabilizing idea into the group. The individual representing the new idea needs to be contained within the group, but this can lead to the new idea being either crushed by the group or the group falling to pieces under its pressure. With the appearance of –K, there is the presence of envy and feeling of fear, which collaborate decisively for not developing thoughts and the necessary creativity essential to the Bionian model of mental life. The – (♀, ♂) configuration (minus container-contained) leads to growing morality and the emergence of a “super-superego that asserts the moral superiority of undoing and un-learning and the advantage of finding fault with everything” (Sandler, 2009, pp. 262-263)


拜昂在用涵容的概念应用于社会系统时,描述了团体之间的冲突(或固定的社会秩序,企业),个体带着那种神秘主义,为团队带来了一个新的、但潜在的不稳定思想。代表新思想的个体需要被涵容在团队之中,但是,这可能会导致或是新的思想被团队粉碎,或者团队在其压力下崩溃。随着–K的出现,出现了嫉妒和恐惧的情绪感受,这种合作断然的不发展思想以及对于拜昂主义的心智生活模式是必不可少的必要创造性。这种(♀,♂)的组合(去掉了涵容者-被涵容者)导致了道德的成长,并出现一个“超超我,这个超超我主张恢复原状、忘记所学、并且发现所有缺陷中的优势的道德优越感”(桑德勒,2009,pp.262-263)心理学空间 kw3V,\)D M O

In this context it is interesting to note that in his 1970 text “Attention and Interpretation”, Bion refers to the modified Container-Contained, initially presented as a Catastrophic Change, in which there would be expansion of both elements心理学空间pt$gH dj f-Q




When in his 1970 publication “Attention and Interpretation: A Scientific Approach to Insight in Psychoanalysis and Groups”, Bion summarized and further developed his theoretical system, the contribution on “Containment” seemed modest, but progressively became an important new organizing concept for psychoanalysis. It allowed analysts and therapists “from both sides of the aisle” to speak in a common tongue about infant-mother affective, pre-lexical communication. Bion seemed to have opened up a significantly new pathway to the vertex of mental topography with his “Container/Contained”, along with his reshuffling of the functions L (love), H (hate) and K (knowledge), which were to serve and interact with Container/Contained.

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Hereto the nature of the interaction occurring both within the self and between the self and object(s) was limited to the operation of introjection and projection (later introjective and projective identification). These latter two functions were the developmental precursor of all subsequent defense mechanisms and typified the limitations of the one-person model of psychoanalysis that held that intra-psychic structure was made only of the subject’s representations

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In Container/Contained, Bion developed a unique epistemology of the basic communication between mother and infant, in which the inchoate process of thinking begins with the projective identification of the infant’s ‘thoughts (emotions) without a thinker’ (Bion 1970, p. 104) into his mother-as-a-container, whose reverie and alpha-function transforms them into thinkable thoughts, feelings, dreams and memories. Through such communication, the infant’s alpha function matures, as “it begins to think for itself by projecting into its own internal container-object with its own alpha function…” (Grotstein, 2005, p. 1056). Developmentally and clinically, Container/Contained function shifts by reversal, dialogically, between the two participants. In Grotstein’s (2005) opinion, ‘infant-mother-projectingcontainer team’ presents an irreducible two-person model, from which previous one-person models based in projection, introjection and/or projective identification may become a default consequence upon failed Containment. In its clinical analogue, the two-person model of Container/Contained includes the presence and activities of the analyst, although it remains centered on the analysand. Once the interactive psychoanalytic scene is thus broadened, to a two-person, three-dimensional landscape, the intersubjective perspective (‘vertex’) could be explored. Containment could now be seen as proliferating many if not all transference/countertransference phenomena, becoming a latent bond (‘hidden order’) between the two (Grotstein, 2011b)

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在涵容/被涵容之中,拜昂发展了一个母婴之间基本沟通的独一无二的认知论,在此之中,早期的思维过程从婴儿“没有思想者的思想”(Bion 1970, p. 104)的投射性认同开始,投射进入到他的-作为一个涵容者的-母亲之中,母亲的遐想和α功能将其转换成可以思考的思想、情绪感受、梦想和记忆。通过这样的交流,婴儿的α功能成熟了,“它通过把自己内部的‘涵容者-客体’投射到自己的阿尔法功能之中,开始为自己思考了…”(Grotstein,2005,p. 1056)。在发展和临床上,涵容者/被涵容者功能通过逆转、对话而在两个参与者之间发生了切换。在Grotstein(2005)观点中,“婴儿-母亲-投射着的-涵容者团队”呈现了一个不可简化的二人模型,通过这个二人模型,之前基于投射、内摄和/或投射性认同的单人模型,可能成为涵容失败后的一个未履行任务的后果。在其临床模拟之中,涵容者/被涵容者的二人模型,虽然仍然集中在分析者这里,但是也包括了分析师的存在和活动。一旦互动的精神分析场景因此而扩大了,成为了一个二人的,三维的场景,就可以探索主体间性的视角(‘锥形的顶点’)了。如果不是所有的移情反移情现象变成了两者之间潜在的束缚(‘隐藏的命令’),那么,现在,可以将涵容视为繁殖了许多的移情/反移情(Grotstein,2011b)。

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In some of his highly theoretical excursions, Bion (1965, 1970, 1992) links his concept of Containment to Plato’s Ideal Forms and Kant’s Things-in-Themselves. Here, the projecting subject activates the specific analogues of Container/Contained with the panoply of L, H, and K, dormant in their pre-existing universal condition of corresponding Ideal Forms and Things-in-Themselves.心理学空间'A4k;x*YX&et)FtT#I9o

v.t V,@.e[/v0在他的一些高度理论性的远足之中,拜昂(1965, 1970, 1992)将他的涵容概念与柏拉图的理想形式以及康德的物自身相链接。在这里,投射着的主体以全副武装的L、H和K激活了涵容者/被涵容者特定的类似物,,蛰伏在与理想形式和物自身一致的他们先验的普世状态之中。



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Psychoanalysts after Bion have discussed, elaborated on, and further developed various dimensions of the Container-Contained model. Some examples of such elaborations and further developments, spanning globally across several psychoanalytic regions are below.

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6N#@'Q(E&Z \pe,s0精神分析学家在拜昂之后讨论、阐述、并进一步发展了涵容者-被涵容者的各种模型。以下关于这一概念的一些阐述和进一步的讨论跨越全球几个精神分析区域。心理学空间c Z;R!N~[{F0R

In England, Ronald Britton (1998) has emphasized how words provide a container for an emotional experience creating a ‘semantic boundary’ around it, while the analytic situation itself provides a ‘bounded world’ and place where meaning can be found. He also elaborates on a mutually destructive relationship of container-contained, ‘malignant containment’, where the subject faced with the introduction of a new idea can imagine only two (catastrophic) alternatives, ‘incarceration or fragmentation’. Betty Joseph’s work has stressed the communicative aspects of projective identification in order to maintain psychic equilibrium, and the possibility of this process leading to psychic change, if contained (Joseph 1989).心理学空间hu k(^+qT S


在英国,布黎顿Ronald Britton(1998)强调了词语是如何在情绪体验四周创造一个“语义边界”为这些情绪体验提供一个涵容者。而分析情境本身提供了一个“有界的世界”和一个可以追寻意义的场所。他还详细阐述了涵容者-被涵容者之间的一种相互破坏关系,即“恶性涵容(malignant containment)”。在此情景中,面对引入新想法的主体只能想象两种(灾难性的)替代方案,即“监禁(incarceration)或破碎(fragmentation)”。Betty Joseph的工作强调了维持心理平衡之投射性认同交流的不同面向,以及在投射性认同的过程之中,如若被涵容之后所导致心理变化的可能性(Joseph 1989)。心理学空间&l.a:B:?'Vd'`[.j5S

North American analysts such as James Grotstein (1981, 2005), Robert Caper (1999) and Thomas Ogden (2004) have also made substantial contributions to the concept. Specifying the transmission processes within the pre-lexical Container/Contained communication, Grotstein developed his concept of ‘projective transidentification’: “Thus, when the analyst acts as a Container for the analysand’s…experiences, …the analysand unconsciously projectively identifies his emotional state into his image of the analyst with the hope of ridding himself of a pain and of inducing this state in the analyst by manipulating his image of the latter… The analyst, who is willing to be a helpful co-participant in this joint venture, becomes open and receptive,... This…eventuates in the analyst’s countercreation of his own image of the analysand projections…” (Grotstein, 2005, p. 1064). Caper has stressed how a key element of containment involves the ability of the object receiving the projection to maintain a realistic attitude towards the projected part in order to be able to think about it, and thus return it in a form made more manageable. This he understands as going beyond mere holding, which aims primarily at supporting the patient’s narcissism. Thomas Ogden’s work has focused on the interactive subjectivities involved in projective identification. The Container-Contained model is now widely accepted not only within, but also outside the Kleinian group. Among others, Arnold Modell (1989) has highlighted the Containing function of the psychoanalytic setting as a whole, and Judith Mitrani (1999, 2001) has elaborated the import of the analyst’s Containing function within the transferencecountertransference paradigms, for various developmental and (psycho)somatic conditions.

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-w,n*f)tNFi0北美的分析师 Robert Caper (1999)和Thomas Ogden (2004)同James Grotstein(1981, 2005)一样,也对此概念作出了贡献。他们详细阐述了在前词汇的涵容/被涵容过程中的沟通,Grotstein发展了他的“投射性反认同(projective transidentification)”的概念:“因此,当分析师扮演成为分析者…所体验的涵容者的时候…分析者已经通过投射性认同。无意识地将他的情绪状态投射进了他对分析师的意象之中,通过操作对分析师的意象,以希望摆脱自己的痛苦,并且希望在分析师之中引发这一状态。分析师,愿意在这个合资企业中成为一个有用的共同参与者,变得开放和善于接受,…这…最终在分析师对分析者所投射的他自己形象的反创造中找到了归宿”(Grotstein,2005,p.1064)。”Caper强调了涵容的一个关键要素所涉及的客体能力,这个客体接受投射,对投射的部分维持一个现实态度,以便能够思考这个投射的部分,从而以一种更易于管理的形式将其返还回。他认为,这不仅仅超越了以支持病人自恋为目标的抱持。Thomas Ogden的工作重点是在投射性认同中所涉及的相互影响的主体性。目前,涵容者-被涵容者的模式在克莱因团体之内和之外都被广泛接受。除了其他人之外,Arnold Modell(1989)强调了作为整体的精神分析设置的涵容功能,Judith Mitrani(1999,2001)阐述了分析师涵容功能在移情反移情范式中对各种发展以及(心)身状况的重要性。

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Contemporary French-Canadian model of Louis Brunet (2010), an example of a synthesis of both ‘Late Bionian’ (Grotstein, 2005) and French (De M’Uzan, 1994) thinking on the subject, offers a specific clinical construction of this concept. Here, Containment has both “fantasmatic” and “real” aspects that have to be understood jointly. There are intrapsychic and “fantasmatic” aspects in both patient and analyst’s psyches and there is a “real” response from the analyst or the object. Below is an abbreviated taxonomy of five steps leading to an adequate containing response:心理学空间-msAT(C2vR

3P j~X-|'__7^0Louis Brunet(2010)的当代法国加拿大模型,是“后拜昂时代”(Grotstein, 2005) 和法国思想家关于这一个概念的综合性实例,他就这一概念提出了一个具体的临床建构。在这里,涵容同时具有“幻想”和“现实”的面向,这两个面向必须要一起来理解。不仅在病人和分析师的心灵之中都具有心灵内部的和“幻想”的面向,而且有一个来自于分析师或客体的“真实的”回应。以下是通往一个足够好的涵容反映所经历的五个步骤的简要分类:

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1. the starting point may consist of a patient’s projective identification (distressing content expelled/projected into the analyst) associated with the patient’s unconscious fantasy of the existence of a potential indestructible object that would be able to "contain" those dangerous projections and may give back to the child (to the patient) a "tolerable", "integrable" version of this content;心理学空间Y8Zg:`_HjG




2. following this first “intrapsychic” movement the patient, or child, adds infra-verbal and verbal communications, attitudes and behaviors, acting as emotional inductions toward the subject (analyst, parent). These inductions are attempts to "touch the analyst" to get him to feel and take into himself what is projected. (See Grotstein, 2005);



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3.the “real” object—the mother, the analyst – must be willing to be touched, impressed, moved, assaulted, in fact used in every way necessitated by the transfer of archaic elements from the patient/child;心理学空间 v sU^&v@Q-p



4. the mother, the analyst – feels emotions, some consciously, but mainly unconsciously, through identifications. The admixture of such identifications and the analyst’s/mother’s own ‘touched off’ anxieties and conflicts, create an amalgam self-object. De M''Uzan (1994) studied this aspect with the concept of the chimera;心理学空间$G$j M5HU'E`jG

0Kk0D;P5r I[ }US o04。母亲、分析者,体会情绪,有一些是意识上的,但主要是无意识地,通过认同来体会。如此这些的认同,以及分析家/母亲自身“草率触发的”焦虑冲突之混合物,创造了一个自体-客体炼金的混合物。De M''Uzan(1994)研究了客迈拉(chimera)【译注:由三部分组成的会喷火的古希腊怪兽:它的前部是狮子,尾巴是一条蟒蛇,身子是山羊】概念的这个方面;

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5. this chimera must be “understood and transformed” by the analyst. This work may be seen as "psychic digestion" both of the projections of the patient/child and of the analyst’s/mother’s own conflicts and affects mobilized by the projection. He must then give back a "digestible content," the danger being to send to the patient a counterprojective identification.心理学空间^d6Y%l/[x8Z

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5。这个客迈拉必须被分析“理解和转化”。这项工作,无论对于病人/儿童的投射,还是对于分析师/母亲自己的冲突或通过投射产生的影响而言,都是可以看做是一种“精神消化”。他必须返回“消化的内容”,危险在于将一个反投射性认同送达给病人。心理学空间*S f |q y cZ

In Latin America, Cassorla (2013) has elaborated on the containing symbolizing function of the analyst in the context of chronic enactments (see the separate entry ENACTMENT). He writes of the capacity to symbolize as a product of the implicit containing symbolizing α-function that the analyst uses during chronic enactments.心理学空间,y#p@l.c W

U;DXzn JfX0在拉丁美洲,cassorla(2013)阐述了分析师在慢性扮演(参见词条扮演)中的涵容性象征功能。他将这种象征性的功能描写为,一种分析师在慢性扮演中运用的内隐涵容性象征α功能的产物。心理学空间Hi%z(\i W

In this context, the analyst’s implicit α-function is the capacity of the analyst to tolerate (contain) the obstructive movements that have invaded the analytic process, without giving up a search for new approaches to understanding of what is taking place, in preparation of future interpretations (of the enactments), if they are to be experienced by the analysand as meaningful.


3~ xq Nh"L0在这样的背景之中,分析师内隐的α功能是分析师的容忍(涵容)梗阻运动的能力,这个梗阻运动业已侵入了分析过程之中。分析师不放弃探索理解正在发生之事的新方法,为进一步的诠释(扮演)做准备,如果他们准备充当对分析者有意义的(客体)而被他们体验的话。



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The Container/Contained model has developed parallel with other “space” concepts of the mind, which focus upon the necessity of internalizing a maternal function for developing the capacity for thinking/symbolizing/mentalizing.心理学空间_ pn+u-Vi:z

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涵容/被涵容者模型的发展平行于与其他心智概念的“空间”,这些心智概念聚焦于内化成熟发展的思维/象征/心理化功能能力的必要性。心理学空间2ccj\2W/b k6mkRO

Containment should be distinguished from holding (Winnicott, 1960). D.W. Winnicott’s concept of holding conveys, as the concept of containment, that the infant cannot be understood independent of the mother, and that internalization of a maternal ‘holding’ function is necessary for mental development. However, holding is a broader term encompassing both a heightened psychical sensitivity to the infant’s needs as well as physical holding and total environmental provision (Winnicott, 1960). Containment on the other hand implies a more active intrapsychic involvement on the part of the object, depending more on her personality.心理学空间dPt'a2v

t.}FO{*Q's-^0应该从抱持中区分出(Winnicott,1960)涵容的概念。如同涵容的概念一样,D.W. Winnicott抱持传递的概念认为婴儿不能独立的被母亲理解,同时,内化成熟的“抱持”功能对于心智的发展是必要的。然而,抱持是一个更宽泛的术语,包括提高婴儿需求的精神灵敏度、精神抱持以及为整体环境提供所需的物质(Winnicott,1960)。而在另一方面,涵容意味着涉及了部分客体的更积极的心灵内部活动,更多地依靠她的人格。心理学空间Us,w$d7PX6bws

Esther Bick (1968), Donald Meltzer (1975), and later Didier Anzieu (1989), in a slightly different way, conceptualize the development of a skin-ego having a containing function. André Green (1999) writes about the necessity of a negative hallucination of the maternal function for creating an internal space for symbolization. These latter differ from Bion in that they also call attention to states where psychic space is assumed to not yet have been attained, and to other primitive ways of relating (prior to projective identification) such as primary and adhesive identification.

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J)TxCBhs)P3s0Esther Bick(1968),Donald Meltzer(1975),和后来的 Didier Anzieu(1989),以一个稍微不同的方式,概念化了皮肤自我涵容功能的发展。André Green(1999)描述了心智功能创造一个象征化内化空间的负性幻想的必要性。这些后来的概念不同于拜昂之处是他们所称的注意状态,在这个状态之中,假定还未(通过努力)获得精神空间,也未获得与诸如原初认同以及粘附性认同相关(主要是投射性认同)的其他原始方式。心理学空间{7DoeiydB


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The model of Container-Contained has a wide application in contemporary psychoanalysis. In clinical psychoanalysis the containing function is considered of major importance by a majority of contemporary psychoanalysts, independent of theoretical orientation. The term is applied not only for understanding the processes of projective identification, but also for work with psychic states dominated by excess tension/emotions due to trauma and/or undifferentiated psychic states. Today, many would also stress the importance of internalizing the paternal function, not only maternal reverie and alpha function. That is, the father’s link to the mother enabling her to maintain a balanced state of mind while attending to her infant’s needs and at the same time allowing the existence of a triangular space.


$K pU!\~Zkr0涵容者-被涵容者模式在当代精神分析中有着广泛的运用。大多数当代精神分析学家认为独立于理论取向的涵容功能是临床精神分析中最重要的功能。该术语不仅适用于理解投射性认同的过程,也适用于由创伤和/或未分化的精神状态引起的被过度紧张/情绪支配的精神状态。今天,许多人还强调了内化的父母功能的重要性,而不仅仅是母性幻想和阿尔法功能。也就是说,父亲与母亲的联系使她在照顾婴儿需要的同时保持平衡的心态,同时允许存在一个三角的空间。心理学空间"C W;X ]Hv7_zR1D

Bion’s theory of containment provides a new rationale for therapeutic efficacy. It is a theory of thinking based on an emotional experience of knowing which he designates as ‘K’ and with the seeking of truth in the therapeutic encounter, which for Bion is as vital for the mind as food is for the body. In terms of technique, it helps orient the analyst during the session as to what the patient may be bringing that requires psychic work of ‘containment’ in order to bring about psychic change.心理学空间W4m&k^2] |3V:C

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拜昂的涵容理论为治疗效果提供了新的理论基础。这是一种基于情感体验的思考理论,他把“K”和治疗中遇到真理的寻求等同起来,这对于比昂来说,如同事物对于生命一样,真相对于心灵也是同等重要的。就技术而言,这有助于指导分析师在会谈期间,当病人可能需要的涵容的精神工作,以便促进精神的改变。心理学空间x f n}|.U%k?kE

TAG: Bion BION bion 被涵容者 涵容 涵容者 容器
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