- THE-RACE-IS-RUN 被从事的競赛
- SOPHOCLES'S ANTI-HUMANISM 索福克利斯的反人本主义
- THE LAW OF EX NIH1LO 从空无中创造的法则
- THE DEATH D R I V E ILLUSTRATED 举例说明死亡冲动
- COMPLEMENT 补助
I did recommend an interlinear edition of Antigone to those of you who know enough Greek to get by, but it's not available. Use the Gamier translation instead, since it's not bad at all.
The following lines of the Greek text are the ones that concern us: 4-7, 323-325, 332-333, 360-375, 450-470, 559-560, 581-584, 611-614, 620- 625, 648-650, 780-805, 839-841, 852-862, 875, 916-924, 1259-1260.
希腊文本的底下几行，是我们关心的几行：4-7, 323-325, 332-333, 360-375, 450-470, 559-560, 581-584, 611-614, 620-625, 648-650, 780-805, 839-841, 852-862, 875, 916-924, 1259-1260.
Lines 559-560 give us Antigone's attitude toward life. She tells us that her soul died long ago and that she is destined to give help, ώγελεν, to the dead- we spoke about the same word in connection with Ophelia.
Lines 611-614 and 620-625 have to do with the Chorus's statements on the limit that is Αύ、, and it is around this that what Antigone wants is played out.
611-614 行，跟 620-625行跟合唱队的陈述有关系，探讨悲惨命运Ate的限制。环绕着这个，安提贡尼想要的东西被扮演出来。
I already pointed out last time the importance of the term that ends both of these passages, έκτος άτας. Έκτος signifies an outside or what happens once the limit of Ati has been crossed. When, for example, the guard comes and tells of the event that challenges Creon's authority, he says at the end that he is έκτος ελπίδος, outside or beyond all hope; he no longer hopes to be saved. Έκτο? άτας has the meaning of going beyond a limit in the text.
我上次已经指出这个术语的重要性。这个术语用这两个段落作为结束 έκτος άτας. Έκτος 指示著外在，或是悲惨命运Ate 的限制被跨越所发生的事情。譬如，当卫兵前来告诉这个挑战克瑞恩的权威的事件，他在结尾时说，他是έκτος ελπίδος ，外在于，或超越于所有的希望。他不再希望被拯救。Έκτο? Άτας 拥有这个意义，超越文本的限制之外。
And it is around this notion that the Chorus's song is developed at that moment, in the same way that it says that man goes toward προς άταν, that is, toward Ate. In this business the whole prepositional system of the Greeks is so vital and suggestive. It is because man mistakes evil for the good, because something beyond the limits of Ate has become Antigone's good, namely, a good that is different from everyone else's, that she goes toward, προς άταν.
就是环绕这个观念，合唱队的歌咏在那个时刻被发展。如同它说：人朝向προς άταν 前进。也就是，朝向悲惨命运Ate 前进。在这件事情，希腊人的整个的介系词系统非常重要而且具有暗示。因为人们将邪恶误认为是善行。因为某件超越悲惨命运Ate的限制的东西，成为安提贡尼的善行。换句话说，一件善行跟每一位其他人的善行不同。
So as to take up the problem in a way that allows me to bring my comments together, I must return to a simple, clean, unencumbered view of the tragic hero, and in particular of the one who concerns us, Antigone.
One thing has struck a commentator on Sophocles - commentator in the singular, for I have been surprised to find that it is only in a relatively recent book on Sophocles by Karl Reinhardt that something important has been brought out, namely, the special solitude of Sophoclean heroes, μονσύμενοι,, which is a nice term used by Sophocles, along with άφιλοι and φρενος οίοβώται, that is to say, those who lead their thoughts to graze far off. But it is nevertheless certain that it is not this that is involved here, for in the end tragic heroes are always isolated, they are always beyond established limits, always in an exposed position and, as a result, separated in one way or another from the structure.
有一件事情让探讨索福克利斯的评论家感到印象深刻，具有独特见解的评论家。因为我曾经大为惊奇地发现，最近出版的卡尔、瑞哈德论索福克利斯，某件重要的事情被显露出来。换句话说，索福克利斯的英雄人物的特别的孤独μονσύμενοι。这是索福克利斯使用的一个很好的术语，再加上άφιλοι 跟 φρενος οίοβώται。换句话说，那些让他们的思想高飞远飏的英雄人物。可是，这是确定的，在此牵涉到的并不是这个。因为最后，悲剧的英雄人物总是孤独的，他们总是超越现状的限制，总是处于被暴露的立场。结果，他们以某种的方式跟结构分开。
It is strange that something very obvious has been overlooked. Let us examine the seven plays of Sophocles that are extant of the twenty-five which he is said to have produced during a life of ninety years, sixty of which he devoted to tragedy. They are Ajax, Antigone, Electra, Oedipus Rex, The Trachiniae, Philoctetes, and Oedipus at Colonus.
A certain number of these plays remain familiar to us, but you are not perhaps aware that Ajax is a very odd piece of work. It begins with the massacre of the Greeks' flock by Ajax. Because Athena doesn't wish him well, he goes crazy. He imagines he is massacring the Greek army, but it is their flock instead. Afterwards he awakens from his craziness, is overcome with shame, and goes and kills himself in a corner. There is absolutely nothing else in the play but that, which is, after all, rather peculiar. As I was saying the other day, there isn't even the suggestion of a perepetia. Everything is there from the beginning; the trajectories that are set in motion have only to come crashing down one on top of the other as best they can.
We will leave Antigone aside for one moment, since we are discussing it. Electra, too, is an odd play of Sophocles. In Aeschylus we find the Choephoroe and the Eumenides, where the death of Agamemnon gives rise to all kinds of things. And once his murder has been avenged, Orestes then has to deal with the avenging divinities who protect the maternal blood.
There is nothing comparable in Sophocles. Electra is in certain ways the very double of Antigone - "Dead in life," she says, "I am already dead to everything."
Moreover, at that climactic moment when Orestes is making Aegisthus jump for it, he says to him, "Do you realize you are talking to people who are just like the dead? You are not talking to the living." It is an extremely odd note and the whole thing ends abruptly just like that. There isn't the least trace of anything superfluous. Everything ends abruptly. The end of Electra involves an execution in the proper sense of the word.
We can leave aside Oedipus Rex, given the perspective I am adopting here. In any case, I am not claiming to promulgate a general law, since we know nothing of the greater part of Sophocles's work.
The Trachiniae has to do with the end of Hercules. Hercules has come to the end of his labors, and he knows it. He is told he will be able to go and rest, that his work is over. Unfortunately, he mixed up the last of his labors with the desire for a female captive, and because she loves him, his wife sends him the delightful tunic that she has been keeping since the beginning in case of need, as a kind of weapon to be reserved for the right moment. She sends it to him and you know what happens. The whole end of the play is taken up with Hercules's groans and roars of pain as he is consumed by the burning cloth.
Then there is Philoctetes. Philoctetes is a character who has been exiled on an island. He has been rotting away there for ten years, and then he is asked to render the community a service. All kinds of things happen, including the moving struggle with his conscience of the young Neoptolemes, who is dispatched to serve as bait in an attempt to deceive the hero. Finally, there is Oedipus at Colonus.
You have no doubt noted the following. If there is a distinguishing characteristic to everything we ascribe to Sophocles, with the exception of Oedipus Rex, it is that for all his heroes the race is run. They are at a limit that is not accounted for by their solitude relative to others. There is something more; they are characters who find themselves right away in a limit zone, find themselves between life and death. The theme of between-life-and-death is moreover formulated as such in the text, but it is also manifest in the situations themselves.
One could even fit Oedipus Rex into this context. The hero has a characteristic that is both unique to him and paradoxical in relation to others. At the beginning of the drama he has attained the height of happiness. Yet Sophocles represents him as driven to bring about his own ruin through his obstinacy in wanting to solve an enigma, to know the truth. Everyone tries to prevent him, including especially Jocasta, who is always saying, "That's enough; we already know enough." Still he wants to know and in the end he does know. Yet I do grant that Oedipus Rex is an exception; it doesn't fit the general formula of the Sophoclean hero, who is marked by a stance of the race-is-run.
Let us now return to Antigone, whose race is run in the most obvious of ways.
On one occasion I showed you an anamorphosis; it was the finest I could find for our purpose, and it is indeed exemplary, far beyond anything one could have hoped for. Do you remember the cylinder from which this strange phenomenon rises up? It cannot properly speaking be said that from an optical point of view there is an image as such. Without going into the optical definition of the phenomenon, one can say that it is because an infinitesimal fragment of image is produced on each surface of the cylinder that we see a series of screens superimposed; and it is as a result of these that a marvelous illusion in the form of a beautiful image of the passion appears beyond the mirror, whereas something decomposed and disgusting spreads out around it.
That's the kind of thing that is involved here. What is the surface that allows the image of Antigone to rise up as an image of passion? The other day I evoked in connection with her the phrase, "Father, why hast thou abandoned me?" which is literally expressed in one line. Tragedy is that which spreads itself out in front so that that image may be produced. When analyzing it, we follow an inverse procedure; we study how the image had to be constructed in order to produce the desired effect. So let's begin.
I have already emphasized the implacable side of Antigone; the side that shows neither fear nor pity is apparent at every point. Somewhere in order to deplore this, the Chorus calls her, line 875, αύτόγνωτο•;. That should be heard alongside the γνώθι aeaxnov of the Delphic oracle. One cannot ignore the meaning of the kind of self-knowledge attributed to her. I have already indicated her extreme harshness when she tells Ismene of her purpose at the beginning. "Do you realize what is happening?" she asks. Creon has just promulgated what is called a κήρυγμα - a term that plays an important role in modern protestant theology as a dimension of the revelation.
我已经强调安提贡尼的无法缓和的一面。这一面显示：在每个时刻既没有恐惧，也没有同情是明显的。在某个地方，为了要哀叹这个αύτόγνωτο•，，合唱队呼唤他，在875行。那应该被听见，沿着德菲克预言的γνώθι aeaxnov。 我们无法忽视归属于她的那种自我知识的意义。我已经指示她的极端的严酷，当她告诉艾斯门，她在开始的目的。「你体会到正在发生什么事情？」她问道。克瑞恩刚刚宣佈所谓的κήρυγμα—这一个术语扮演一个重要的角色，在现代的基督教的神学，作为是启示的维度。
Her manner is as follows: "Here's the situation then. This is what he has proclaimed for you and me." Then she adds in the lively style of the text:"I speak for me." And she goes on to affirm that she will bury her brother.
We will see what that means. 我们将会看出那是什么意思。www.psychspace.com心理学空间网