《悲剧的本质:索福克勒斯的安提戈涅之评论》三 安提贡尼处于两次死亡之间
作者: LACAN / 5767次阅读 时间: 2017年12月22日
来源: 雄伯 译

Antigone between two deaths安提贡尼处于两次死亡之间


I would like now to focus on the meaning I give to such an exploration of the tragedy of Antigone.


It may have seemed demanding to some of you. For some time now I have

used the metaphor of the rabbit and the hat in connection with a certain way of making something appear from analytical discourse that isn't there. I might almost say that on this occasion I have put you to the test of eating raw rabbits. You can relax now. Take a lesson from the boa constrictor. Have a little nap and the whole thing will pass through. You will even notice on waking that you have digested something after all.


It is on account of the procedure I have adopted - and it's no doubt quite a demanding one obviously, quite a tough one - of requiring you to accompany me in breaking the stones along the road of the text that it will enter your body. You will see in retrospect that even if you are not aware of it, the latent, fundamental image of Antigone forms part of your morality, whether you like it or not. That's why it is important to analyze its meaning, and it's not the watered-down meaning in the light of which its lesson is usually transmitted.


Involved here is nothing more nor less than the reinterpretation of the

Sophoclean message. You can certainly resist this resharpening of the text's high points, but if you decide to reread Sophocles, you will perceive the distance we have traveled. Even if I am challenged on a given point - for I don't exclude the possibility that I, too, on occasion may misinterpret something- I believe I have dissipated the all-encompassing nonsense in which Sophocles is carefully preserved by a certain tradition.

在此被牵涉的实实在在就是重新诠释索福克利斯的讯息。你们确实能够抗拒这种重新塑造文本的高潮。但是假如你们决定重新阅读索福克利斯,你们将会感觉我们曾经旅行过的差异。即使在某个观点我被挑战—因为我没有排除这个可能性: 我有时也会错误地解释事情—我相信我已经排除这种涵盖一切的胡说,在那里,索福克利斯仔细的被某个传统保留。

While I was discussing that with some of you who were countering my

views with memories they had of reading Oedipus at Colonus - memories that

were obviously influenced by the scholarly interpretation - I remembered a little footnote. There are people here who like footnotes. So I will read one that is to be found in a work that psychoanalysts ought to have read at least once, namely, Erwin Rohde's Psyche, of which there exists an excellent French translation.


On the whole, you will find more there, and more that is certain, concerning that which Greek civilization has handed down to us than in any work originally written in French. The most brilliant people on earth don't have all the arrows in their quiver. As it is, we are unfortunate enough to have a romantic movement that didn't rise much above the level of a certain idiocy, and we by no means possess all the advantages when it comes to erudition.


On page 463 of the French translation of Erwin Rohde's book, you will

find a little footnote on Oedipus at Colonus, which I have already discussed

with you in terms that are directly related to what I am concerned with today.


Rohde writes: "One only has to read the play with an open mind to realize

that this savage, angry, pitiless old man who calls down horrible curses on his sons" - Rohde is perfectly correct, for twenty minutes before the end of the play, Oedipus is still crushing Polynices beneath the weight of his curses - "and who as a man thirsty for revenge looks forward passionately to the misfortunes that are about to descend on his native town, has none of that profound peace of the gods, of that transfiguration associated with the penitent, which traditional exegesis is pleased to observe in him. The poet does not make a habit of disguising life's realities, and here he shows himself to be fully aware that destitution and misfortune do not usually have the effect of transfiguring man; they depress him rather and strip him of his nobility. His Oedipus is pious. He was from the beginning in Oedipus Rex, but in his distress he turns savage."


That is the testimony of a reader who is not especially concerned with the problems of tragedy, since his work is an historical account of the different concepts that the Greeks had of the soul.


As far as we are concerned, I have tried to show you that at a time that

preceded the ethical formulations of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, Sophocles presents us with man and questions him along the paths of his solitude; he situates the hero in a sphere where death encroaches on life, in his relationship, that is, to what I have been calling the second death here. This relationship to being suspends everything that has to do with transformation, with the cycle of generation and decay or with history itself, and it places us on a level that is more extreme than any other insofar as it is directly attached to language as such.


To put it in the terms of Levi-Strauss - and I am certain that I am not mistaken in invoking him here, since I was instrumental in having had him reread Antigone and he expressed himself to me in such terms - Antigone

with relation to Creon finds herself in the place of synchrony in opposition to diachrony.


I have stopped half-way in what I might have said about the text. We are not in a position to exhaust its significance this year, if only for reasons of time, but it is clear that the question raised at the end concerns what I shall call the divine use of Antigone.


In this connection one might make a number of comparisons. Antigone

hanging in her tomb evokes something very different from an act of suicide,

since there are all kinds of myths of hanged heroines, including girls, such as that of Erigone, who is linked to the advent of the cult of Dionysos. Dionysos has given wine to her father, but because he doesn't know its properties, he violates her and dies. She then hangs herself on his tomb. It is an explanatory myth of a whole rite in which we see more or less simplified and symbolic images of girls hanging from trees. In short, one finds there a whole ritual and mythical background, which may be brought back to resituate in its religious harmony all that is produced on the stage. It is nevertheless true that from a Sophoclean perspective the hero has nothing to do with that kind of use. Antigone is someone who has already set her sights on death. The invocation that is wrapped around this stem is something else; it doesn't have to do with human defiance here.


That's as far as I will go today. Involved in what I had to say to you about catharsis is the beauty effect. The beauty effect derives from the relationship of the hero to the limit, which is defined on this occasion by a certain Ate.


And on that subject I will now, so to speak, pass the word to someone else (passer la parole), conscious of the fact that I am using the very definitions of the structure of the seminar.


In effect, I don't want to be the one who, like some jack-of-all trades, takes upon himself alone the task of poking about in all those more-or-less heterogeneous fields that offer the traditional formulations of these things.


At a certain level within you, I mean all of you individually at a certain point in your thinking, there is a form of resistance to the things I am trying to express, and it consists of making sympathetic comments that are more or less ambiguous in kind on what has come to be known as my learning or, as is also said, my cultural background. It's something I don't like. It also has a negative side; one wonders where I find the time to assemble all that. But you will recognize that my existence began a little before yours. I may not have had two hundred years of mowing like an English lawn, but I am getting there. In any case, I am closer than you are, and I've had time to forget several times over the things I discuss with you.


I would, therefore, like today to ask someone to speak about the beautiful who seems to me to be particularly well-equipped to discuss it in relation to something that I take to be essential for the continuation of my argument; that something is the definition of the beautiful and the sublime as articulated by Kant.


Involved there is a form of category analysis that is of the highest significance in any effort to connect up with the topological structuration that I am pursuing with you here. It seems to me essential to take the time to recall Kant's insights, if you have already read The Critique of Judgment, or to hear what they are, if you haven't yet had the opportunity to read that work. That is why I have asked Mr. Kaufmann to speak to us now.


You will see afterwards the use that we might make of the work he will be presenting for your benefit today. [Mr. Kaufmann's presentation followed.


You were certainly right to state that infinitesimal calculus is evoked behind the experience of the sublime. One should note that in Kant's time infinitesimal calculus still harbored a kind of mystery of the signifier that has totally disappeared since that time.


The 1764 passage you quoted from Kant should really be communicated

to Claude LeVi-Strauss, as the inaugural speech he gave on being appointed

to his Chair at the Collige de France is already implied there. I don't mean by that antedated, but anticipated precisely in a way that is not emphasized at all in Rousseau. Kant already founds the ethics of ethnography there.


The work you presented today suggested to the audience here, which is

heterogeneous in its educational background, the idea of structures around which Kant both regroups and dissociates the idea of the beautiful. We might have placed in the background the idea of pleasure in Aristotle and have quoted the nice little definition he gives of it in the Rhetoric.


We will use that as a fulcrum - something that is in traditional philosophy

- when we take up again where we left off the question of the effect of tragedy .Although we think we always have to defer to Aristotle, that effect concerned cannot be fully explained in terms of moral catharsis.

June 15, I960



«《悲剧的本质:索福克勒斯的安提戈涅之评论》一 安提贡尼的辉煌 拉康 | Jacques Lacan
《拉康 | Jacques Lacan》

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    [name] => 拉康 | Jacques Lacan
    [note] => 雅克·拉康/雅各·拉冈 l Jacques-Marie-émile Lacan(1901.04.13-1981.09.09)

法国精神分析学大师,拉冈在精神分析学的理论上,对弗洛依德的理论进行了重要的解读,应用欧陆哲学(结构主义、黑格尔哲学、海德格哲学)为基础,为精神分析的理论,提供了一次哲学性的重塑,亦从基础理论上解开了对弗洛依德的一些误解。 [type] => news [ischannel] => 0 [displayorder] => 252 [tpl] => [viewtpl] => [thumb] => 1_2009100310294219szP.thumb.jpg [image] => 1_2009100310294219szP.jpg [haveattach] => 0 [bbsmodel] => 1 [bbsurltype] => [blockmodel] => 1 [blockparameter] => fid/83/order/lastpost DESC/limit/0,10/bbsurltype/site/cachename/1278727425/tpl/data [blocktext] => a:26:{s:8:"formhash";s:8:"a1bdc947";s:8:"bbsmodel";s:1:"1";s:10:"blockmodel";s:1:"1";s:3:"tid";s:0:"";s:3:"fid";a:1:{i:0;s:2:"83";}s:8:"dateline";s:1:"0";s:8:"lastpost";s:1:"0";s:8:"authorid";s:0:"";s:8:"readperm";a:2:{i:0;s:0:"";i:1;s:0:"";}s:5:"price";a:2:{i:0;s:0:"";i:1;s:0:"";}s:5:"views";a:2:{i:0;s:0:"";i:1;s:0:"";}s:7:"replies";a:2:{i:0;s:0:"";i:1;s:0:"";}s:4:"rate";a:2:{i:0;s:0:"";i:1;s:0:"";}s:5:"order";a:3:{i:0;s:8:"lastpost";i:1;s:0:"";i:2;s:0:"";}s:2:"sc";a:3:{i:0;s:4:"DESC";i:1;s:0:"";i:2;s:0:"";}s:3:"sql";s:0:"";s:10:"subjectlen";s:0:"";s:10:"bbsurltype";s:4:"site";s:14:"thevaluesubmit";s:8:"提交保存";s:9:"bbssubmit";s:3:"yes";s:5:"catid";s:2:"41";s:4:"type";s:4:"news";s:5:"start";s:1:"0";s:5:"limit";s:2:"10";s:9:"cachename";s:10:"1278727425";s:7:"tplname";s:4:"data";} [url] => [subcatid] => 41 [htmlpath] => [domain] => [perpage] => 20 [prehtml] => [homeid] => 0 [upname] => 拉康学派 )