《悲剧的本质:索福克勒斯的安提戈涅之评论》二 戏剧的表达
作者: LACAN / 5076次阅读 时间: 2017年12月21日
来源: 雄伯 译 标签: 安提戈涅
The articulations of the play戏剧的表达

I would like to try today to talk about Antigone, the play written by Sophoclesin 441 B.C., and in particular about the economy of the play.


With the category of the beautiful, Kant says that only the example -which doesn't mean the object - is capable of assuring its transmission insofaras this is both possible and demanded. Now, from every point of view,this text deserves to play such a role for us.


As you in any case know, I am reopening the question of the function ofthe beautiful in relation to that which we have been considering as the aim ofdesire. In a word, it may be that something new on the subject of the functionof desire may come to light here. That is the point we have reached.


It is only a single point on our path. Don't be astonished at how long thatpath is, Plato says somewhere in the Phaedrus, which is itself a dialogue onthe beautiful: Don't be astonished if the detour is such a long one, for it is anecessary detour.


Today we need to make progress in our commentary on Antigone.Read this truly admirable text. It is an unimaginable highpoint, a work ofoverwhelming rigor, whose only equivalent in Sophocles's work is his finalwork, Oedipus at Colonus, which was written in 401.


I will now attempt to analyze this text with you so as to make you appreciateits extraordinary stature.



As I said last time then, we have Antigone, we have something going on, wehave the Chorus.


On the other hand, as far as the nature of tragedy is concerned, I quotedthe end of Aristotle's sentence on pity and fear effecting the catharsis of theemotions, that famous catharsis the true meaning of which we will try tograsp at the end. Strangely enough, Goethe saw the function of this fear andpity in the action itself. That is, the action would provide us with a model ofthe balance between fear and pity. That is certainly not what Aristotle says;what he says is as inaccessible to us as a closed road on account of the curiousfate that has left us with so little material to confirm what he says in his text,because so much of it has been lost down through the centuries.


I will tell you one thing right away. Please note, and this is my first point,that at first glance, of the two protagonists, Creon and Antigone, neither oneseems to feel fear or pity. If you doubt that, it is because you haven't readAntigone, and since we are going to read the play together, I hope to point itout to you in the text.


My second point is that it is not "seems," but it is "certain" that at leastone of the protagonists right through to the end feels neither fear nor pity,and that is Antigone. That is why, among other things, she is the real hero.Creon, on the other hand, is moved by fear toward the end, and if it isn't thecause of his ruin, it is certainly the sign of it.


Let us now take up the question from the beginning.


It's not even that Creon says the play's opening words. As composed bySophocles, the play begins by introducing us to Antigone in her dialogue withIsmene; and she affirms her position and her reasons from the opening lines.Creon isn't even there as a foil. He only appears later. He is neverthelessessential for our demonstration.


Creon exists to illustrate a function that we have shown is inherent in thestructure of the ethic of tragedy, which is also that of psychoanalysis; he seeksthe good. Something that after all is his role. The leader is he who leads thecommunity. He exists to promote the good of all.


What does his fault consist of? Aristotle tells us, using a term that heaffirms falls directly within the province of tragic action, αμαρτία. We havesome trouble translating that word. "Error," we say, and in order to relate itto ethics, we interpret it as "error of judgment." But perhaps it isn't as simpleas that.


As I told you last time, almost a century separates the period of the creationof great tragedies from their interpretation by philosophical thought. Minerva,as Hegel has already said, takes flight at twilight. I'm not too sure, but Ithink we should remember this formula, which has been so often evoked, torecall that there is after all some distance between the teachings embodied intragic rites as such and their subsequent interpretation in the form of anethics, which with Aristotle is a science of happiness.


Nevertheless, it is true that we do note the following. And I would nothave any difficulty finding αμαρτία in others of Sophocles's tragethes: it exists,it is affirmed. The terms άμαρτάνειν and αμαρτήματα are to be found inCreon's own speeches, when at the end he succumbs to the blows of fate. But αμαρτία does not appear at the level of the true hero, but at the level ofCreon.

可是,我们确实注意到以下。我将不会遭遇任何困难,在索福克利斯的其他悲剧发现 αμαρτία 。它存在,它被肯定。άμαρτάνειν 与 αμαρτήματα 的这些术语能够被发现,在克瑞恩的言说里。当最后,他屈服于命运的打击。但是αμαρτία并没有出现在这位真实英雄的层次,而是出现在克瑞恩的层次。

His error of judgment (and we come closer to it here than that thoughtwhich is fond of wisdom ever has) is to want to promote the good of all - andI don't mean the Supreme Good, for let us not forget that 441 B.C. is veryearly, and our friend Plato hadn't yet created the mirage of that SupremeGood - to promote the good of all as the law without limits, the sovereignlaw, the law that goes beyond or crosses the limit. He doesn't even noticethat he has crossed that famous limit about which one assumes enough hasbeen said when one says that Antigone defends it and that it takes the formof the unwritten laws of the Δίκη. One thinks one has said enough when oneinterprets it as the Justice or the Doctrine of the gods, but one hasn't, in fact,said very much. And there is no doubt that Creon in his innocence crossesover into another sphere.

他的判断的错误(在此,比起以往,我们比较靠近喜爱智慧的这个思想),就是想要提升一切的善行。我的意思并不是崇高的善,因为让我们不要忘记,在纪元前441年是非常早期,我们的朋友柏拉图还没有创造那个崇高的善的幻想。提升一切中的善,作为没有限制的法则,这个统治性的法则,超越或跨越这个限制的法则。他甚至没有注意到,他已经跨越这个著名的限制。关于这个限制,我们认为我们已经说得足够,当我们说安提贡尼防卫它,它形成这个Δίκη 的不成文法则。我们认为我们已经说得足够,当我们解释它,作为是众神的信条的正义。但是事实上我们没有说的很多。无可置疑的地,克瑞恩纯然无知地跨越进入另外一个领域。

Note that his language is in perfect conformity with that which Kant callsthe Begriff or concept of the good. It is the language of practical reason. Hisrefusal to allow a sepulcre for Polynices, who is an enemy and a traitor to hiscountry, is founded on the fact that one cannot at the same time honor thosewho have defended their country and those who have attacked it. From aKantian point of view, it is a maxim that can be given as a rule of reason witha universal validity. Thus, before the ethical progression that from Aristotleto Kant leads us to make clear the identity of law and reason, doesn't thespectacle of tragedy reveal to us in anticipation the first objection? The goodcannot reign over all without an excess emerging whose fatal consequencesare revealed to us in tragedy.


What then is this famous sphere that we must not cross into? We are toldthat it is the place where the unwritten laws, the will or, better yet, the Δίκηof the gods rules. But we no longer have any idea what the gods are. Let usnot forget that we have lived for a long time under Christian law, and inorder to recall what the gods are, we have to engage in a little ethnography.If you read the Phaedrus I was talking about just now, which is a reflectionon the nature of love, you will see that we have changed the very axis of thewords that designate it.

那么,我们一定不要跨越进入的这个著名的领域是什么?我们被告诉,那是不成文法则统治的地方,这个意志,或更贴切地说,众神的这个Δίκη 统治的地方。但是我们不再知道众神是什么。让我们不要忘记,我们曾经长久生活在基督教的法则之下。为了回想众神在哪儿,我们必须稍微探讨一下民族学。假如你们阅读我刚才谈论到的「费德拉斯」,这是对于爱的特性的省思。你们将会看出,我们曾经改变指明它的那些字词的轴心。

What is this love? Is it that which, as a result of the fluctuations of thewhole Christian adventure, we have come to call sublime love? Is it, in effect,very close, although it was reached by other paths? Is it desire? Is it thatwhich some people believe I identify with a certain central sphere, namely,some natural evil in man? Is it that which Creon somewhere calls anarchy?In any case, you will see that the way in which the lovers in the Phaedrus actin relation to love varies according to the "epopteia" in which they have participated."Epopteia" here means initiation in the sense that the term has inantiquity; it designates very detailed ceremonies in the course of which certain phenomena occur. One comes upon these down through the centuries -and down to the present time, if one is willing to go to other regions of theglobe - in the form of trances or phenomena of possession in which a divinebeing manifests itself through the mouth of someone who is, so to speak,willing to cooperate.

这个爱是什么?它难道不是由于整个基督教的冒险的摇摆,我们渐渐称为崇高的爱?事实上,它难道不是非常靠近,虽然是凭借其他的途径到达?它是欲望吗?它难道不是某些人相信的东西吗?我认同某种的中央的领域。换句话说,人身上的某种自然的邪恶?它难道不是克瑞恩在某个地方称为是无法无天的地方?无论如何,你们将会看出,在「费德拉斯」,情人的行动跟爱相关的方式,会依照这个"epopteia" 而有差异。他们曾经参与那里。"Epopteia" 在此的意思意味着创始,这个术语在古代具有的意义。它指明非常详细的典礼。在这个典礼的过程,某些现象出现。几个世纪以降,一直到现在,我们遭遇到这些。假如我们愿意去到地球的其他地区—以狂喜的形式或是著魔的现象。在那里,神性的存在展现它自己,通过某人的嘴巴。换句话说,某个愿意合作的人。

Thus Plato tells us that those who have undergone an initiation to Zeus donot react in love in the same way as those who were initiated to Ares. Justreplace those names with those who in a given province of Brazil stand for aspirit of the earth or war or of a sovereign being. It is not our intention toengage in exoticism here, but that is what is involved.


In other words, this whole sphere is only really accessible to us from theoutside, from the point of view of science and of objectification. For us Christians,who have been educated by Christianity, it doesn't belong to the textin which the question is raised. We Christians have erased the whole sphereof the gods. And we are, in fact, interested here in that which we have replacedit with as illuminated by psychoanalysis. In this sphere, where is the limit?A limit that has no doubt been there from the beginning, but which doubtlessremains isolated and leaves its skeleton in this sphere that we Christians haveabandoned. That is the question I am asking here.


The limit involved, the limit that it is essential to situate if a certain phenomenonis to emerge through reflection, is something I have called the phenomenonof the beautiful, it is something I have begun to define as the limitof the second death.


I first brought this to your attention in connection with Sade as somethingthat sought to pursue nature to the very principle of its creative power, whichregulates the alternation of corruption and generation. Beyond that order,which it is no longer easy for us to think of and assume in the form of knowledge- and that is taken to be a reference point in the development of Christianthought - Sade tells us that there is something else, that a form oftransgression is possible, and he calls it "crime."


As I indicated, the form of the crime may only be a ridiculous fantasm,but what is in question is that which the thought points to. The crime is saidto be that which doesn't respect the natural order. And Sade's thought goesas far as forging the strangely extravagant notion that through crime man isgiven the power to liberate nature from its own laws. For its own laws arechains. What one has to sweep aside in order to force nature to start againfrom zero, so to speak, is the reproduction of forms against which nature'sboth harmonious and contradictory possibilities are stifled in an impasse ofconflicting forces. That is the aim of Sadean crime. It isn't for nothing thatcrime is one boundary of our exploration of desire or that it is on the basis ofa crime that Freud attempted to reconstruct the genealogy of the law. Thefrontiers represented by "starting from zero," ex nihilo, is, as I indicated atthe beginning of my comments this year, the place where a strictly atheistthought necessarily situates itself. A strictly atheist thought adopts no otherperspective than that of "creationism."

如同我指示,犯罪的这个形式可能仅是一种荒谬的幻见,但是受到置疑的问题是,思想指向的东西。犯罪据说是并没有尊敬自然秩序的东西。萨德的思想甚至铸造这个奢侈得怪异的观念,凭借犯罪,人被给予这个力量,将自然从它自己的天性解放出来。因为它自己的法则就是锁链。我们所必需横扫一旁的东西,为了强迫自然再次从零开始1,换句话说,那是形式的复制。对抗这些形式的复制,自然的既和谐与矛盾的可能性,被闷住在各种冲突力量的僵局里。那是萨德的犯罪的目标。这并非是没有意义,犯罪是我们的欲望的探索的边界。或者说,根据犯罪的基础,弗洛依德企图重新建构法律的系谱学。如同我从今年我的评论的开始所指示的,由「从零度开始」ex nihilo所代表的边界。严格的无神论思想必须定位自己在那里。严格的无神论思想採用的观点不是别的,就是「创造主义」的观点。

Moreover, nothing demonstrates better that Sadean thought is situated atthat limit than the fundamental fantasm one finds in Sade, a fantasm that isillustrated in a thousand or more exhausting images that he gives us of themanifestations of human desire. The fantasm involved is that of eternal suffering.     而且,比起在萨德我们发现的这个基本的幻见,没有一样东西更能证明:萨德的思想被定位在这个限制。萨德的这个幻见被举例说明,用他给予我们的上千个数不尽的意象,关于人类欲望的展示。被牵涉的幻见识永恒的痛苦的幻见。

In the typical Sadean scenario, suffering doesn't lead the victim to thepoint where he is dismembered and destroyed. It seems rather that the objectof all the torture is to retain the capacity of being an indestructible support.Analysis shows clearly that the subject separates out a double of himself whois made inaccessible to destruction, so as to make it support what, borrowinga term from the realm of aesthetics, one cannot help calling the play of pain.For the space in question is the same as that in which aesthetic phenomenadisport themselves, a space of freedom. And the conjunction between theplay of pain and the phenomena of beauty is to be found there, though it isnever emphasized, for it is as if some taboo or other prevented it, as if someprohibition were there, which is related to the difficulty we are familiar within our patients of admitting something that properly speaking belongs to therealm of fantasm.


I will point it out to you in Sade's texts, where it is so obvious that onefails to see it. The victims are always adorned not only with all kinds ofbeauty, but also with grace, which is beauty's finest flower. How does oneexplain this necessity, if not by the fact that we need to find it hidden, thoughimminent, however we approach the phenomenon, in the moving presentationof the victim or also in every form of beauty that is too obvious, toopresent, so that it leaves man speechless at the prospect of the image that issilhouetted behind it and threatens it. But what precisely is the threat, sinceit isn't the threat of destruction?

我将跟你们指出,在萨德的文本,显而易见地,我们没有看出它。受害者总是被装饰各种的美丽,而且优雅。那是美丽的最精致的花朵。我们如何解释这个必要?难道不是凭借这个事实? 我们需要发现它被隐藏,虽然是即将出现在受害者的感人的呈现,无论我们用什么方式接近这个现象。美丽的每个形式是过于明显,过于存在,它让人哑口无言,想到在它背后呈现轮廓及威胁它的这个意象。但是因为这并不是毁灭的威胁,这个威胁确实是什么?

The whole question is so crucial that I intend to have you go over thepassages of Kant's Critique of Judgment that are concerned with the nature ofbeauty; they are extraordinarily precise. I will leave them aside for the momentexcept to note the following: the forms that are at work in knowledge, Kanttells us, are interested in the phenomenon of beauty, though the object itselfis not involved. I take it you see the analogy with the Sadean fantasm, sincethe object there is no more than the power to support a form of suffering,which is in itself nothing else but the signifier of a limit. Suffering is conceivedof as a stasis which affirms that that which is cannot return to the voidfrom which it emerged.


Here one encounters the limit that Christianity has erected in the place ofall the other gods, a limit that takes the form of the exemplary image which attracts to itself all the threads of our desire, the image of the crucifixion. Ifwe dare, not so much look it in the face - given that mystics have been staringat it for centuries, we can only hope that it has been observed closely - butspeak about it directly, which is much more difficult, shall we say that whatis involved there is something that we might call the apotheosis of sadism?And by that I mean the divinization of everything that remains in this sphere,namely, of the limit in which a being remains in a state of suffering, otherwisehe can only do so by means of a concept that moreover represents the disqualificationof all concepts, that is, the concept of ex nihiôo.

在此,我们遭遇基督教竖立的这种限制,来代替所有其他的众神。这一个限制採取的是典范意象的形式。这个意象将我们欲望的所有线索吸引到它自己,耶稣钉上十字架的意象。假如我们胆敢,不是正面直视它,假如考虑到,神秘主义一直凝视它好几世纪了,我们仅能希望,它曾经仔细地被观察。但是直接地谈论到它。那会更加的困难。我们将会说,在那里所被牵涉的东西,是某件我们可能称为萨德主义的升华吗?我说这话的意思是,保留在这个领域的每样东西都神圣化。换句话说,限制的神圣化。在那里,人的存在始终是痛苦的状态。否则他仅能这样做,凭借一种观念。而且,这种观念代表所有的观念都除掉资格,从空无中创造ex nihilo的观念。

Suffice it for me to remind you of what you as analysts encounter directly,in other words the extent to which the fantasm that guides feminine desire -from the reveries of pure young virgins to the couplings fantasized by middleagedmatrons—may be literally poisoned by the favored image of Christ onthe cross. Need I go further and add that in connection with that imageChristianity has been crucifying man in holiness for centuries? In holiness.For some time now we have discovered that administrators are saints. Can'tone turn that around and say that saints are administrators, administrators ofthe access to desire, for Christianity's influence over man takes place at thelevel of the collectivity? Those gods who are dead in Christian hearts arepursued throughout the world by Christian missionaries. The central imageof Christian divinity absorbs all other images of desire in man with significantconsequences. From an historical point of view, we have perhaps reached theedge of this. It is what in the language of administration is referred to as thecultural problems of underdeveloped countries.


I am not as a result going to promise you a surprise here, whether it be agood one or a bad one. You will come upon it, as Antigone says, soon enough.Let us go back to Antigone.


TAG: 安提戈涅
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