作者: Julian Stern / 5254次阅读 时间: 2017年12月23日
来源: 卢林 译 标签: 感恩 嫉羡

On “Envy and Gratitude”关于《嫉羡感恩
Julian  Stern
卢林 译
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I am going to present a summary and then some thoughts on Melanie Klein’s paper “Envy and Gratitude”, first published in 1957, and more generally on Kleinian technique. We will look at key concepts and terms such as greed, envy and jealousy, as well as guilt , gratitude and generosity.


But let us begin with a piece written last year. In his book published in 2013, The Examined Life, psychoanalyst Stephen Grosz writes movingly about the problem of Parents envying their children, and how it impoverishes and spoils matters for all parties. The prose is simple, yet it conveys a taster of the more complex ideas to be described in the rest of today’s lecture, and signposts some concepts like destructiveness, spoiling, impoverishment of relationships and grievance

Grosz pp. 93-95

让我们从精神分析师Stephen Grosz去年的一篇文章开始。 在他2013年出版的书《验过的生活》中,他生动地描述了父母对孩子嫉羡的问题, 以及这些嫉羡是如何使所有的聚会变得贫瘠、被糟蹋了。文章很简单,但传递了今天的演讲中要描述的更加复杂的味道,即一些标志杆一样的概念,如毁灭、宠坏、关系的贫瘠和委屈。(Grosz, 93-95页)

1 Key ideas:


The definition of envy used by Klein is “the angry feeling that another person possesses and enjoys something desirable, often accompanied by the impulse to take it away or spoil it”.  Contemporary authors also recognise envy as a painful affliction.

克莱因对于嫉羡的定义是“对另一个人占有和享受一个人所渴望的东西的生气的感受,常常伴随着想要夺走或毁坏这个东西的感觉。”。 当代作家们也认为嫉羡是一种痛苦的情感

Klein believes that envious impulses, oral and anal sadistic in nature operate from the beginning of life, initially directed at the maternal breast, and then against parental intercourse. Klein sees envy as a manifestation of primary destructiveness, to some extent “inherited” i.e. constitutionally based, and worsened by external adversity. She feels that the attack on the good object leads to a number of consequences including

克莱因相信嫉羡冲动、天性中的口腔和肛门施虐是来自于生命早期、最初针对于母亲的乳房的, 然后是针对于父母的性交的。克莱因把嫉羡看作是原初毁灭性的证明,在某种程度上是“继承的”,是本质上的东西,会因为外在的困难而加重。她感到对于好客体的攻击会导致一系列的后果,包括:

  • Confusion between good and bad
  • And thus difficulties with depressive position acquisition and integration
  • Envy heightens persecution and guilt. 
  • In contradistinction to envy, Klein saw gratitude as an expression of love and of the life instinct, thus as the antithesis of envy .
    在嫉羡的禁忌征候里, 克莱因把感恩看作是爱的表达,是生本能,是嫉羡的对立面。

2 History of Envy in PA (Psychoanalysis)


The term “envy” has a long history in Psychoanalysis .


In 1908 Freud introduced the concept of “envy of the penis”, as a key psychological problem in the development of women.

1908年freud 介绍了“阴茎嫉羡”这个概念,作为女性发育的心理问题的关键点。

Freud’s assertion was that the little girl becomes aware of lacking a penis upon noticing the genital anatomy of the two sexes. She feels inferior, as Freud put it “lesser in so important a respect” (1925, 253) She thinks that shedidpossess a penis and has been castrated as a punishment for masturbation and/or imagines that she was deprived of a penis by a neglectful and unloving mother. She envies the penis for its size, masturbatory ease, and its manipulation of the urinary stream. Lacking it, she turns away from the mother to the father to obtain one from him; and the wish to have a baby is born. The wish for possession of a penis is never fully given up, it always persists in the girl and may be impervious to analysis. This penis envy was seen as “the primary organizer” of the female psyche ( Moore and Fine, quoted in Akhtar (2009), p 205) and underlines many character traits eg competitiveness with men, preferring a weak and castrated male for a partner, and neurotic symptoms such as kleptomania and vaginsmus in adult women.   Gradually the concept came under increasing criticism for many reasons (Akhtar describes 10 of which I will enumerate a few) :

Freud 断言:小女孩注意到两性的生理解剖上(的区别),开始意识到她缺乏一个阴茎。她会感到低人一等,就如同freud指出的“在如此重要的方面很小”(1925,253页), 她认为她的确有过一个阴茎,因为自慰而被作为惩罚被阉割掉了,或想象被一个忽略和不爱自己的母亲剥夺了。她嫉羡阴茎的尺寸、易于自慰、可以操纵尿流。缺乏阴茎,她从母亲那里转而朝向父亲,希望从父亲那里获得一个,和父亲生一个宝宝。这种想要获得一个阴茎的愿望从未放弃,总是存在于女孩,可能精神分析也不能渗透到这一点。阴茎嫉羡被看作是女性心理的“原始的组织者”(Moore和Fine,引用于Akhter,2009,205页),这加强许多性格特质, 比如与男性竞争,倾向于找一个弱的、阉割了的男性作伴侣,以及成年女性中的露阴癖和阴道痉挛等神经症。渐渐地,这些观念因为很多原因而得到越来越多的批评(Akhtar列数了十个,我在这里列举其中几个):

  • The entire concept of penis envy and Freud’s use of the expression of the “superior organ” for the penis represented the phallocentrism of a narrative written by and for men



 The portrayal of female psychosexual development as disappointed masculinity ( Moore and Fine 1990,p140 , quoted in Akhtar, 206) is not only theoretically biased and pejorative, but empirically untenable in the light of child observational studies


Even when penis envy is discernible in girls, it is seen as subtle and phase-specific, not pronounced and life long as Freud suggested


   Rather than emanating from auto-erotic and narcissistic factor, penis envy arose from object relations; it was a manifest content that hid all sorts of affects and longings


    Penis envy may be but one manifestation of envy at large….and thus can be encountered in men !


Such issues may not be impervious to analysis-they may not form the bedrock of the female psyche


And we will see that Klein, although obviously profoundly influenced by Freud, does not take penis envy as the main prototype or example of Envy  


 Continuing with the history of Envy in PA writing, Freud, subsequently in 1921, in “Group psychology and the psychology of the ego”  described how members of a group can forego inter-group envy and rivalries in a common idealisation of the group leader .


Karl Abraham in 1919 wrote about patients who begrudge the efforts and skill of the analyst, to appreciate him, stubbornly refusing to cooperate with him and trying to usurp his place. Abraham described envy as an unmistakable feature in this and saw it as an oral trait.

Karl Abraham在1919年写到嫉妒分析师的成就和技能的病人,他们欣赏分析师,顽强地拒绝和分析师合作,试图篡夺分析师的位置。Abraham描述嫉羡在这里有“不会犯错的”的特征,有口腔期的特质。

In her paper entitled “Jealousy as a mechanism of defence” Joan Riviere in 1932 suggested that in some primitive states of mind, the jealousy apparently linked to “triangular situations “may be nearer to envy. Here the deepest wish was to rob the mother of her possessions. And in 1936 Karen Horney explicitly linked the “negative therapeutic reaction” with envy of the analyst in other words, a wish to spoil the analyst’s work.

在Joan Riviere 1932年名为《作为防御的嫉妒》一文中,他提出:在思维的初级阶段,与“三角关系情形”有关的嫉妒可能最接近嫉羡。最深的愿望就是抢走母亲的所有物(乳房)。1936年Karen Horney明确地把“负性治疗反应”与对分析师的嫉羡连接起来,换句话说,就是破坏分析师工作的愿望。

In the 1940s Hanna Segal and Herbert Rosenfeld began to analyse adult patients with schizophrenia and described how such patients typically would “mount wholesale attacks on the good object for its very goodness” .Their analysis of these extreme cases of envy was seen to help to delineate the phenomenon.

1940年Hanna Segal和Rosenfeld 开始分析精神分裂症的成年病人,他们描述了这些病人如何典型地“准备上演对好客体的大量攻击,就是因为客体的好。”对这些嫉羡的极端案例的分析有助于勾画出这些现象。

But back to Melanie Klein. Her first reference to envy is in 1928 in her paper “Early stages of the Oedipus conflict”. She sees it as emerging at the earliest stage of the Oedipus complex, as a desire in both sexes to spoil the mother’s possessions, particularly the father’s penis, which in fantasy the mother contains. In her work dated 1932, entitled “The Psychoanalysis of Children”, she gives a detailed clinical account of that small child’s envious attacks on the phantasied parental sexual relationship. She considers envy to be one of the motive forces for the fantasy of pushing into the mother’s body in order to discover and scoop out its contents. Interestingly, in this paper she describes such destructive fantasies as being linked to the epistemophilic instinct, implying the interesting paradox that the destructive fantasies have intrinsically positive value. However, in Klein’s view, such fantasies are also the deeper sources of guilt and lead to fears of harbouring hostile objects engaged in deadly intercourse, and/or threatening the self. She thus considers “actual” harmonious parents to be deeply reassuring in this respect.


In Klein’s (1945) paper “the Oedipus complex in the light of the early anxieties” she discusses envy of the mother as an ordinary part of the Oedipus complex in both genders . For the girl, she describes how penis envy and the castration complex are exacerbated by frustration of the more basic oedipal desires. She thinks that children may at one time believe that mother has a penis as a male attribute, but unlike Freud she regards this as far less important than the idea that mother contains father’s penis.


In the paper (1952) “ The origins of Transference” she spells out what she calls “the prototype of situations of both envy and jealousy”. Powerful envy,  associated with frustrated oral desires, combined with a fantasy that some other person, ( typically, the father ) receives the coveted gratification, leads to a fantasy of the parents combined in everlasting mutual gratification of an oral, anal and genital nature.


In her subsequent paper “On identification.” (1955), Klein then uses a literary example to illustrate how envy could be a factor driving a person to use extreme projective identification.


Her seminal paper entitled “Envy and Gratitude” was published in 1957. Here for the first time she  explicitly pairs the two concepts. She refers the first time to envy of the breast earlier discussed by Riviere in 1932.

And finally, in her paper “Our adult world and its roots in Infancy” she provides a brief but comprehensive outline of the paired concepts of envy and gratitude.


I will now try to describe the Key concepts relating Klein’s ideas surroundingEnvy and gratitude. Much of this is derived from the Book “The New dictionary of Kleinian thought “ edited by Spillius and her collaborators, published by Routledge in 2011


1.     innate or primary envy linked to the death instinct.


2.     comparing envy, greed and jealousy.


3.     psychic consequences of envy.


4.     Envy and its link to gratitude.


5.     The interaction of constitution and environment


6.     Envy in relation to the depressive position.


7.     defences against envy


8.     envy and its contribution to psychosis.


9.     the negative therapeutic reaction


1 Innate or primary envy linked to the death instinct.


For Klein, the tendency towards envy differs greatly between people , as does the capacity for love, and the accompanying gratitude for goodness received.


Whilst the environment may modify these tendencies, Klein places substantial emphasis on innate factors and links envy with the death drive.  In 1957 she wrote “ I consider envy is an oral sadistic and anal sadistic expression of destructive impulses, operative from the beginning of life, and that it has a constitutional basis”, and she goes on to write “In speaking of the innate conflict between love and hate, I am implying that the capacity both for love and for destructive impulses is, to some extent, constitutional, though varying individually in strength and interacting from the beginning with external conditions” (p.180) She quotes Chaucer, Milton, Spenser to support her thesis of the universally recognised basic destructiveness of envy and its opposition to love .  


2. Klein distinguishes betweenenvy, jealousy and greed, which may be confused in everyday usage. Envy is rooted in a 2 person relationship, and stimulates the impulse to take away and spoil the possession of the other. As Hanna Segal writes “envy is a two-part relation in which the subject envies the object for some possession or quality: no other live object need enter into it.” (1964, p27)

Klein区分了嫉羡、嫉妒和贪婪,这些功能在日常生活中很容易混淆。嫉羡根植于两人关系,刺激着想要夺走和破坏别人的所有物的冲动。如同Hannal Segel写的“嫉羡是两部分的关系,在这个关系里主体嫉羡客体的所有物或品质:没有其他生命体能够进入。”(1964年,27页)

Segal writes that “jealousy is necessarily a whole object relationship, envy is essentially experienced in terms of part objects, though it persists into whole object relationships” (1964, p27)

Segal写到“嫉妒是“完整客体”的关系中必须的,而嫉羡是涉及到部分客体时必要的体验,尽管嫉羡也会进入到完整客体关系中。”(1964年, 27页)

Jealousy involves a three person relationship: jealousy is based on love and aims at the possession of the love object and the removal of the rival.  “jealousy is based on envy, but involves a relation to at least two people, it is mainly concerned with love, that the subject feels is his due, and has been taken away, or is in danger of being taken away, from him by his rival,” (Klein 1957, 181)


Greed is compared with envy.  Klein writes “ An impetuous and insatiable craving, exceeding what the subject needs and what the object is willing and able to give. At the Unconscious (Ucs ) level, greed aims primarily at completely scoping out, sucking dry and devouring the breast; that is to say its aim is destructive introjection ; whereas envy not only seeks to rob in this way but also to put badness , primarily bad excrements and bad parts of the self into the mother, and first of all into her breast ,to spoil and destroy her….One essential difference between greed and envy, although no rigid dividing line can be drawn since they are so closely associated, would accordingly be that greed is mainly bound up withintrojectionand envy withprojection” ( Klein 1957, 181)


So , to repeat, Greed aims at the possession of all the goodness that can be extracted from the object, regardless of consequences; this may result in the destruction of the object of the spoiling of its goodness, but in this case, thedestruction is incidentalto the ruthless acquisition.


Envy aims at being as good as the object, but when this is felt is impossible, it aims at spoiling the goodness of the object to remove the source of envious feelings. It is thisspoiling aspectof envy that is so destructive to development, since the very source of goodness that the infant depends on is turned bad, and good introjections therefore cannot be achieved.


Segal writes : Envy though arising from primitive love and admiration has a less strong libidinal component than greed and is suffused with the death instinct. As it attacks the source of life, it may be considered to be the earliest direct externalisation of the death instinct.

Segal 写到:嫉羡从原始的爱与钦佩发生,比贪婪少一些力比多的成分,弥漫着死本能。当它攻击生命的源泉时,它可以被认为是死本能最早的直接外化。

Envy stirs as soon as the infant becomes aware of the breast as a source of life and good experience; the real gratification which he experienced at the breast, reinforced by idealisation, so powerful in early infancy, makes him feel that the breast is the source of all comforts (physical and mental) an inexhaustible reservoir of food and warmth, love, understanding and wisdom.


 The blissful experience of satisfaction which this wonderful object can give,  will increase his love and his desire to possess, preserve  and protect it, but the same experienced stirs in him also the wish to be himself  the source of such perfection; he experiences painful feelings of envy which carry with them the desire to spoil the qualities of the object which can give him such painful feelings. (Segal, page 27-28)


One essential difference between greed and envy, although no rigid dividing line can be drawn since there are so closely associated, would accordingly be that greed is mainly bound up with introjection and envy with projection” ( Klein 1957, 181)


As has been pointed out by, amongst other authors, Elizabeth Spillius, the terms envy and jealousy often overlap, vary in meaning and have a “large penumbra of associations”. The well-known quote from Shakespeare’s Othello, being a good example.

就认同曾经被指出的那样,在其他许多作者中,Elizabeth Spillius认为嫉羡和妒忌这两个术语常常重叠,意义上不同,有“联系上很大的模糊之处”。引用于Shakespear的奥赛罗,是个好例子。

Envy, jealousy and greed are frequently found in close association . Greedy acquisition, for example, can be a defence against being aware of envy of those who have, or are, what one wishes for oneself. Where envy is strong, jealousy is bound to become stronger and more difficult to overcome.


3. Psychic consequences of envy.


Here we can describe at least seven psychic consequences.


3.1 Interference with primal splitting


The immediate result of an envious spoiling of the good breast is that the essential primal splitting into good and bad is interfered with. The spoiled good object cannot be introjected in a proper sustaining way. The damage caused to the breast by the envy, is also an ucs source of premature guilt, which is then felt in a paranoid way as an external and an internal threat


3.2  Problems with learning, and

3.3  Confusional states


Klein lays particular emphasis on the fact that envy leads to psychic attacks on the goodness of the object, which if unchecked, lead to great difficulty in taking in and learning. As envy leads to attacks on the goodness of the object, it is likely to result in confusion between the object’s goodness and badness which impairs processes of differentiation and of the development of rational thought. Mild manifestations of the confusion caused by envy may be indecision and muddled thinking. Severe state of confusion caused by envy are characteristic of psychotic states as Rosenfeld was later to show. Confusion in a different sense, between internal  and external world, and between self and other, occurs as the result of strong projective identifications in an envious individual.

Klein 强调了那些嫉羡导致对客体“好”(好的部分)的攻击的事实,这些如果没有被检测,会导致吸收和学习的严重困难。因为嫉羡导致对客体”好”的攻击,会导致客体好与恶之间的混淆,这会损害分化的过程以及理性思考发展的过程。嫉羡导致的轻微混乱困难是优柔寡断和糊涂思维。嫉羡导致的严重混淆是Rosenfeld后面提到的精神病状态的特点。

Furthermore, the confusion between the object goodness and badness impairs processes of differentiation and introjection. Curiosity is suffused with hostility and thus felt to be dangerous. All this impairs the capacity for thinking and learning.


3.4  Retaliation for forced introjection.


As result of the envious projection (forcing) of the self into the object to occupy and spoil it, there may be equally fearful fantasies of retaliatory entry into the individual for spoiling.


3.5  Vicious cycles of greed and destructiveness.


The anxieties aroused may lead individual to turn away from the source of goodness, or to become greedy and/ or more destructive and hateful. Both the interference of primal splitting and the increased paranoia generated by excessive envy interfere with the move towards the depressive position. Opportunities are thus lessened for the good, satisfying experiences, which can mitigate envy.


3.6  Weakening of the ego


Excessive envy in Klein’s view, weakens the ego. This puts the individual at risk of character deterioration, rather than character strengthening in future and adversity.


3. 7  Interference with oedipal development.


Strong envy is associated with an abnormal oedipal complex in a number of ways. The ordinary jealousies of the “ordinary” Oedipus complex are suffused with more problematic envy. Envy of the mother’s possessions make the fantasies of the combined parental figure more persecuting and persistent. An insecure enviously based relationship with the primal object, can mean that rivalry with the father arises prematurely, with his being seen as a very hostile intruder. Conversely, the libidinal turn from mother to father can be premature and insecure, based as it is on flight from the hated, disappointing mother. To escape from problematic (i.e. envy- ridden ) orality, the move to genitality  may be premature, insecure and compulsive.


Some case examples from Klein and Segal will illuminate some of these ideas as well as the technique employed in those relatively early days . First, from Klein herself. In “Envy and  gratitude” she describes a number of patients. What is interesting to me about much of this clinical material is the extent to which matters to do with bodily impulses, phantasies and feelings  i.e. oral, anal and urethral impulses, feeding, urinating defecating, are so omnipresent .

Klein 和Segal 的一些案例说明了这样的观点,也阐明了那些在相当早的岁月里使用的技术。首先,看看Klein她自己。在《嫉羡与感恩》中她描述了一些病人。在这众多的临床材料中最让我感兴趣的是那些与身体冲动有关的东西,如口腔、肛门、尿道的冲动、感觉,撒尿排便,这些都是无处不在的。

I will choose one patient from Envy and Gratitude here. This is a relatively analysable woman, p 204-206, and we can see clearly aspects of Klein’s technique-close attention to dream material, to the transference, to envy and spoiling. This seems to me to be s not excessively disturbed patient, compared with some of the others Klein describes later, but I am choosing it to illustrate some of what I have tried to describe so far.      


While not directly centrally linked to Envy, I want to digress for a moment to thinkabout languageand  a shift over recent years in Kleinian technique and use of words.


Elizabeth Spillius, who we will come to later, writes about Klein’s use of language and some changes in analytic language and technique : ( Melanie Klein Today,  pages 8 to 9)

Elizabeth Spillius,这是我们后面会谈到的一个人,她写了关于Klein使用的语言以及精神分析语言和技术的一些变化。(《今日克莱因》,8-9页)

“Klein developed her very concrete vivid language of part objects and bodily functions in work with small children for whom it was meaningful and appropriate. She assumed that infants feel and think in the same way, and further that this is the language of thinking and feeling in everyone’s unconscious. Work since Klein’s day has amply demonstrated that vivid bodily-based fantasies often become conscious in the analysis of adults, especially readily in the case of psychotic and borderline psychotic patients. Some of her more youthful and enthusiastic followers made interpretations in terms of verbal and behavioural content seen in a rigidly symbolic form which now seems likely to have been detrimental to the recognition of a live moment of emotional contact .… There has been a gradual shift from structure to function, that is from an idea that we relate to anatomical part objects towards an idea that we relate to psychological part objects, to the functions of the part object rather than primarily to fit its physical structure. It is the capacity for seeing, touching, tasting, hearing, smelling, remembering, feeling, judging, and thinking, active, as well as passive that are attributed to and perceived in relation to part objects.


Nowadays it isfunctions rather than anatomical part objectsthat Kleinian analysts look out for in their clinical work and interpretations are likely to be framed, at least initially, in terms of function rather than the language of anatomical structure; in keeping with Klein’s concept of projective identification. These functions are frequently understood as aspect of the self, which are projected into the part object. Melanie Klein today, volume 1, page 5 and volume 2, pages 8 to 9)

目前,Klein后继者们在临床工作和解释中更注重功能而不是解剖学的部分客体概念,好像是有一个框架,至少是开始了,使用概念而不是解剖学结构的语言;来和Klein投射认同的概念放在一起。这些功能常常被理解成自体的方面,被投射到部分客体了。(《今日克莱因》, 卷1,第5页;卷2,8-9页)

4. Envy and its link to gratitude.


Klein came to see the antithesis of envy is gratitude, an expression of love and thus, by implication, the life instinct. She did not develop the concept of gratitude nearly as fully as she did the concept of envy. She explicitly pairs the two concepts in 1957, but the importance of gratitude is a concept arose earlier in her work, especially in her theory of the depressive position.


In 1937 she described the infant’s spontaneous gratitude to the mother for her love and care and also the mother’s  gratitude to the infant for affording her the enjoyment of loving him. These are seen as part of love, a manifestation of “innate forces that tend to preserve life”, as opposed to the innate destructive impulses. In her much fuller exposition of gratitude in 1957, she described it as part of the relation to the good object, which is taken in to form the core of the ego.


“In contrast with the infant who, owing to his envy, has been unable to build up securely a good internal object, a child with a strong capacity for love and gratitude has a deep- rooted relation with a good object and can, without being fundamentally damaged, withstand temporary states of envy, hatred and grievance which arise even in children who are loved and well mothered” (page 187)


Gratitude is closely bound up with true generosity and gives a sense of inner wealth. Klein sees the capacity for gratitude like the tendency towards envy as partially innately determined but, once again, influenced by the environment as well.


Once again we turn to Elizabeth Spillius. In  her paper “Varieties of envious experience” , she coined the term “ the generosity of acceptance “ and I will quote at length from her paper now and later in this presentation as it seems to add an additional dimension to Klein’s work .

再一次回到Elizabeth Spillius。在   她《 嫉羡体验的多样性》一文中,她创造了一个词“接受慷慨”,我将一字不落地引用她写的内容,在她的这个陈述中,似乎她为Klein的作品增加了一个另外的维度,但是却完全没有背离Klein的基本思想。

She writes “ Let us suppose that the giver takes pleasure in giving further that he is not giving in order to establish superiority over the receiver. Let us suppose too that the receiver is able to perceive this accurately and to realise that the giver knows that he, the receiver, might resent being given to. In this type of giving and this type of perception by the receiver, it is likely to be easier for the receiver to acknowledge envy and feel positive feelings as well; in particular, the receiver may feel able to give something back to the giver in the form of feeling pleasure as well as some resentment about being given to. If the giver can recognise and accept this return gift, this gratitude, a benign  circle may be set up in which both parties give something of value to each other. The receiver’s capacity to be given to his return gift of the original giver. Goodness in the other becomes bearable, even enjoyable. The receiver introjects and identifies with an object who enjoys giving and receiving, and an internal basis for admiration can develop and hence emulation of the generous giver becomes possible.


Let us suppose, by contrast, that the giver takes little pleasure in giving-that he is narcissistic and uninterested in the receiver, or that he is outright actually hostile or inconsistent towards the receiver, or feels that the receiver is making unreasonable demands or draining his resources unfairly; or suppose that the giver gives his eagerly and with pleasure, but only in order to demonstrate his superiority over the receiver etc. Or further let us suppose that he gives reluctantly and unwillingly because he is trying to conceal the fact that he feels what he is giving is bad;  And still further let us suppose of the giver’s lack of genuine pleasure and generosity is accurately perceived by the receiver

让我们假设一下,赠与者从赠与的行为中没怎么有快感——他很自恋,对受赠者没啥兴趣,或者他对受赠者实际上有敌意,或感觉不一致,或者觉得受赠者在提不合理的要求,不公平地 耗尽他的资源;又或者假设一下赠与者热切、愉快地赠与,但只是想要证明自己比受赠者优越等。我们再进一步假设一下,他赠与得不情愿,因为他要掩藏他感觉自己的赠与是不好的;再多假设一下,赠与者缺乏真正的快乐,慷慨实际上是被受赠者觉察到的。

In any of these examples envy is likely to be exacerbated; pleasure in receiving cannot easily develop, and the receiver will not readily feel grateful. The receiver is likely to feel resentful and to give as little as possible back to the giver. The giver deprived of gratitude gives less, or more aggressively and the deprivation-envy circle continues.


So somewhat paradoxically, envy is likely to be greatest when the giving object is felt to give little or badly .The receiver takes in and identifies with the giver- object who does not enjoy giving and receiving, and the vicious cycle is perpetuated internally . Genuine emulation becomes very difficult and is likely to involve splitting, projection and a takeover of the giver’s power, like Mrs B’s identification with my Ph.D..


She goes on further “ I have not tried to exhaust possible variations and it is obvious that they can be very complex interactions of giving receiving further response by the original giver and yet further, but response by the receiver. One only has to think of an hour or two in the life of the mother and baby were sessional to in the course of an analysis to realise how conflicts these interactions and changes can be.”


So who is this Mrs B in Spillius’ case example ? (Spillius in contemporary Kleinians p 158-162)

那么在Spillius 的案例中谁是B太太呢?(Spillius, 《当代克莱因》,158-162页)

She describes Mrs B, a woman who had a deep sense of grievance, and who’s impenitent experiencing of envy is virtually conscious. Her definition of envy is different from Spillius’-as Spillius puts it “What I regard as envy she regards as justified grievance” (156)

她描述了B太太,一个有着深深委屈的妇女,她对嫉羡毫不悔悟,完全是意识层面的。她对嫉羡的定义不同于Spillius ——Spillius说“我认为是嫉羡的东西在她看来是正当的委屈”(156)

Quote: 158-162


This paper by Spillius is important in that she distinguished between 2 types of envy


On the one hand there is what she calls “ego dystonic envy ; on the other, what she calls  ego syntonic or “impenitent “ envy .


The ego dystonic envy tends to be unconscious, associated with painful loss and guilt over destructiveness . This is the envy described by Klein. This Envy is mainly ucs, contained, and defined by the analyst as Envy. It rarely expressed itself directly; however its Ucs operation leads to inhibition, sometimes severe of the patients creativity in work and personal relationships. Conscious envy in these patients emerges late in the analysis associated with Intense guilt. The experience of envy is ego dystonic, or perhaps more accurately consciousness dystonic.


Impenitent envy is closer to consciousness, expressed more or less self righteously, often in the form of a grievance. The case example of Mrs B is more in this latter category.


In these cases the patient is more aware of the envy, as is the outside observer. This is envy without guilt. Kernberg describes it in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. The patient here often feels profoundly unlovable, inferior, and he projects these onto those towards he then feels superior. Thus the person with impenitent envy lives in a world where there are some who are unfairly superior to him and others who are justifiably inferior.  (154) As she puts it “Feeling perpetual blame and grievance, however miserable, is less painful than mourning the loss of relationships one wishes one had had “(p.154) As Schafer comments, so many patients in analysis present with a virtually intransient implicitly envious position of being filled with a grievance (p 142)


5. The interaction of constitution and environment


Envy in Klein’s view is affected by the environment in complex ways. There is always a complex interaction between environment and constitution.


Klein sees the infant is having a fantasy of an inexhaustible breast. When the infant is deprived, the breast is hated and envy for apparently, in a mean-spirited way, keeping these riches to itself. However, the satisfying breast is also envied. Klein (1957) “the very ease with which the milk comes, although the infant feels gratified by it, also gives rise to envy because this gift seems something so unattainable” . Klein goes on to link this infantile situation with the analytical observation that patients may become destructively critical of work that is helpful:

Klein发现婴儿幻想着一个永不枯竭的乳房。当婴儿被剥夺了乳房,明显地恨与嫉羡着乳房,婴儿用小气的方式来让自己变得富有。无论如何,这个让人满意的乳房也被嫉羡着。Klein(1957)写到“奶不费劲就来了,尽管婴儿感恩,也会产生嫉羡,因为这个礼物看上去有些不可到达”。Klein 继续把婴儿的情形与与分析性的观察相链接:病人可能拼命苛责对他有帮助的分析工作:

“The envious patient grudges the analyst the success of his work: and if he feels that the analyst and the help he is giving have become spoiled and devalued by his envious criticism, he cannot introject him sufficiently as a good object”. I think it is fair to say that Klein did put more of an emphasis on constitutional i.e. inherited factors in the early emotional life of infants, than did many other psychoanalysts. To a certain extent, people such as Bowlby working at more or less the same time occupied a very different position, focusing on attachments, observable relationships between mothers and infants, and were much more inclined towards the role of the environment as of supreme importance.


6 Envy in relation to the depressive position.


Klein shows through clinical examples how, when the patient becomes conscious of his envy, he may be able to experience guilt and make reparation. She is impressed by the intense pain and depression that many patients experience when attempting to integrate their increasing awareness of making envious attacks on the analyst’s goodness with their conscious positive feelings towards the analyst. This guilty pain can easily prompt a defence of withdrawal back to paranoid-schizoid functioning, as can the pain of consciously recognised envy itself.

Klein通过临床案例来展示病人是如何、什么时候开始意识到自己的嫉羡的,他可能体验到内疚,进行修复。病人的觉察能力提高,能够意识到自己对分析师好的部分的嫉羡性攻击,同时对分析师也有着正向的感觉,许多病人体验到当他们试图整合这些时感到强烈的痛苦,   Klein对此印象深刻。内疚的痛苦能轻易促进退行到偏执-分裂功能的防御,痛苦也能让嫉羡在意识上被识别。

When paranoia is very strong, for example, in patients suffering from a psychotic illness, envy is hard to counteract in analysis. Similarly, when envy is strong, paranoia is hard to counteract. Envy will be mitigated more readily when more depressive features predominated in the personality, such patients being more able to experience gratitude and take in what people have to offer.


7 Defences against envy


Envious feelings are generally recognised as a painful part of the human condition, and can mobilise various defences. Defences against envy are often more problematic then envy itself. Klein herself lists what she describes as a “non-exhaustive” list of defences and others have added to it. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the element of envy itself and the defences against it. A list of defences includes


a)    Devaluation/denigration of the object. Spoiling, devaluation and ingratitude are involved here and in envy, and defend against experiencing it .The devalued object need no longer be envied . Klein described how for some people this can be characteristic of object relations.


b)    Idealisation.  If the object is sufficiently idealised, comparisons with oneself become irrelevant and the object then is omnipotently “owned” i.e. the self is aggrandised by association. Alternatively, Idealisation may take the form of denigration of the envied object and idealisation of some other object; or, some aspect of the envied object may be denigrated and others idealised. An idealised object is unstable, and prone to collapse into its opposite. Strong envy will in any case eventually threaten the ideal object too.


c)     Identification with the idealised object. Linked to the above, through projection and introjection, the individual feels that he is the possessor of the coveted attributes of the envied object.


d)    Confusion. Confusion is a result of envy, where the good object is so attacked that it can no longer be clearly distinguished from the bad object


e)    Flight from the mother . The flight from the mother to other people, starting with the father who are idealised in order to avoid hostile feelings towards the primary object, becomes a means of protecting the breast-mother. This mechanism fails when envy is too strong, and eventually imbues the  new relationships too

f)      飞离母亲。离开母亲飞向别人,首先从被理想化了的、回避朝向原始客体的敌意的父亲开始,来保护母亲。如果嫉羡太强烈,这个机制就会失败,最终也会浸染到新关系中去。

g)     Devaluation or inhibition of the self. By devaluing his own gifts, the person simultaneously denies envy and punishes himself for it. Avoidance of competition and success is also an attempt to protect a precariously establish good object, lest it be spoiled by situations liable to cause competitive and envious feelings in the self.

贬低或压抑自体。通过贬低自己的天赋,个人同时否认嫉羡,也为此惩罚自己。回避竞争和成功也是试图保护一个建立得不稳定的好客体, 以免被由易于引起自体竞争和嫉羡感觉的环境所破坏。

h)    Greedy internalisation of the breast. By this mechanism the breast becomes possessed and controlled in fantasy by the infant, who thus avoids feeling separate and envious. All good attributed to the breast, can now be owned for the self. However, as Klein puts it “it is the very greed with which this internalisation is carried out, that contains the general failure… A good object, which is well established not only loves the subject, but is loved by it .This does not apply to an idealised one. By powerful and violent possessiveness, the good object is felt to turn into a destroyed persecutor”


i)       Projection of envy. One’s own envy may be attributed to others by projection. The individual then sees himself as non-envious, but surrounded by envious others .This contributes to a paranoid sense of the world.


j)       Stirring up the envy in others. There may be a further step in the projection of envy, in that the projection may be actualised. Stirring up envy in others by one’s own success and possessions by projection, is a frequent method of defence in envy. The ultimate ineffectiveness of this method, derives from the persecutory and depressive anxieties to which gives rise.


k)     Stifling of love and intensification of hate. Klein thought that this was less painful to bear than the guilt arising from the combination of love, hate and envy ; it may not express itself in hate, but takes the form  of indifference. The individual tends to withdraw from people, but this apparent independence is illusory.

令人窒息的爱和激烈的恨。Klein 认为相比于从爱、恨、嫉羡的混合产生的痛苦而言,这的痛苦要少一些;可能不能用恨来表达自己,而是采用漠不关心的方式。个体倾向于从人群中退缩,但是这种明显的独立是虚无缥缈的。

l)       Acting out. Rosenfeld has described how various forms of acting out are used, in order to perpetuate this split in the personality when integration of the enviously destructive parts of the personality threatens to dawn


8. Envy and its contribution to psychosis.


Klein herself did not analyse psychotic adults , but close contemporaries of hers did especially Rosenfeld, Segal & Bion , and their findings are likely to have informed the thinking on the topic of envy.


In Bion’s paper “On Arrogance”, he describes how the analyst’s capacity to contain the projections of the patient is an important source of envy, particularly for psychotic or borderline patients. BION saw envy as primarily in opposition to creativity, rather than to gratitude. In his view envy is manifest fundamentally as an ATTACK on any sort of creative link in the mind. Any perceived link between the parental couple must be obliterated, as must anything that symbolises this. Ultimately, and especially in the psychotic personality, links between ideas and hence the process of thought itself attacked and fragmented


9.Envy & The negative therapeutic reaction


The negative therapeutic reaction isa term coined by Freud in 1923, to donate the paradoxical worsening of some patients after a successful piece of therapeutic work has been accomplished. Referring to such patients, Freud wrote that “every partial solution that ought to result, and in other people does result, in an improvement or a temporary suspension of symptoms, produces in them for the time being and exacerbation of their illness.” It should be clear from much of what I’ve said above, that envy will play a significant role in such a negative therapeutic reaction. Klein herself described how a negative therapeutic reaction may set in secondarily, retrospectively attacking a piece of analytic work that has initially clearly been helpful .As Segal wrote about her patient (page 29) : “Powerful unconscious envy often lies at the root of negative therapeutic reaction is and interminable treatments. One can observe this in patients who have a long history of failed previous treatments. It appeared clearly in a patient who came to analysis of the many years of varied psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments. Each course of treatment would bring about an improvement, but deterioration would set in after a termination. When he began his analysis, it soon appear that the main problem was the strength of his negative therapeutic reaction. I represented mainly a successful and potent father, and his hatred of and rivalry with this figure was so intense that the analysis, representing my potency as an analyst, was unconsciously attacked and destroyed over and over again.” (p.29)

负性治疗反应是Freud 1923 年提出的一个词,来描述那些治疗性工作已经取得一些成功后,一些病人反而不清不白地恶化了。关于这些病人,Freud 写到“嫉羡所导致的部分问题的解决,而且在别人身上并不会出现,便是问题的改善或暂时的对症状的怀疑,会导致问题的恶化”。这与我上面讲的要分清楚,嫉羡在这样一个负心治疗反应中起重要的作用。Klein自己描述负心治疗反应是如何间接地、回顾性地攻击已经很清晰是一个有帮助的分析性工作的片段的。Segal 描写她的病人“(29页)强烈的潜意识嫉羡常常位于负心治疗反应的根部,没完没了了的治疗。我们可以观察有着既往很长的失败治疗史的病人。那些有着许多年各种精神病和心理治疗历史的病人,在他们身上可以很清楚地看到这些。治疗的每一个阶段都会带来进步,每一次中止后就会看到恶化。当他开始分析时,很快就显示出主要的问题就是他的负性治疗反应的力量。我代表一个成功而强有力的父亲,他对这个人物的恨与竞争是如此强烈,以至于分析,我作为分析师的权力,潜意识里被一遍又一遍地被攻击,”(29页)

10.    Responses to Klein:


Her book on envy provoked a storm of disagreement in the BPAS. It was seen as preposterous that such pernicious attacks on goodness were inherent to human nature; that the death instinct of which envy was one expression , was not a viable proposition; that envy is a complex feeling, not immediately  derived from instinct; that Klein ignored the environment; that what she described as envy in infants could rather be called “eagerness”; that she was attributing to infants thoughts of which she was not capable; that her theory of envy was a theory of despair, scientifically unproved; and that Kleinian’s preconceived expectations of envy were leading them to find evidence of intractable vicious destructive envy everywhere in their clinical material ! (Spillius 147)

在BPAS, 她的书挑起了争论的风暴。这种对好的致命的攻击是遗传于人类天性;嫉羡是死本能的一种表达,并不是可望实现的命题;嫉羡是复杂的感觉,并不是直接从本能产生;Klein忽略环境;她称为婴儿的嫉羡的东西还不如称为“渴望”;她没办法的就归为婴儿的想法;她的嫉羡理论是绝望的、未被科学证明的理论;克莱因的后继者们对嫉羡研究的期待引领着他们在临床材料中到处发现难以对付的、邪恶的毁灭性的嫉羡的证据;这些看上去太荒谬了。(Spillius,147页)



Envy and Gratitude is a seminal and extremely important paper in the history of psychoanalysis, and in the work of Melanie Klein in particular. It is a difficult work to read, and difficult to take on board, as it challenges many one’s own preconceptions about human character, goodness and badness, the possibility of a “death instinct.”.  


I do not see it is essentially a pessimistic view of the world, and I do not think that contemporary Kleinians necessarily see envy everywhere, or disregard the importance of the environment. Contemporary Kleinians have moved on from the technique that Klein described, whilst retaining much of what she contributed, discovered and wrote about. I hope that I have given you a flavour of some of what she and some of her followers have suggested, and encourage you to read both the original works by Klein, and subsequent works by, amongst others Segal, Spillius, and more recently authors such as Betty Joseph, John Steiner and Michael Feldman. 

我并认为要用悲观的眼光来看世界,我也不认为当代的可以后继者们有必要到处看见嫉羡或者不管环境的重要性。当代的可以后继者们已经在Klein所描述的技术上进行前进,保留了许多她的贡献、发现和写过的东西。我希望我的演讲为你们带来一丝Klein及其后继者们气味,能鼓励你们阅读Klein的原著,以及后续者的作品,尤其是Segal , Spillius,和一些更近期的作家如Betty  Joseph, John Steiner 和Michael Feldman的作品。

TAG: 感恩 嫉羡
«Susan Isaacs《潜意识幻想的本质与功能》 客体关系治疗理论

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