作者: 《童年与社会》 / 2398次阅读 时间: 2020年4月09日
标签: 角色混乱 自我同一性


With the establishment of a good initial relationship to the world of skills and tools, and with the advent of puberty, child hood proper comes to an end. Youth begins. But in puberty and adolescence all samenesses and continuities relied on earlier are more or less questioned again, because of a rapidity of body growth which equals that of early childhood and because of the new addition of genital maturity. The growing and developing youths, faced with this physiological revolution within them, and with tangible adult tasks ahead of them are now primarily concerned with what they appear to be in the eyes of others as compared with what they feel they are, and with the question of how to connect the roles and skills cultivated earlier with the occupational prototypes of the day. In their search for a new sense of continuity and sameness, adolescents have to re-fight many of the battles of earlier years, even though to do so they must artificially appoint perfectly well-meaning people to play , the roles of adversaries; and they are ever ready to install lasting idols and ideals as guardians of a final identity.


The integration now taking place in the form of ego identity. is, as pointed out, more than the sum of the childhood identifications. It is the accrued experience of the ego's ability to integrate all identifications with the vicissitudes of the libido, with the aptitudes developed out of endowment, and with the opportunities offered in SOCial roles. The sense of ego identity, then, is the accruaI confidence that the inner sameness and continuity of one's meaning for others, as evidenced in the tangible promise of a 'career'.


The danger of this stage is role confusion.t Where this is based on a strong previous doubt as to one's sexual identity, delinquent and outright psychotic episodes are not uncommon. If diagnosed and treated correctly, these incidents do not have the same fatal significance which they have at other ages. In most instances, however, it is the inability to settle on an occupational identity which disturbs individual young people. To keep themtogether selves they temporarily overidentify, to the point of apparent complete loss of identity, with the heroes of cliques and crowds. This initiates the stage of 'falling in love', which is by no means entirely, or even primarily, a sexual matter - except where the mores demand it. To a considerable extent adolescent love is an attempt to arrive at a definition of one's identity by projecting one's diffused ego-image on another and by seeing it thus reflected and gradually clarified. This is why so much of young love is conversation.


Young people can also be remarkably clannish, and cruel intheir exclusion of all those who are 'different', in skin colour orcultural background, in tastes and gifts, and often in such pettyaspects of dress and gesture as have been temporarily selectedas the signs of an in-grouper or out-grouper. It is important tounderstand (which does not mean condone or participate in)such intolerance as a defence against a sense of identity confusion.For adolescents not only help one another temporarilythrough much discomfort by forming cliques and by stereotypingthemselves, their ideals, and their enemies; they alsoperversely test each other's capacity to pledge fidelity. Thereadiness for such testing also explains the appeal which simpleand cruel totalitarian doctrines have on the minds of the youthof such countries and classes as have lost or are losing theirgroup identities (feudal, agrarian, tribal, national) and faceworld-wide industrialization, emancipation, and wider communication.


The adolescent mind is essentially a mind of the moratorium, a psychosocial stage between childhood and adulthood, and between the morality learned by the child, and the ethics to be developed by the adult. It is an ideological mind - and, indeed, it is the ideological outlook of a society that speaks most clearly to the adolescent who is eager to be affirmed by his peers, and is ready to be confirmed by rituals, creeds, and programmes which at the same time define what is evil, uncanny, and inimical. In searching for the social values which guide identity, one therefore confronts the problems of ideology and aristocracy, both in their widest possible sense which connotes that within a defined world image and a predestined course of history, the best people will come to rule and rule develops the best in people. In order not to become cynically or apathetically lost, young people must somehow be able to convince themselves that those who succeed in their anticipated adult world thereby shoulder the obligation of being the best. We will discuss later the dangers which emanate from human ideals harnessed to the management of super-machines, be they guided by nationalistic or international, communist or capitalist ideologies. In the last part of this book we shall discuss the way in which the revolutions of our day attempt to solve and also to exploit the deep need of youth to re-define its identity in an industrialized world.


TAG: 角色混乱 自我同一性
«四、勤奋对自卑 12 埃里克森 | Erik H Erikson
《12 埃里克森 | Erik H Erikson》

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    [name] => 12 埃里克森 | Erik H Erikson
    [note] => Erik H Erikson 艾里克森(1902—1994)
Erikson's psychosocial stages 社会心理发展阶段理论
Human personality in principle develops according to steps predetermined in the growing person's readiness to be driven toward, to be aware of and to interact with a widening social radius.
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