作者: mints 编译 / 2584次阅读 时间: 2023年5月04日


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ABAB设计(逆向设计)ABAB (reversal) design 心理学空间!q }NJ8Km|

!{r+qn7D7?0type of experimental design in which an intervention is introduced, withdrawn, and then reinstated, and the behavior of a participant is examined on and off the treatment心理学空间3k9K?-}$y2E[_)c

Uj-Y Y[,zP7_0破堤效应 abstinence violation effect 

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D/`r w3R7mH0what happens when a person attempting to abstain from alcohol use ingests alcohol and then endures conflict and guilt by making an internal attribution to explain why he or she drank, thereby making him or her more likely to continue drinking in order to cope with the self-blame and guilt

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急性应激障碍 acute stress disorder 心理学空间[9y aq'Mu6\(T$ui+H,e~H

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disorder similar to post-traumatic stress disorder but occurs within 1 month of exposure to the stressor and does not last more than 4 weeks; often involves dissociative symptoms

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适应障碍 adjustment disorder 


RD6N)Fqv a;B&zp0stress-related disorder that involves emotional and behavioral symptoms (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and/or antisocial behaviors) that arise within 3 months of the onset of a stressor心理学空间;VA E3_5Ej*XA

S%a\ cj7\8g!Z0青少年期起病品行障碍 adolescent-onset conduct disorder 心理学空间kv nA4\rU9X"L#K

3B2F"o oc:\r0a conduct disorder characterized by aggression, destructiveness, deceitfulness, and rules violation beginning after age 10心理学空间(zU S)D f F

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领养研究 adoption study 

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$T`!gm%iKC0study of the heritability of a disorder by finding adopted people with a disorder and then determining the prevalence of the disorder among their biological and adoptive relatives, in order to separate out contributing genetic and environmental factors心理学空间] |:zxjx"F

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失认症 agnosia

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impaired ability to recognize objects or people



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广场恐怖症 agoraphobia anxiety disorder 心理学空间m*VM+|t

*F O+S%TW7b0characterized by fear of places and situations in which it would be difficult to escape, such as enclosed places, open spaces, and crowds

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匿名戒酒者协会 Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) 


#S0x7Z+bs w0an organization created by and for people with alcoholism involving a 12-step treatment program


美国法律学会规则 ALI rule 

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&Kd#Qx?5GV0legal principle stating that a person is not responsible for criminal conduct if he or she lacks the capacity to appreciate the criminality (wrongfulness) of the act or to conform his or her conduct to the requirements of the law as a result of mental disease心理学空间 @+Sa{;n$F:w:}


非稳态负荷 allostatic load 心理学空间.y-F+b*^ Z0K%@&y

&kB&^o'q iOT P0physiological condition resulting from chronic arousal of the fight-or-flight response to stress心理学空间;|XD g.b2A

"u~*G9Q)i} p0利他型自杀 altruistic suicide

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2G}7}&zn8T8E0 suicide committed by people who believe that taking their own life will benefit society心理学空间/ef\D ^t5_$qg#o a

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阿尔茨海默病 Alzheimer’s disease 心理学空间NOiRC o K)H

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progressive neurological disease that is the most common cause of dementia心理学空间G JP&p*N O)TXX'A2iW


闭经 amenorrhea 心理学空间^5Mx!w&S ZF

.k"G2\g!lV bCWy0a0cessation of the menses心理学空间#{-^c9zo d5g%K

5ay Nsy+U+k0z4i \0美国精神病学协会的精神病定义American Psychiatric Association definition of insanity 心理学空间Zsh9IZ&?%H,]M4h

5b6hC'}R`2Gi[0definition of insanity stating that people cannot be held responsible for their conduct if, at the time they commit crimes, as the result of mental disease or mental retardation they are unable to appreciate the wrongfulness of their conduct心理学空间D*o.v:]L'd#Sxl

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遗忘症 amnesia 

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$li_nkl7z6\0impairment in the ability to learn new information or to recall previously learned information or past events心理学空间.|-?kMt-_WcLk

e_6}*gKG'^N p0苯丙胺类 amphetamines 心理学空间dL AA3l

1_(O$I,Z$j\&ma0stimulant drugs that can produce symptoms of euphoria, self-confidence, alertness, agitation, paranoia, perceptual illusions, and depression

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杏仁核 amygdala 

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(_ a0X?Z OY$u"w0w+}0structure of the limbic system critical in emotions such as fear心理学空间$Hdnlq!bijf)a


动物研究animal studies心理学空间? bU&q8W,e.b


studies that attempt to test theories of psychopathology using animals


4O2Gu0hy$JR#s,i0动物型恐怖症animal-type phobias 心理学空间!hRL$q8t"E9u!Etf


extreme fears of specific animals that may induce immediate and intense panic attacks and cause the individual to go to great lengths to avoid the animals

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失范型自杀 anomic suicide 

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}Z uR^;V:f2eJ-r0suicide committed by people who experience a severe disorientation and role confusion because of a large change in their relationship to society

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神经性厌食症 anorexia nervosa

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eating disorder in which people fail to maintain body weights that are normal for their age and height and have fears of becoming fat, distorted body images, and amenorrhea

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hostility toward others


7|8cY7s9f%o,t6Un*_d6K0拮抗剂 antagonist drugs 


drugs that block or change the effects of an addictive drug, reducing desire for the drug

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顺行性遗忘 anterograde amnesia 心理学空间(G'h'O+]!pw$z{S

A(^"c5[PN Iq0deficit in the ability to learn new information

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焦虑药antianxiety drugs 心理学空间+t.v;{}-y8N


drugs used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and other psychological symptoms心理学空间si#W }dMR^Z

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抗惊厥药anticonvulsants drugs 

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used to treat mania and depression

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A2~5Pvy r6^F0抑郁药antidepressant drugs 心理学空间k;k T NtL0Q)XY*Wa

Yr C4Y{E0drugs used to treat the symptoms of depression, such as sad mood, negative thinking, and disturbances of sleep and appetite; common types are tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

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C(?*J!S0V*V)C h$ik0抗精神病药 antipsychotic drugs 心理学空间^!LgkLUj

$r-X!rc/jbPk'[0drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking心理学空间 _evR } ]'N E#?

YE.r|{ X0反社会型人格障碍antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) 心理学空间H?cLrP

?)jT;jGD0pervasive pattern of criminal, impulsive, callous, and/or ruthless behavior, predicated on disregard for the rights of others and an absence of respect for social norms


:OSJUq6x%P0焦虑 anxiety 

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state of apprehension, tension, and worry

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#v)aa7V7N4X O({0焦虑敏感性 anxiety sensitivity 心理学空间VN ME1Ap

4u.b@8b^\0belief that bodily symptoms have harmful consequences

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zx5k*ek1uxE0失语症 aphasia 心理学空间B8l4O;Q5H$Q VvO6u

dv-O5|3JVn0impaired ability to produce and comprehend language

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J#[VkY D4D/p }0应用紧张技术applied tension technique心理学空间7n0?)u8pt

+pXh!S EA0technique used to treat blood-injection-injury type phobias in which the therapist teaches the client to increase his or her blood pressure and heart rate, thus preventing the client from fainting心理学空间v^4L(k.e-@H




 impaired ability to initiate common voluntary behaviors心理学空间Yo J H3rTX"I1Xu

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唤起期 arousal phase 心理学空间$B_6]q9b


in the sexual response cycle, psychological experience of arousal and pleasure as well as physiological changes, such as the tensing of muscles and enlargement of blood vessels and tissues (also called the excitement phase)

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主动性社区治疗计划 assertive community treatment programs 心理学空间 t \?@O.r}

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system of treatment that provides comprehensive services to people with schizophrenia, employing the expertise of medical professionals, social workers, and psychologists to meet the variety of patients’ needs 24 hours a day心理学空间@w"}9ipN"h


评估 assessment 心理学空间4E;afJuL

2DH%KP]0process of gathering information about a person’s symptoms and their possible causes


[*c I3g@4tq1p8c0关联研究 association studies 心理学空间+f{O:C;p/V"~t

F O g5N`d0q:X2d0genetic studies in which researchers identify physical disorders associated with a target psychological disorder for which genetic abnormalities or markers are known; the DNA of individuals with the psychological disorder and their first-degree relatives is then examined to determine if they also have this genetic marker (one form of molecular genetic studies)心理学空间*Y^5W ao7m&l!C

T,vAW-n3i? \w0注意缺陷/多动障碍 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 心理学空间$AQ-WH0iy)N&z

@#a M5[@"x8| my+T0syndrome marked by deficits in controlling attention, inhibiting impulses, and organizing behavior to accomplish long-term goals心理学空间Z:\^2h6Z!]Gr0l

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非典型抗精神病药 atypical antipsychotics 心理学空间0d \#b(s{ z!{1I

-glwfR%y0drugs that seem to be even more effective in treating schizophrenia than phenothiazines without the same neurological side effects; they bind to a different type of dopamine receptor than other neuroleptic drugs

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幻听 auditory hallucinations 心理学空间 cd%T/R-_;pc+vK2N


auditory perceptions of a phenomenon that is not real, such as hearing a voice when one is alone

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孤独症 autism 心理学空间Je4f8O"j ju2}(_

!a F:eC[x%^0childhood disorder marked by deficits in social interaction (such as a lack of interest in one’s family or other children), communication (such as failing to modulate one’s voice to signify emotional expression), and activities and interests (such as engaging in bizarre, repetitive behaviors)心理学空间5Q}~h)\v

A8^!u-h/^#M E2@ N0孤独症谱系障碍 autism spectrum disorder 


a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by disrupted social and language development (formerly referred to as autism)心理学空间X m3[;g6au3u x,L4U


厌恶疗法 aversion therapy 

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ms.C&M N6Jl/[*s8K0treatment that involves the pairing of unpleasant stimuli with deviant or maladaptive sources of pleasure in order to induce an aversive reaction to the formerly pleasurable stimulus心理学空间$z7jJ+tM

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回避型人格障碍avoidant personality disorder 

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pervasive anxiety, sense of inadequacy, and fear of being criticized that lead to the avoidance of most social interactions with others and to restraint and nervousness in social interactions

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意志减退 avolition 

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y+jA+Y"v C6I0inability to persist at common goal-directed activities

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f ^ ?8G{H1Td0巴比妥类心理学空间*N.MH"N}q;rR'N,I

J#D*HV V4]0barbiturates drugs used to treat anxiety and insomnia that work by suppressing the central nervous system and decreasing the activity level of certain neurons

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h x9J3T M0行为取向心理学空间v3N0v|"IPu8g

mN W;S u]0behavioral approaches approaches to psychopathology that focus on the influence of reinforcements and punishments in producing behavior; the two core principles or processes of learning according to behaviorism are classical conditioning and operant conditioning心理学空间2_nnW fRP"j


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behavioral inhibition set of behavioral traits including shyness, fearfulness, irritability, cautiousness, and introversion; behaviorally inhibited children tend to avoid or withdraw from novel situations, are clingy with parents, and become excessively aroused when exposed to unfamiliar situations心理学空间&eL s/|${e:zJ


#q7b;? W W@s)zm0behavioral observation method for assessing the frequency of a client’s behaviors and the specific situations in which they occur心理学空间0Opwm\*t



6n&UL(z&S&D8q^~0behavioral theories of depression theories that view depression as resulting from negative life events that represent a reduction in positive reinforcement; sympathetic responses to depressive behavior then serve as positive reinforcement for the depression itself

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nK%kOO0behavioral therapies psychotherapeutic approaches that focus on identifying the reinforcements and punishments contributing to a person’s maladaptive behaviors and on changing specific behaviors心理学空间8C3SaI?+S

[F!_4_ l5wP@0行为疗法

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behavioral therapy therapy that focuses on changing a person’s specific behaviors by replacing unwanted behaviors with desired behaviors心理学空间(}?(D"M1_)`}#h+iT5h"[



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behavior genetics study of the processes by which genes affect behavior and the extent to which personality and abnormality are genetically inherited

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行为主义心理学空间1F [1jjb8O1T


behaviorism study of the impact of reinforcements and punishments on behavior

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{i:|+rZ:XwRuh o0苯二氮卓类心理学空间D9l+`8Yd|

%|y/s-Y.TpZ7b)A0benzodiazepines drugs that reduce anxiety and insomnia

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N ]t1r_ bf0β-淀粉样蛋白心理学空间&H%\!W Mg ? L$M v!Z

心理学空间Kc p]'J'Y*h C

beta-amyloid class of proteins that accumulates in the spaces between neurons in the brain, contributing to Alzheimer’s disease




\,^*Z&xO&L9s ?-M0binge-eating disorder eating disorder in which people compulsively overeat either continuously or on discrete binges but do not behave in ways to compensate for the overeating心理学空间5nb)Qt+jUZAvG



huW-Y*][ f0心理学空间A3{}c3]e1~H

bingeing eating a large amount of food in one sitting心理学空间3o1E,dv!H#I

心理学空间%i!nX ][TC3z

暴食/ 清除型神经性厌食症心理学空间p[6p&l$}-F x


binge/purge type of anorexia nervosa type of anorexia nervosa in which periodic bingeing or purging behaviors occur along with behaviors that meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa心理学空间| ||'~:l

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biological approach view that biological factors cause and should be used to treat abnormality



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biological theories theories of abnormality that focus on biological causes of abnormal behaviors

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JH,G x@i E0生物心理社会取向


biopsychosocial approach approach to psychopathology that seeks to integrate biological, psychological, and social factors in understanding and treating psychopathology

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8T;ZXku:oH8G[!P$i0bipolar disorder disorder marked by cycles between manic episodes and depressive episodes; also called manic-depression

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bipolar I disorder form of bipolar disorder in which the full symptoms of mania are experienced; depressive aspects may be more infrequent or mild


r9m x h'n0双相Ⅱ型障碍

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)a9U[x9p!_O0bipolar II disorder form of bipolar disorder in which only hypomanic episodes are experienced and the depressive component is more pronounced心理学空间4Hk"S gQH

_H+H0y ~K,si^c0血液-注射-损伤型恐怖症


blood-injection-injury type phobias extreme fears of seeing blood or an injury or of receiving an injection or another invasive medical procedure, which cause a drop in heart rate and blood pressure and fainting

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0x0x6CQ)Mq ?5Ll0body dysmorphic disorder syndrome involving obsessive concern over a part of the body the individual believes is defective心理学空间&l\X v q)GF\x2E

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8Z'h ]@ qV0borderline personality disorder syndrome characterized by rapidly shifting and unstable mood, self-concept, and interpersonal relationships, as well as impulsive behavior and transient dissociative states心理学空间 s/b7j/so

E)pR%g ^3e+I0与呼吸相关的睡眠障碍心理学空间QKc H/lo

-O$U;ROWb0breathing-related sleep disorder group of sleep disorders characterized by numerous brief sleep disturbances due to problems breathing心理学空间od["efrB


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,z2{ A ~+] sy$c$k0brief psychotic disorder disorder characterized by the sudden onset of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior that lasts only between 1 day and 1 month, after which the symptoms vanish completely


!U J od6j0神经性贪食症心理学空间VA N A q9b

心理学空间cB]%] qOf S#V

bulimia nervosa eating disorder in which people engage in bingeing and behave in ways to prevent weight gain from the binges, such as self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and abuse of purging drugs (such as laxatives)心理学空间9\:}5a.MZ.h,@B



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m#W.aWi/f wn0咖啡因心理学空间p4Qk"mp^DK

b3l(\`g7\0caffeine chemical compound with stimulant effects心理学空间Q QeFT[,W0U/}

9hE_p0_?0大麻心理学空间`K;a1U I,pk6B

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cannabis substance that causes feelings of well-being, perceptual distortions, and paranoid thinking

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/l i'@*o*B7_YJ)G0个案研究(也译作案例研究)


case studies in-depth analyses of individuals

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X S(| j_0猝倒心理学空间K Q4o"M$}QGB

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cataplexy episodes of sudden loss of muscle tone lasting under 2 minutes, triggered by laughter or joking in people who have had narcolepsy for a long time心理学空间L)C5f8J,wA2c$j

心理学空间 PdW3B*R5p9Wr]a

紧张症心理学空间8F8B0L!{ }

X:h(B5Jl0catatonia group of disorganized behaviors that reflect an extreme lack of responsiveness to the outside world心理学空间;R6hp'u8ac%W

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宣泄心理学空间H A h2{ G+Z:{ XM

7@6fw hL7c5T V3~0catharsis expression of emotions connected to memories and conflicts, which, according to Freud, leads to the release of energy used to keep these memories in the unconscious


|w)B7g d.q8Gj0因果归因

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causal attribution explanation for why an event occurred

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$tnh'^5t `0中枢性睡眠呼吸暂停心理学空间/YR%P0\GN,AAc3_&e

"gi5M[Tr5xSH0central sleep apnea sleep disorder characterized by complete cessation of respiratory activity for brief periods of time (20 seconds or more); sufferers do not have frequent awakenings and do not tend to feel tired during the day; occurs when the brain does not send the signal to breathe to the respiratory system心理学空间 i"a*|t `

心理学空间 h^"\[Dq(o



"Ox%V \6V F0cerebral cortex part of the brain that regulates complex activities, such as speech and analytical thinking

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.uO C(u~ ZC"e0脑血管疾病

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A&E0cp;|)|4w7Z0cerebrovascular disease disease that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked, causing tissue damage to the brain心理学空间9d:aS^EH:R4_x



j0V+}~:i#m/V0childhood-onset conduct disorder a conduct disorder characterized by aggression, destructiveness, deceitfulness, and rules violation beginning before age 10 that tends to worsen with age

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VumH n\0eE0氯丙嗪

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chlorpromazine antipsychotic drug



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9TH] d E~\X+bH0chronic motor or vocal tic disorder (CMVTD) a motor disorder characterized by persistent motor or vocal tics心理学空间4?F!d*\A,c.x-T%@|


昼夜节律睡眠-觉醒障碍心理学空间6?/mW!u d.| q.HP


circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder sleep disorder characterized by insomnia, excessive sleepiness, or both due to disruptions in circadian rhythms

v-e e^%a0心理学空间$E9X%MS_g:e

民事收容心理学空间%ELi5l-n V&J

心理学空间blkAm{ m

civil commitment forcing of a person into a mental health facility against his or her will心理学空间4|'d%@p~5q%k t3`


Ve ]*Y$O0classical conditioning form of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that naturally elicits a response, thereby making the neutral stimulus itself sufficient to elicit the same response心理学空间l(zy&lT"N

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classification system set of syndromes and the rules for determining whether an individual’s symptoms are part of one of these syndromes心理学空间7FH%xGC

q H4JL\!Lq0来访者中心疗法

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client-centered therapy (CCT) Carl Rogers’s form of psychotherapy, which consists of an equal relationship between therapist and client as the client searches for his or her inner self, receiving unconditional positive regard and an empathic understanding from the therapist




7TO)|K:O;{3qYPH3h0cocaine central nervous system stimulant that causes a rush of positive feelings initially but that can lead to impulsiveness, agitation, and anxiety and can cause withdrawal symptoms of exhaustion and depression


6{B${+_/eo)XY {~}0认知

xELTT_ C"C0心理学空间9k|&zQ~`4q)kU

cognitions thoughts or beliefs

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cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment focused on changing negative patterns of thinking and solving concrete problems through brief sessions in which a therapist helps a client challenge negative thoughts, consider alternative perspectives, and take effective actions心理学空间 q.Dxis*^b%|S

U$oG[C;aR0认知理论心理学空间x;JER _~]aFu0m

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cognitive theories theories that focus on belief systems and ways of thinking as the causes of abnormal behavior

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认知治疗心理学空间 O |Eo#q&e2b)}"G


cognitive therapies therapeutic approaches that focus on changing people’s maladaptive thought patterns


W%wM v].G1Wt ]5L0世代效应

jS8SA&H0心理学空间p-a6B%a3u(X M

cohort effect effect that occurs when people born in one historical period are at different risk for a disorder than are people born in another historical period心理学空间I/H)`/^ x Y#L

心理学空间~%? | pXC`5H)K


(?/x;M L*OJYw h f v0

{~4{;X&H kS&]^Z&pF0collective unconscious according to Carl Jung, the wisdom accumulated by a society over hundreds of years of human existence and stored in the memories of individuals

:q a,Z#cZ C tF/z0

9a ]Uvi0交流障碍心理学空间9vc t!\oNg


communication disorders disorders characterized by persistent difficulties in the acquisition and use of language and other means of communicating心理学空间%\$ax(r x8O

*DW{%]Vp:o9i%P9o0社区精神卫生中心心理学空间`QEo3z3|M ~lH`

Rc&Be9ncyG_0community mental health centers institutions for the treatment of people with mental health problems in the community; may include teams of social workers, therapists, and physicians who coordinate care心理学空间$CPro b w$Qf

d| O.`z.mA2Q YX1NN0社区精神卫生运动

~)| hHb]9|p0心理学空间1d-Y'H*k,}T7K

community mental health movement movement launched in 1963 that attempted to provide coordinated mental health services to people in community-based treatment centers心理学空间P6Y(k/l"{4p


Y!L/y*q `0comorbidity meeting the criteria for two or more diagnostic categories simultaneously

.g yu6Pt0心理学空间KH~-@}!Fi'h;@#z

强迫行为心理学空间 a j/x;D]k9b6`"x

.H@,r5KXCf5R1xq0compulsions repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels he or she must perform


6m.q-P \0UP0计算机断层扫描心理学空间K1g8iJ X^q9k'n Z

心理学空间Ag ?G)f%J o

computerized tomography (CT) method of analyzing brain structure by passing narrow X-ray beams through a person’s head from several angles to produce measurements from which a computer can construct an image of the brain心理学空间7}@NdX3C|


g5V,j;yx;m8x5` ]0心理学空间7f4Z l)E{'}

concordance rate probability that both twins will develop a disorder if one twin has the disorder


't/bx{ k0条件化回避反应心理学空间j0iO(m7kJ


conditioned avoidance response behavior that is reinforced because it allows individuals to avoid situations that cause anxiety

Y JXeAp#Y]zn0心理学空间hDp(ZqC1? t+k



s:b&|5Wfh.v0conditioned response (CR) in classical conditioning, response that first followed a natural stimulus but that now follows a conditioned stimulus心理学空间~9s+ppG

:wJK*s_z;p!qC0条件刺激心理学空间F SAZ!fc+?,^

2[M v'yU"^XG-p0conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical conditioning, previously neutral stimulus that, through pairing with a natural stimulus, becomes sufficient to elicit a response心理学空间M't-\L0b o g#b'?9N8i |j

`y!G` e9f2O0品行障碍

-] fPCz-c%b&R$u0

q([ Xj9|g0conduct disorder syndrome marked by chronic disregard for the rights of others, including specific behaviors such as stealing, lying, and engaging in acts of violence

@%n%}KMdp0心理学空间E0z!x$LXku O?Y&p]

意识心理学空间v|(cs4]/E G

心理学空间2kr5ZS [0MO5HV

conscious refers to mental contents and processes of which we are actively aware


\ RD B,]w$P,T(@z0连续变量

p~E;i?-?Q7r0心理学空间_$D Zs'W ge*b_

continuous variable factor that is measured along a continuum (such as 0–100) rather than falling into a discrete category (such as “diagnosed with depression”)心理学空间*kHUW R

(iQ ^1q Y8j@%T0异常的连续谱模型(也译作异常的连续体模型)


oXBltj&M0continuum model of abnormality model of abnormality that views mental disorders not as categorically different from “normal” experiences but as lying somewhere along a continuum from healthy, functional behaviors, thoughts, and feelings to unhealthy, dysfunctional behaviors, thoughts, and feelings


qp S:e9[q0控制组(也译作对照组)心理学空间} YG)V1^ _ wvz

心理学空间&_P-\ j)C1r!z

control group in an experimental study, group of subjects whose experience resembles that of the experimental group in all ways except that they do not receive the key manipulation

F.R*@ a)KQ/?0心理学空间$B@4[P;b5zs


心理学空间 f f#t3e`#}9f

conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) syndrome marked by a sudden loss of functioning in a part of the body, usually following an extreme psychological stressor心理学空间 |g[;q8S(M#U7T

`9l[;Sq|0冠心病心理学空间"k&Ij^M @

ovW k}l0?Z5Z0coronary heart disease (CHD) chronic illness that is a leading cause of death in the United States, occurring when the blood vessels that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients are narrowed or closed by plaque, resulting in a myocardial infarction (heart attack) when closed completely心理学空间F A)zvjc

心理学空间1m/t'|3A Pqb$W



correlational studies method in which researchers assess only the relationship between two variables and do not manipulate one variable to determine its effects on another variable

1ok"a.n NTG0心理学空间a dGxUy1LJ


Cf"aI-Tj LQJ0

A eu7O"G]0correlation coefficient statistic used to indicate the degree of relationship between two variables心理学空间 @T;w1@2Z:t

心理学空间/w4jEo:R+S;h B

皮质醇心理学空间#C:s Ro6O,m$o

心理学空间L.J u]gtF

cortisol hormone that helps the body respond to stressors, inducing the fight-or-flight response

;e9JrL3ZQ!i"hew0心理学空间 Z a`r\W


"?6x;i+px F9B-`0cross-sectional type of research examining people at one point in time but not following them over time



@H3|$x;r.g0cultural relativism view that norms among cultures set the standard for what counts as normal behavior, which implies that abnormal behavior can only be defined relative to these norms and that no universal definition of abnormality is therefore possible; only definitions of abnormality relative to a specific culture are possible心理学空间!R?J4I4WSk y(d




M,J-O:A.V4CA:@0cyclothymic disorder milder but more chronic form of bipolar disorder that consists of alternation between hypomanic episodes and mild depressive episodes over a period of at least 2 years心理学空间9m{3KAF%`vG Iq

心理学空间+uZ#t$p-S{ dWUn

(C V({(f1YcG5[0心理学空间3kI`nq` X



D心理学空间 M{)B8n8TBE\


r$]!ro XZ0对他人的危险性心理学空间q` gwt!o#@hgUc1y

&p m`5Q@0dangerousness to others legal criterion for involuntary commitment that is met when a person would pose a threat or danger to other people if not incarcerated

(|)|6\^ j'X-O?0

)}s_LL0对本人的危险性心理学空间c c}iu_W"V A

?]GGS]?0dangerousness to self legal criterion for involuntary commitment that is met when a person is imminently suicidal or a danger to him- or herself as judged by a mental health professional

n;Zh}3o T0心理学空间 ] GO {(GQ8|bVQ



day treatment centers mental health facilities that allow people to obtain treatment, along with occupational and rehabilitative therapies, during the day but to live at home at night心理学空间9@}o1v4R s

5x-d6y{ ~+@%k]Ay0深部脑刺激心理学空间(JdGJ`

心理学空间)d6bA| SSD Ml

deep brain stimulation procedure to treat depression in which electrodes are surgically implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a pulse generator that is placed under the skin and stimulates these brain areas心理学空间-c$fu|edk&v_

心理学空间,o_/k|z3of ~0AFt

防御机制心理学空间D x1U*D*x%j+f4S

心理学空间8N2LG M]v

defense mechanisms strategies the ego uses to disguise or transform unconscious wishes心理学空间'He$P R'T



*`+YfQ4@0degradation process in which a receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse, breaking down neurotransmitters into other biochemicals心理学空间ZVEu"k6i&OY


去机构化运动心理学空间 L{W8X oZ2P|6Z'S

2C*}5z t9lJ%yeW0deinstitutionalization movement in which thousands of mental patients were released from mental institutions; a result of the patients’ rights movement, which was aimed at stopping the dehumanization of mental patients and at restoring their basic legal rights




delayed ejaculation marked delay, infrequency, or absence of ejaculation during sexual encounters

"ig!f'p&\!X7_\2i0心理学空间F#N$yY$d#m sy


e"o1a GPr@Ak!l0心理学空间 @%G(EQ1yi t7Q

delirium cognitive disorder including disorientation and memory loss that is acute and usually transient

_~1eo4g S:D%t0


$k4^*U;Pz0心理学空间 [@wA;|+_?

delirium tremens (DTs) symptoms that result during severe alcohol withdrawal, including hallucinations, delusions, agitation, and disorientation

2aR&n&d7AJ#C \0心理学空间8R%V(SYU3U,G;f



r _c!]'N*Y0delusional disorder disorder characterized by delusions lasting at least 1 month regarding situations that occur in real life, such as being followed, poisoned, or deceived by a spouse or having a disease; people with this disorder do not show any other symptoms of schizophrenia心理学空间 SNV#oMb0e1h$n?

0[f;Yex.@ LV0关系妄想心理学空间-m5cce*|.M F

*`6\fDa"i `| g Z9L0delusion of reference false belief that external events, such as other people’s actions or natural disasters, relate somehow to oneself


{Xsu y0妄想

_@"B;Y T6mH+Y0心理学空间:_ b+chL:h

delusions fixed beliefs with no basis in reality心理学空间DjIG3e e7P(Y$|8S

心理学空间9JZ9[p*I l



delusions of thought insertion beliefs that one’s thoughts are being controlled by outside forces

ke+QO S;H H^G0心理学空间u+O ^W9Z/ai`k


心理学空间? W~i2l6M)Y Xi g^

demand characteristics factors in an experiment that suggest to participants how the experimenter would like them to behave

L+j:|Ss X Z7Q7j @0心理学空间V5j Pl;n1v$l


Qz8AaoB$V J3h0心理学空间*HP5P2T*HU,M%d

dementia cognitive disorder in which a gradual and usually permanent decline of intellectual functioning occurs; can be caused by a medical condition, substance intoxication, or withdrawal心理学空间ie"]u-cJ'Yw5p+O;f

H`Y:y s2@%h0因变量心理学空间"H)mORt:PD


dependent variable factor that an experimenter seeks to predict

\qd;~{ XZ8@T8^0心理学空间Fkm,wk4a

人格解体/现实解体障碍心理学空间{ D}!b:JL'K

心理学空间[$y5UU e

depersonalization/derealization disorder syndrome marked by frequent episodes of feeling detached from one’s own body and mental processes, as if one were an outside observer of oneself; symptoms must cause significant distress or interference with one’s ability to function



心理学空间t1Ka2o _]m B

depressants drugs that slow the nervous system

t}T&_w'D8q h0

$qE4FtNM0抑郁心理学空间:S,EoP Y,Px n1b Q1^W|


depression state marked by either a sad mood or a loss of interest in one’s usual activities, as well as feelings of hopelessness, suicidal ideation, psychomotor agitation or retardation, and trouble concentrating

#Wr V4E+[h~'^O.^0

WTU)C n0抑郁障碍心理学空间g"R&MrBLvk

1Cs"}%B2~+@+T:a6SW0depressive disorders a set of disorders characterized by depressed mood and/or anhedonia (and not mania)


V'Q+u:Hu4f qY7C],v0脱敏


!Q6Z\ib i"{0desensitization treatment used to reduce anxiety by rendering a previously threatening stimulus innocuous by repeated and guided exposure to the stimulus under nonthreatening circumstances

qplv o!@U8cS c0

N.rV[L J.l~{jUb0分离


_j&`a @q0~d0detachment the inability to connect with others

t3qj3`-g)g5j C n0

k;yL [t)Q4yS,@5|W0发育性协调障碍心理学空间uWy:s8ZH2Gg

tw%I?3b%G_3Wp ] S0developmental coordination disorder disorder involving deficits in the ability to walk, run, or hold on to objects心理学空间wh ?{q


心理学空间{A"RU_ICm)X ^9X0U

diagnosis label given to a set of symptoms that tend to occur together心理学空间Z^C ^Y1V

s G,o8IN|;i0M0《精神障碍诊断与统计手册》心理学空间mg(O'Ij9y-P

US1M5b vm*p(}0Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) official manual for diagnosing mental disorders in the United States, containing a list of specific criteria for each disorder, how long a person’s symptoms must be present to qualify for a diagnosis, and requirements that the symptoms interfere with daily functioning in order to be called disorders心理学空间$X;x4Qs/|x;Z


辩证行为疗法心理学空间$ZL| q{PF


dialectical behavior therapy cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at teaching problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, and skill at managing negative emotions


b.@~n S5|9E'T k0素质–应激模型

B@bcF R9?0

3y*zl4eOI!y @0diathesis-stress model model that asserts that only when a diathesis or vulnerability interacts with a stress or trigger will a disorder emerge心理学空间o@G9vx7F(E

],Fd:D Up0D!]LW0脱抑制心理学空间 ? gDi+m i6Je+e


disinhibition lack of restraint


唤醒障碍心理学空间 ^J}H"u6K)VJ5z.S2lK

心理学空间.Z/H M#qJ^

disorders of arousal sleep disorders that involve recurrent episodes of incomplete awakening from sleep that seem to mix elements of wakefulness and NREM sleep心理学空间~Q3@ \(|A S



,Lo n/X*|3K-eh0disruptive mood dysregulation disorder a disorder in children characterized by immature and inappropriate temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion to a situation in intensity and duration心理学空间 g;W{!oN9ja i

"d(VX+bq,]0分离心理学空间V t7W:Ftq x;y-x)f

8Q _xnY {8x4m0dissociation process whereby different facets of an individual’s sense of self, memories, or consciousness become split off from one another



lG r Q8u6Hf}:e0心理学空间4u%EyVP^

dissociative amnesia loss of memory for important facts about a person’s own life and personal identity, usually including the awareness of this memory loss

%}\ `Y'Y(Mb%{!M6f0心理学空间v Z"mp9q0i


0~/kTo*YaH%R0心理学空间G o \#S7q

dissociative fugue disorder in which a person moves away and assumes a new identity, with amnesia for the previous identity心理学空间tR!u9@ F#P

心理学空间!` g/GYg7x#{5].kL


H"SrXU'd#HH a0dissociative identity disorder (DID) syndrome in which a person develops more than one distinct identity or personality, each of which can have distinct facial and verbal expressions, gestures, interpersonal styles, attitudes, and even physiological responses

ux'A&l%[0]6U$V0心理学空间/j5R*C*|w{D F


Qoj%N] c0

,{ZTi A:K0dizygotic (DZ) twins twins who average only 50 percent of their genes in common because they developed from two separate fertilized eggs

nm)N j i`g0



dopamine neurotransmitter in the brain, excess amounts of which have been thought to cause schizophrenia心理学空间r3Y+x)~1C j"O8A hE


双盲实验心理学空间O3| v:Ny

心理学空间B)[:Y p)^kIZ-Z

double-blind experiment study in which both the researchers and the participants are unaware of which experimental condition the participants are in, in order to prevent demand effects心理学空间/N;z;Xc}Qy



心理学空间%B8qb }j(J t@

Durham rule legal principle stating that the presence of a mental disorder is sufficient to absolve an individual of responsibility for a crime


恶劣心境障碍心理学空间l b)M%dM ?(i

bJ+B)[N7e!E S0dysthymic disorder type of depression that is less acute than major depression but more chronic; diagnosis requires the presence of a sad mood or anhedonia, plus two other symptoms of depression, for at least 2 years, during which symptoms do not remit for 2 months or longer


t#M iEP^+?w.vL0心理学空间 LL| l"?5\h



xYA B.r3Rx4P9JW0

'R.~(og!w z/pn u0

+` }mSS7B0


5Q\L T4b*XVV0心理学空间)g[)X&O"Wq_+W

early ejaculation recurrent ejaculation within 1 minute of initiation of partnered sexual activity when not desired

wy0mm!RH8^'C%Z vY0心理学空间Mz/A'E1F*M?X



~`rP,yq1|6P6H V0eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS)心理学空间u:f[!er

心理学空间p7V?dNU;I \

diagnosis for individuals who have some symptoms of anorexia or bulimia nervosa but do not meet the full criteria


/E yK0V;] T la0言语模仿症


6xs5|t)SR\G"C0echolalia communication abnormality in which an individual simply repeats back what he or she hears rather than generating his or her own speech心理学空间M^dI~WA,m

"yl;b!E R(X'w6q J0有效性

]E4| i,nBL0

8C-TzYT h wU0effectiveness in therapy outcome research, how well a therapy works in real-world settings心理学空间B]*Tv.u1T5w


] N'l)ok8d;S g2VTP ` `B0

?z.W:R i0efficacy in therapy outcome research, how well a therapy works in highly controlled settings with a narrowly defined group of people

2w0]Wy/Ew9D;K'^ q&L]0

)ZJu!W6N }_ gS0自我

Dl&M3R.p a0

,y4M_)sY@0t(L!L0ego part of the psyche that channels libido to be acceptable to the superego and within the constraints of reality


crw^9@jG0利己型自杀心理学空间g8q*t ]\/T,U

;rOQ0W!_*r:s3N0egoistic suicide suicide committed by people who feel alienated from others and who lack social support心理学空间N`#j J%e7[


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9A5c%j&Ve;B I N?q0ego psychology branch of psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of the individual’s ability to regulate defenses in ways that allow healthy functioning within the realities of society心理学空间!_Wk}W)F H

心理学空间sIY0TY;](h SF


R)IwC|1^2y z,_5W2P0

"OUwXB/K`:_2_0electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatment for depression that involves the induction of a brain seizure by passing electrical current through the patient’s brain while he or she is anesthetized心理学空间3^%G)cRi0xk-y


心理学空间&}#j [|B

electroencephalogram (EEG) procedure in which multiple electrodes are placed on the scalp to detect low-voltage electrical current produced by the firing of specific neurons in the brain心理学空间ep.jn`&x*hq Ol

iq7t1zi0排泄障碍心理学空间Klmr}0[K ^


elimination disorders disorders in which a child shows frequent, uncontrolled urination or defecation far beyond the age at which children usually develop control over these functions


Ji#@$|s2J {K0内分泌系统心理学空间R5{+`%Sf*|

8o(W4H VO]&@/m![0endocrine system system of glands that produces many different hormones

;Y V)Ka.{ F0心理学空间"O|T[6R a


4W IAsTi D0

&tft5X@Fq0epidemiology study of the frequency and distribution of a disorder, or a group of disorders, in a population心理学空间ke:NWWaX



(leg%o(gP0epigenetics study of how environmental conditions can change the expression of genes without changing the gene sequence心理学空间dO.sb/b


勃起障碍心理学空间a Jh0T jj L

WQ`e1t3Z%eJW0erectile disorder in men, recurrent inability to attain or maintain an erection until the completion of sexual activity

T,z#c Ak#W*a+Y-v0心理学空间~`1R6yw1v7\*`jL#L


k7i|*mm6N l/C0

*N9j k B/Y,c0excessive reassurance seeking constantly looking for assurances from others that one is accepted and loved心理学空间SGM3D-rn/D4m\



o2Ts].M"[0executive functions functions of the brain that involve the ability to sustain concentration; use abstract reasoning and concept formation; anticipate, plan, and program; initiate purposeful behavior; self-monitor; and shift from maladaptive patterns of behavior to more adaptive ones心理学空间N3D1nw;F4}*t

F+Tg"V(L(mpt0露阴障碍心理学空间 UYy$JPg


exhibitionist disorder obtainment of sexual gratification by exposing one’s genitals to involuntary observers

?5JZ-e&J @}0

#l*|z,Y?&Iy1K9w4X Q0实验组心理学空间3aG1q _ cL

G$p]c0T0experimental group in an experimental study, group of participants that receive the key manipulation


实验研究心理学空间V To,k Z)n%e:M


experimental studies studies in which the independent variables are directly manipulated and the effects on the dependent variable are examined心理学空间DI*zu5i$pI8t{'q%Uh

心理学空间l$|!F7W [m"m


$~G h h{-G{z0exposure and response prevention type of therapy in which individuals with anxiety symptoms are exposed repeatedly to the focus of their anxiety but prevented from avoiding it or engaging in compulsive responses to the anxiety心理学空间.q1~2yiN

6i2ibsVph V0情绪表达心理学空间2~+\3e9\bOp!@7tb

心理学空间H-VU~9J.v%q'T j-p

expressed emotion family interaction style in which families are over-involved with each other, are overprotective of the disturbed family member, voice self-sacrificing attitudes to the disturbed family member, and simultaneously are critical, hostile, and resentful of this member

C{4uh \0

G x"z3qJ!R0外部效度心理学空间3u"q+U|\)A)y$C


external validity extent to which a study’s results can be generalized to phenomena in real life心理学空间:f5bD&Y!`

心理学空间Fg$^.p-m S]$WKT8C


9d E~4bC6E:h0

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_k G:]ZM5DG K8b0factitious disorder disorder marked by deliberately faking physical or mental illness to gain medical attention心理学空间X+O o"Mq'B


心理学空间6ImK-j [

factitious disorder imposed on another disorder in which the individual creates an illness in another individual in order to gain attention


3h ~omx1OU+Ph0家庭焦点疗法


family-focused therapy treatment for people with心理学空间/RM:bF`ru Bq


bipolar disorder in which patients and their families are given education about bipolar disorder and心理学空间]#TLk0x"b`

? iVWN0training in communication and problem-solving skills心理学空间!vv.J3sM&{

*a,fr [P6a0家族史研究

[1o2j'm X+DDYB}{0

'|{.f7s4I-Nz's8U0family history study study of the heritability of a disorder involving identifying people with the disorder and people without the disorder and then determining the disorder’s frequency within each person’s family


p${P w'N)D3{U0家庭系统理论心理学空间#?4GYx9Gs0|

心理学空间)N a |{"Srgg

family systems theories theories that see the family as a complex system that works to maintain the status quo心理学空间 P4z+dT-L SZ~P|'T



x(C y?_1[3G0[q0心理学空间0D9B!\ ]ws

family systems therapy psychotherapy that focuses on the family, rather than the individual, as the source of problems; family therapists challenge communication styles, disrupt pathological family dynamics, and challenge defensive conceptions in order to harmonize relationships among all members and within each member

!Wz b!b;xA7R5p0


.sT r(O V&z/HD is0心理学空间Ta9wQs+UDq

female orgasmic disorder in women, recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm after having reached the excitement phase of the sexual response cycle (also called anorgasmia)心理学空间(x1s1{ziuc#H4?

心理学空间9Ax6t[ `*@S+L


-My"T'Cbg}7O+s0female sexual interest/arousal disorder in women, recurrent inability to attain or maintain the swelling-lubrication response of sexual excitement心理学空间kD!gM6]2C

心理学空间 HY)w sU



fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) syndrome that occurs when a mother abuses alcohol during pregnancy, causing the baby to have lowered IQ, increased risk for mental retardation, distractibility, and difficulties with learning from experience心理学空间nB+Ry i8{'Ar5e.|


-E_ p b{ T*x k0

r.@u1BM;M0fetishistic disorder paraphilic disorder in which a person uses inanimate objects as the preferred or exclusive source of sexual arousal

J+i!U-?B6q N0心理学空间"Q(w/v4pg8S&I3W2};J,Vy


B|&XOQD0fight-or-flight response physiological changes in the human body that occur in response to a perceived threat, including the secretion of glucose, endorphins, and hormones as well as the elevation of heart rate, metabolism, blood pressure, breathing, and muscle tension


J4}E6K:~od6Gp G0满灌


:vdQ0\c*[(EZf0flooding behavioral technique in which a client is intensively exposed to a feared object until the anxiety diminishes (also called implosive therapy)

+^ n'W%M#pcw0


心理学空间}-R V~^p*g

folk illnesses problems held by a particular culture to be caused by natural forces, supernatural forces, and strong emotions, etc.

6H!?,f0bl k0



5TO3v"wV _\Z0formal thought disorder state of highly disorganized thinking (also known as loosening of associations)心理学空间 v8s]7B.WEi!]^


%X,F}'GhK0心理学空间2R I:RU|

free association method of uncovering unconscious conflicts in which the client is taught to talk about whatever comes to mind, without censoring any thoughts心理学空间!Vk&i2Z.zt-X9@{

心理学空间3U K&H4Yb,_Fu



m6X @5Q| ] n0frotteuristic disorder disorder characterized by obtainment of sexual gratification by rubbing one’s genitals against or fondling the body parts of a nonconsenting person

U7Qbi_:^0心理学空间c,i hV~ h$j@




t GY;[U0心理学空间LAML3L"n"V*` {



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gambling disorder a disorder, similar to substance abuse, characterized by the inability to resist the impulse to gamble心理学空间)n0t#f+I:U

1K8F?1?/g0性别烦躁心理学空间1O M P&dQlvx._


gender dysphoria condition in which a person believes that he or she was born with the wrong sex’s genitals and is fundamentally a person of the opposite sex心理学空间n'n Q/Bq\0m3z


?7n0r`| a0gender identity one’s perception of oneself as male or female心理学空间#siQY#Ha!y

心理学空间v;qktd dr


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%Mi"w4K ^/z0generalizability extent to which the results of a study generalize to, or inform us about, people other than those who were studied心理学空间/D)R$x*q ]@'M7V

o8C p j%{ Ps7sX0生殖器-盆腔痛/插入障碍心理学空间.x(L:le5RA5m.]

9H {"m\0{ _;R t D0genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder marked difficulty having vaginal penetration; pain or tightening of pelvic floor muscles during penetration

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generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) anxiety disorder characterized by chronic anxiety in daily life

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general paresis disease that leads to paralysis, insanity, and eventually death; discovery of this disease helped establish a connection between biological diseases and mental disorders

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@?Q+QA _0整体性假定心理学空间V7BRW&Z.^ u2WW

-Gn!dsa0global assumptions fundamental beliefs that encompass all types of situations

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9G8N)Rb!Y0F4Q.kv%H0grandiose delusions false, persistent beliefs that one has superior talents and traits心理学空间e^,i _6c+U

心理学空间:{s!uo0](~ V@:f X1y


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grave disability legal criterion for involuntary commitment that is met when a person is so incapacitated by a mental disorder that he or she cannot provide his or her own basic needs, such as food, clothing, or shelter, and his or her survival is threatened as a result心理学空间o O+Fa#@Z



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eau+e Y0group comparison study study that compares two or more distinct groups on a variable of interest心理学空间n3Dm4} YK'D'C

7x Tdk"S9A'u0指导掌握技术心理学空间)D9M Rh{6`8v'`

心理学空间O,c oL$B

guided mastery techniques interventions designed to increase health-promoting behaviors by providing explicit information about how to engage in these behaviors, as well as opportunities to engage in the behaviors in increasingly challenging situations心理学空间&Di{9^N,Y#R:~5lN`%es

i6qaL U NX/[0o*n&u]q0有罪但患有精神病心理学空间k4l a6|1e


guilty but mentally ill (GBMI) verdict that requires a convicted criminal to serve the full sentence designated for his or her crime, with the expectation that he or she will also receive treatment for mental illness

za2v3i)y4K[ pR0

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心理学空间f8{:u+?{!I6| i

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'J%ZP#~ b#G7u V]jB0hair-pulling disorder disorder characterized by recurrent pulling out of the hair resulting in noticeable hair loss; these individuals report tension immediately before or while attempting to resist the impulse, and pleasure or relief when they are pulling out their hair (also known as trichotillomania)心理学空间f:X H D C$rA

心理学空间jN/i U [/?Th*I


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halfway houses living facilities that offer people with long-term mental health problems the opportunity to live in a structured, supportive environment while they are trying to reestablish employment and ties to family and friends心理学空间B+`5P;c:yp"^s f

i&Fs$B @X q0幻觉

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{F%D5b W0hallucinations perceptual experiences that are not real心理学空间.e*dg0s3z4n"P

心理学空间 xD E*I'Uazocsu

致幻剂心理学空间W^ctZ G*b

i},{5R6t0hw S0hallucinogens substances, including LSD and MDMA (ecstasy), that produce perceptual illusions and distortions even in small doses心理学空间-Y1^!DSA

#gQ/? L/|9f2xO0伤害减少模型心理学空间2enn_ T"?U

/z4P[*\uS%s z0harm reduction model approach to treating substance use disorders that views alcohol use as normative behavior and focuses education on the immediate risks of the excessive use of alcohol (such as alcohol-related accidents) and on the payoffs of moderation (such as avoidance of hangovers)心理学空间4oE#[+p:Pz iF"X




!OA@,_-Wz;GH:K0hippocampus structure of the brain involved in memory and in the stress response心理学空间f3]D W!v jh~n

0^ [C+i2Q0囤积障碍心理学空间?x*p$BOs._$I C

心理学空间 u!?ei'H#k5P(RB)hQ

hoarding a compulsive disorder characterized by the inability to throw away unneeded possessions (such as trash)

!o\L"qvP i i cg2u0

0Vs QZ:T0无望感心理学空间RN1|+i AYi|


hopelessness sense that the future is bleak and there is no way to make it more positive心理学空间z1db`b c/A&@Um



8Ya1uy&~u0心理学空间I| C V RX;^

hormone chemical that carries messages throughout the body, potentially affecting a person’s mood, level of energy, and reaction to stress心理学空间9x;rW3XkL:vvr;@

b M kz1O.]K0人本主义理论

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z'R8s K&wJE0humanistic theories views that people strive to develop their innate potential for goodness and self-actualization; abnormality arises as a result of societal pressures to conform to unchosen dictates that clash with a person’s self-actualization needs and from an inability to satisfy more basic needs, such as hunger心理学空间 i{~4T M xD+u$u&{



Vez\~*AQ6x0心理学空间E:^Mx| nX

humanistic therapy type of therapy in which the goal is to help the client discover his or her place in the world and to accomplish self-actualization through self-exploration; based on the assumption that the natural tendency for humans is toward growth (also called person-centered therapy)



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human laboratory study experimental study involving human participants心理学空间"nn'D$t!`'\ kA




hypersomnolence disorders disorders characterized by excessive sleepiness, which can be expressed as either an excessive quantity of sleep (also referred to as hypersomnia) or a low quality of wakefulness



0|&?;e2Ov@/h0hypertension condition in which the blood supply through the blood vessels is excessive and can lead to deterioration of the cell tissue and hardening of the arterial walls

Cq7d5M&E I0


Ltex5hd_lG0心理学空间r,A"A+|+?q A;|

hypomania state in which an individual shows mild symptoms of mania心理学空间N^ jG.CF6c;ZO,m]


下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴(HPA轴)心理学空间r$t2t0z|O Y

G)D"phr f7ZG0hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) three key components of the neuroendocrine system that work together in a feedback system interconnected with the limbic system and the cerebral cortex心理学空间r tw/LBGHR8u;t

NVB^[[#bRU0下丘脑心理学空间 Zx`\z)Q WgB

心理学空间&~+Lej\ @

hypothalamus component of the brain that regulates eating, drinking, sex, and basic emotions; abnormal behaviors involving any of these activities may be the result of dysfunction in the hypothalamus心理学空间,cN n)M+Y(T\z4g



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,H ]E)MXF d0hypothesis testable statement about two or more variables and the relationship between them心理学空间s&Nkwe#}


心理学空间 f AO6n.j!D"x$r h


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#f m KSY0心理学空间/d-cd#W!vRI6REmR

id according to Freud, most primitive part of the unconscious; consists of drives and impulses seeking immediate gratification

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YGrv Q'OLt0疾病焦虑障碍


illness anxiety disorder a form of anxiety characterized by a preoccupation with fears of having a serious medical illness based on misinterpretations of bodily sensations (formerly called hypochondriasis)心理学空间9?-G tZ{u:M~

心理学空间 ghY#n!cu.k|

免疫系统心理学空间S'TN{7J3nT `

心理学空间;JIKA tZ-cQ

immune system system that protects the body from disease-causing microorganisms and affects susceptibility to diseases心理学空间5W+Q5y/m Yn w5q

5|kn oY0冲动性心理学空间4Hn|i(A?;c

心理学空间 a3x{4w2J4h

impulsivity difficulty controlling behaviors; acting without thinking first心理学空间v"v!D2}]P#^


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dg%CYr#L7kO0incidence number of new cases of a specific disorder that develop during a specific period of time

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!oZ G&{)h0incompetent to stand trial legal status of an individual who lacks a rational understanding of the charges against him or her, an understanding of the proceedings of his or her trial, or the ability to participate in his or her defense

Z-V"f8z!p4D G/r})L#v0心理学空间:K QxZ_5]

自变量心理学空间t7e3F tT5v#I]

0Yn)ZUlg0independent variable factor that is manipulated by an experimenter or used to predict the dependent variable



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informed consent procedure (often legally required prior to treatment administration) in which a patient receives a full and understandable explanation of the treatment being offered and makes a decision about whether to accept or refuse the treatment

,bekO+i'N0心理学空间'\6M$V kJ4Z0MB]/\r



ZOa/T7~5_}rk0inhalants solvents, such as gasoline, glue, or paint thinner, that one inhales to produce a high and that can cause permanent central nervous system damage as well as liver and kidney disease




insanity legal term denoting a state of mental incapacitation during the time a crime was committed

B V,p5]f0心理学空间Kj k`(z6x+^


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#CUyHO b!wjiV}0insanity defense defense used by people accused of a crime in which they state that they cannot be held responsible for their illegal acts because they were mentally incapacitated at the time of the act心理学空间Z$KQ$D1@#E+MU{

心理学空间+{\J(L1i c{%bV

精神病辩护改革法案心理学空间d@.? Z k3c+l+SmZ

R _#uUE B7I*i0Insanity Defense Reform Act 1984 law, affecting all federal courts and about half the state courts, that finds a person not guilty by reason of insanity if it is shown that, as a result of mental disease or mental retardation, the accused was unable to appreciate the wrongfulness of his or her conduct at the time of the offense

9g Uo2a'F0

;dp qxJ)ti7j }8]0失眠障碍


mJ+|3Z }A \l M0insomnia disorder a disorder characterized by chronic difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or by sleep that does not restore energy and alertness心理学空间#@pu}nT

心理学空间4d)u$uC;_ }tj3Q

智力发育障碍心理学空间4[*M }lE&[b L

心理学空间sJ _P#x6Yr

intellectual development disorder a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired general intellectual functioning (formerly referred to as mental retardation)


o G3` p1m0智力测验

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intelligence tests tests that assess a person’s intellectual strengths and weaknesses

N%@V IG0


i4OxOMx0intermittent explosive disorder disorder characterized by (a) several episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property, (b) a degree of aggressiveness grossly out of proportion to the situation, and (c) symptoms not better explained by another mental disorder (such as antisocial personality disorder), the effects of substances, or a medical condition (e.g., a head trauma)



TASN4x5}JsUJ0心理学空间 w-guD)Ov

internal validity extent to which all factors that could extraneously affect a study’s results are controlled within a laboratory study



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interoceptive awareness sensitivity to stimuli arising from within the body, such as heart rate




8s uDj*}x+P,NF0interoceptive conditioning process by which symptoms of anxiety that have preceded panic attacks become the signals for new panic attacks心理学空间/o9Y5g5]pD4y KC


"AL8P1Z/L8a"V0interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (ISRT) treatment for people with bipolar disorder that helps them manage their social relationships and daily rhythms to try to prevent relapse

6[ WS|#tL _Ef}&e Z:U0

T3a*Aw B ^8qg0抑郁的人际理论

'y x0h!m/i&r)HCYG0心理学空间2aC+o%V0mt!m7KM

interpersonal theories of depression theories that view the causes of depression as rooted in interpersonal relationships

Tj { R}G$g q)z:[o0心理学空间A2DitT-~



$Id;u{?+\,N U Aj0interpersonal therapy (IPT) more structured, short-term version of psychodynamic therapies心理学空间 Bh.uj9G'm*t,m!@)G

2Rr]{)t@:Yq1b0N ?F0不能控制规则


Sb1h&NI1D$\r7X{0irresistible impulse rule legal principle stating that even a person who knowingly performs a wrongful act can be absolved of responsibility if he or she was driven by an irresistible impulse to perform the act or had a diminished capacity to resist performing the act

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v _C8HjQ b0心理学空间R1R!PL6[ v/e#F

language disorder a communication disorder characterized by difficulties with spoken and written language and other language modalities (e.g., sign language)心理学空间V`/@s5K{F



)]tv4~M}u;[:F b|#x0learned helplessness theory view that exposure to uncontrollable negative events leads to a belief in one’s inability to control important outcomes and a subsequent loss of motivation, indecisiveness, and failure of action心理学空间 X Y Iw9hLl1u3i

(J.rF7]Dk;P)w b0力比多

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'h2P `2gr:r0libido according to Freud, psychical energy derived from physiological drives心理学空间2FD l G S^3\

心理学空间 @D$y/X Rhw F



life-course-persistent antisocial behavior a form of conduct disorder involving aggression, destructiveness, deceitfulness, and rules violation that persists into adulthood心理学空间 `-P|6`'k o ~



心理学空间Ef l)^Y]p

light therapy treatment for seasonal affective disorder that involves exposure to bright lights during the winter months

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limbic system part of the brain that relays information from the primitive brain stem about changes in bodily functions to the cortex, where the information is interpreted

L/_pU#B0心理学空间UfU bH g8C T

连锁分析心理学空间 K4w @"v^o9Dc


linkage analysis genetic study that looks for associations between psychological disorders and physical disorders for which genetic causes are known

n,{_k9h(x/it]0心理学空间I gq S3f^

心理学空间HtIU-| b

*MN+UUB,mFZQ0lithium drug used to treat manic and depressive symptoms心理学空间9jYt4@!]8ZJ



tP,g'e;i)\ wZ+X L0心理学空间9b8w'f C6su+l

locus ceruleus area of the brain stem that plays a part in the emergency response and may be involved in panic attacks


|X0A `k Q0纵向


%r4C t8RM#N%}\0longitudinal type of research evaluating the same group(s) of people for an extended period of time


心理学空间e'y0PDA u?,XaZB+P

b#Y.M4Fg U s0心理学空间wv3y7hEBt


M心理学空间H,WB0ESB AyX EX8y

心理学空间iUP g(^4LQ


8c-H6NsA0磁共振成像心理学空间6GJm'e A ^.q

1| fN$dH!Z1n%F*K0magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method of measuring both brain structure and brain function through the construction of a magnetic field that affects hydrogen atoms in the brain, emitting signals that a computer then records and uses to produce a three-dimensional image of the brain


mb)zg9LQ T{0抑郁症(重性抑郁障碍)

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major depressive disorder disorder involving a sad mood or anhedonia plus four or more of the following symptoms: weight loss or a decrease in appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or severe guilt, trouble concentrating, and suicidal ideation; these symptoms must be present for at least 2 weeks and must produce marked impairments in normal functioning

V|PV U6c;Z n0

`'g+B8w Or"A0重度神经认知障碍

Z_1\(J1k v r}?0心理学空间JI/B(HM x_.t

major neurocognitive disorder a brain disorder characterized by a deteriorating course of deficits in neurocognitive functioning (e.g., memory, attention) that interferes significantly with independent living

8O3N.V-a5B_0心理学空间c G b*Z j/sP



male hypoactive sexual desire disorder condition in which a man’s desire for sex is diminished to the point that it causes him significant distress or interpersonal difficulties and is not due to transient life circumstances or another sexual dysfunction心理学空间` y1C!brKTG&|v

M Hd/R'JGZ%b#rT0诈病

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Q&r0}'xGH)X0malingering feigning of a symptom or a disorder for the purpose of avoiding an unwanted situation, such as military service

!R5N_:F-E Q0心理学空间ca0DJ#I


-sRj-L#g$O0managed care health care system in which all necessary services for an individual patient are supposed to be coordinated by a primary care provider; the goals are to coordinate services for an existing medical problem and to prevent future medical problems

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7m:ODmg9Ve$J0mania state of persistently elevated mood, feelings of grandiosity, overenthusiasm, racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive actions心理学空间I.`0`0W0Z)I

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kuM LP9m0mental hygiene movement movement to treat mental patients more humanely and to view mental disorders as medical diseases

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,ol3iYkKOw0mental illness phrase used to refer to a physical illness that causes severe abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and feelings

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TY0i8V U CBv0mentalization-based treatment a form of psychodynamic treatment for borderline personality disorder based on attachment

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1o4Z0[*f't X'Uw)[0心理学空间0K9| _op7Nua,W

mesmerism treatment for hysterical patients based on the idea that magnetic fluids in the patients’ bodies are affected by the magnetic forces of other people and objects; the patients’ magnetic forces are thought to be realigned by the practitioner through his or her own magnetic force


W4y2U2M Z0中脑边缘系统通路

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qw],o+I Q0mesolimbic pathway subcortical part of the brain involved in cognition and emotion

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元分析心理学空间 Ix0M/y D_"Z]a6m

y4_'M5m4p i7x:~^3f0meta-analysis statistical technique for summarizing results across several studies

fCjhvKV0心理学空间ej0gT$j:` y


心理学空间3ls6l1fIK n

methadone opioid that is less potent and longer-lasting than heroin; taken by heroin users to decrease their cravings and help them cope with negative withdrawal symptoms

W8g+h}V c0心理学空间 ^u O"Y[O7M4e

轻度神经认知障碍心理学空间 y"Xm+yO(~N\0F


minor neurocognitive disorder a brain disorder characterized by a deteriorating course of deficits in neurocognitive functioning (e.g., memory, attention) that is not so severe that it interferes significantly with independent living

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u H8tg?e*O:I3l0麦纳顿规则

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M’Naghten rule legal principle stating that, in order to claim a defense of insanity, accused persons must have been burdened by such a defect of reason, from disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act they were doing or, if they did know it, as not to know what they were doing was wrong

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!l-Oi(hhS]0lP0modeling process of learning behaviors by imitating others, especially authority figures or people like oneself心理学空间Bnx&t/h/{7D

7f!k-t6_ Z l9m0分子遗传学研究

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I5Z%Fa9CQ0molecular genetic studies studies of the structure and function of genes that help in understanding how genetic mutations can lead to disease



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u*s'b5{8w7k |0monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) class of antidepressant drugs心理学空间,H.QK |@/a}




monoamines neurotransmitters, including catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and serotonin, that have been implicated in the mood disorders

X{ \1q;w&CX0


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monozygotic (MZ) twins twins who share 100 percent of their genes because they developed from a single fertilized egg心理学空间Y3j mI$E$@b;k

心理学空间,Vf(SC5?} g2Ey

人道治疗心理学空间@gk f*TA0r M


moral treatment type of treatment delivered in mental hospitals in which patients were treated with respect and dignity and were encouraged to exercise self-control


A4^2V-}w&m G-NB0动机性访谈


{T$vCB x'q'R0motivational interviewing intervention for sufferers of substance use disorders to elicit and solidify individuals’ motivation and commitment to changing their substance use; rather than confronting the user, the motivational interviewer adopts an empathic interaction style, drawing out the user’s own statements of desire, ability, reasons, need, and, ultimately, commitment to change




motor disorders a group of disorders characterized by motor symptoms such as tics, stereotypic movements, or dyscoordination心理学空间x+_JZ_3HgJ,kf`9Q

5QmLtqPk+^ ?'e0多轴系统


$I;C-f/e'w/Fp\pT9R0multiaxial system a system of diagnoses on three axes used by the DSM-5, with the first axis representing mental disorders, the second axis representing psychosocial and environmental problems, and the third axis representing global level of functioning



#f C9[E [w`dd3A x0multiple baseline design type of study in which an intervention is given to the same individual but begun in different settings or is given to different individuals but at different points in time and in which the effects of the intervention are systematically observed心理学空间^~"w;C x(`_T @

pk*ub:Bg"\p0心理学空间+| [x(^Z.v&J ?t

G,Cmj { m0心理学空间 z/bq7K8x9s


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S#m rCGT r6X0自恋型人格障碍心理学空间1y{EF*cES&@a\ [

%wl4rY ]2I0narcissistic personality disorder syndrome marked by grandiose thoughts and feelings of one’s own worth as well as an obliviousness to others’ needs and an exploitative, arrogant demeanor心理学空间#kCgb6P _/O S)m-z



r:W|3E5t0n:EV0narcolepsy sleep disorder characterized by irresistible attacks of sleep plus (1) cataplexy or (2) recurrent intrusions of elements of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep into the transition between sleep and wakefulness心理学空间'E-mb$G%@y!O1O E

心理学空间5_-?"M/m7E b_X6oO}h


pAN G P0narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency disorder recurrent attacks of an irrepressible need to sleep, lapses into sleep, or naps occurring within the same day accompanied by low levels of hypocretin and cataplexy or abnormally short onset of REM sleep心理学空间0a7Z$G [.ZH*OS

vE MDV&Y ]0自然环境型恐怖症


%~w$Q-h?j0natural environment type phobias extreme fears of events or situations in the natural environment that cause impairment in one’s ability to function normally心理学空间1uu|7`9l*{h


治疗需求心理学空间 N?_.~c$uw8t

L:li;h9?6Kg0need for treatment legal criterion operationalized as a signed certificate by two physicians stating that a person requires treatment but will not agree to it voluntarily; formerly a sufficient cause to hospitalize the person involuntarily and force him or her to undergo treatment心理学空间k"O QB1i!w

7qo%E/}v G|0负性情感


5j @/juS2x0negative affectivity a dimension of personality characterized by negative mood states心理学空间/CQSS {!v0U/g,UO1m

*w!i/j2Yh0消极认知三联征心理学空间d wIJ,g7ti

心理学空间n6Mq*YGE BwfF

negative cognitive triad perspective seen in depressed people in which they have negative views of themselves, of the world, and of the future心理学空间&f(S Ycpk

心理学空间/E oB0d G|XY6P

负强化心理学空间/Y/S;^E6]3C&Fj e

心理学空间\a5^ BYH

negative reinforcement process in which people avoid being exposed to feared objects and their avoidance is reinforced by the subsequent reduction of their anxiety



N4ms"`I&Kd0negative symptoms in schizophrenia, deficits in functioning that indicate the absence of a capacity present in people without schizophrenia, such as restricted affect



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6Go{'gI(vF A0P0neurocognitive disorders behavioral disorders known or presumed to result from disruptions of brain structure and functioning心理学空间]Qn;YZ^U


神经发育障碍心理学空间 V!fSUk3r

心理学空间u O3Ra`q&|G q#^

neurodevelopmental disorders behavioral disorders with onset during childhood known or presumed to result at least in part from disruption of brain development


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neurofibrillary tangles twists or tangles of filaments within nerve cells, especially prominent in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, common in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients心理学空间 NL9C qw h Fm



neuroleptics drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms心理学空间A7Y%B-Uf1CC,S

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neuropsychological tests tests of cognitive, sensory, and/or motor skills that attempt to differentiate people with deficits in these areas from normal subjects


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neurotransmitters biochemicals, released from a sending neuron, that transmit messages to a receiving neuron in the brain and nervous system

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nicotine alkaloid found in tobacco; operates on both the central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting in the release of biochemicals, including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and the endogenous opioids

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night eating disorder an eating disorder characterized by the regular intake of excessive amounts of food after dinner and into the night



Ot)Y+^'a(lA)H0nightmare disorder sleep disorder characterized by nightmares frequent enough to cause significant distress or impairment in functioning心理学空间U IL#b'mYRfL

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nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) act of deliberately cutting, burning, puncturing, or otherwise significantly injuring one’s skin with no intent to die

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UY9c|-LV.G^K0norepinephrine neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of mood

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norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors drugs used to treat depression; inhibit the reuptake of both norepinephrine and dopamine心理学空间.ySea%DW~^


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1M'z%Bz7j1cD0null hypothesis alternative to a primary hypothesis, stating that there is no relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable心理学空间TUGOa;Q6i8yW

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obesity condition of being significantly overweight, defined by the Centers for Disease Control as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or over, where BMI is calculated as weight in pounds multiplied by 703, then divided by the square of height in inches心理学空间u s$@3Fz e

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object relations view held by a group of modern psychodynamic theorists that one develops a self-concept and appraisals of others in a four-stage process during childhood and retains them throughout adulthood; psychopathology consists of an incomplete progression through these stages or an acquisition of poor self- and other concepts心理学空间%KaD0[2b-ZvsH5C



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observational learning learning that occurs when a person observes the rewards and punishments of another’s behavior and then behaves in accordance with the same rewards and punishments

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obsessions uncontrollable, persistent thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses that an individual feels intrude on his or her consciousness and that cause significant anxiety or distress心理学空间"OVj%J&i+LN-FW

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k"C~ }9{:u0obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions (persistent thoughts) and compulsions (rituals)




a"Nn7dfZ7_3e{0obsessive-compulsive personality disorder pervasive rigidity in one’s activities and interpersonal relationships; includes qualities such as emotional constriction, extreme perfectionism, and anxiety resulting from even slight disruptions in one’s routine心理学空间 ~,|8l.d@_w



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obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of upper-airway obstruction during sleep

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#E#?TN Zm"qCF0operant conditioning form of learning in which behaviors lead to consequences that either reinforce or punish the organism, leading to an increased or a decreased probability of a future response

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P!b%C+O+m9r0operationalization specific manner in which variables in a study are measured or manipulated


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0_TiZW0oppositional defiant disorder syndrome of chronic misbehavior in childhood marked by belligerence, irritability, and defiance, although not to the extent found in a diagnosis of conduct disorder


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nU9PPb'J%pHo0organic amnesia loss of memory caused by brain injury resulting from disease, drugs, accidents (blows to head), or surgery


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!@RjQy JW L0orgasm discharge of neuromuscular tension built up during sexual activity; in men, entails rhythmic contractions of the prostate, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and penis and seminal discharge; in women, entails contractions of the orgasmic platform and uterus


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