作者: John M Grohol / 10380次阅读 时间: 2010年8月06日
来源: Psych Central 标签: 青少年 网络成瘾
Internet Addiction, Depression and Chinese Teens
John M Grohol PsyD 2010-8-4 21:32
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An interesting new study was published earlier this week about “Internet addiction.” Unlike many previous studies on this hypothesized disorder, this one actually took measurements at two different points in time to try and tease out the possibility that “Internet addiction” can cause mental health problems, like depression or anxiety.
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Can we show that simply using the Internet causes depression? Researchers set to find out on Chinese teens.

Psychologist Lawrence Lam and his colleague studied 1,041 Chinese teens, mostly ages 13 to 16, who had no signs of depression at the onset of the study. Some of the group, however, had moderate to severe pathological use of the Internet (64 of the subjects).
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The researchers then assessed all 1,041 teens for depression, anxiety and “Internet addiction” nine months later. They found that those who were “excessively” using the Internet at baseline were twice as vulnerable to depression than more moderate Internet users.
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That’s all good and fine. That’s pretty straightforward statistical analysis, if you believe in the reliability and validity of the assessment measure used, the Internet Addiction Test (I’ll come back to this point).

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But the researchers say, “Results suggested that young people who are initially free of mental health problems but use the Internet pathologically could develop depression as a consequence.”

Perhaps. But it begs the question — how come none of these folks exhibited depression at baseline if they were already “addicted” to the Internet?

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The researchers also did something a lot of researchers do when their sample size is simply too small to study — they combined two groups that are potentially very different. For analysis purposes, they combined “moderately” addicted Internet users with severely addicted Internet users. This could skew the results.
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Getting back to the Internet Addiction Test, there’s surprisingly few psychometric validity studies conducted on this test. The journal actually let the researchers of this article reference the online version of the test as a justification for the cutoff scores used. You have to take the 20-question test (conveniently placed on 20 different pages!) to actually find the cutoff scores. The cutoff scores are critical, since those are what categorize an individual as to whether they are using the Internet in a “normal” manner, or a moderate to severely addicted manner.
But I’ve searched high and low for research validation of the cutoff scores beyond Young’s own research into the very initial development of the test. All I could find was a study that demonstrated that the Internet Addiction Test is actually a six-factor test — not a single factor test. This suggests that instead of using a single cutoff score (which may not be reliable to begin with), Internet addiction — as measured by the Internet addiction test anyway — is a multidimensional concept. (But the Ns on even this validation research are small and not replicated elsewhere.) If the cutoff scores are unreliable — and we have very little research to suggest they are — then so is anything based off of them. Including the present study.
不过,我到处寻找并验证这项测试的截取数据,这些已经超出最初发展的起步时的研究(But I’ve searched high and low for research validation of the cutoff scores beyond Young’s own research into the very initial development of the test. )。所有我能找到的一份研究报告表明,互联网成瘾测试实际上是一个6因素试验——不是单一因素的测试。这表明,网络成瘾——由网络成瘾测试测量而言——是一个多层面的概念,而不是使用一个单一的截取评分(可能开始不可靠)。 (但即使是这个验证研究的NS小而不是在其他地方推广。)如过截取分数并不可靠——我们很少研究表明他们是如此的——然后让基于这些的任何事情停止。包括现有的研究。 
The last concern is the cross-cultural issue. Is an American test designed by an American for English-language use appropriate to be used on a Chinese population? Most psychologists would say, “No,” not without further population-specific validation. I couldn’t find any such validation for this test in the research literature, but I did find Chinese researchers who were creating their own versions of an Internet addiction questionnaire. Why the current researchers didn’t use one of these Chinese-specific tests is an open question.
最后一个令人关注的是跨文化的问题。一项美国人设计的,运用英语语言的美国测试,运用在中国人中是否合适?大多数心理学家会说,“不,” 不是没有人口的进一步具体验证。我找不到这个方法适用于任何此类研究文献试验验证,但我确实发现谁是创建一个网络成瘾问卷自己的版本中的研究人员。为什么目前的研究人员没有使用这些中国特有的测试,是一个悬而未决的问题。 

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But maybe it’s not the Internet that’s really causing all of these problems, at least according to one of the researchers of the current study:
The depression might be a result of lack of sleep and stress from competitive online games, [Lam] explained. “People who spend so much time on the Internet will lose sleep and it is a very well established fact that the less one sleeps, the higher the chances of depression,” Lam said.
抑郁可能是缺乏睡眠和压力来自竞争性的在线游戏的结果,[林]解释说: “那些花很多时间在互联网上的人,会失去睡眠时间,这是一个很好的事实,减少一次睡觉,较高的抑郁的机会就会产生,”
So here we get an even more nuanced explanation — it’s not the Internet that’s causing the depression after all, it’s the lack of sleep and possible stress from gaming (which you would think might show up on the anxiety scale the researchers also used, but failed to find any significant results for).
所以,在这里我们得到一个更细致的解释 - 不是因特网造成所有的抑郁,而是睡眠不足和潜在的游戏情绪(以免你觉得可能显而易见的认为基于研究人员们所使用的焦虑量表,但无法找到明显成果)。 
Confused? Yeah, so’m I.
This kind of study, however, is the exact sort of research that is more powerful and has the potential to move our knowledge-base about “Internet addiction” forward. Future researchers would do well to replicate studies similar to this one to demonstrate the exact nature of the relationship between use of the Internet — or playing video games online, a very specific activity — and other mental health issues.
这类研究,但是,确实很强大,潜在的推动了我们关于“网络成瘾”的常识。未来的研究人员将会更好的复制一个类似的研究以证明,使用互联网、玩在线视频游戏、一个很具体的活动与其他心理健康问题之间的确切关系的性质 。 
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Which brings me to my last and perhaps most important point — researchers need to get far more detailed and refined when researching the Internet. “Use of the Internet” is such a broad concept, it is silly to try and measure related to other problems in a person’s life. Playing video games, using the Internet for gambling, viewing porn — researchers need to get detailed in their analysis, so we can stop blaming the general Internet boogeyman.
我的最后的,也许是最重要的一点是——研究者研究互联网时,需要获得更详细更完善的细节。 “互联网的使用”是这样一个广泛的概念,将尝试性的测量涉及到一个人的生活中的其他问题是愚蠢的。玩视频游戏,利用互联网进行赌博,观看色情 - 研究者需要获得这些分析的细节,这样我们才可以停止指责普通互联网魔巫。

Read the full article: Excessive Use of Internet Predicts Later Depression
研究结果发表在《儿科与青春期医学文献》(Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine)上,报告的另外一位作者是中山大学公共卫生学院的彭子文心理学空间u6I$|S'I!GT
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Dr. John Grohol is the CEO and founder of Psych Central. He has been writing about online behavior, mental health and psychology issues, and the intersection of technology and psychology since 1992.
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