Autistic disturbances of affective contact
作者: Leo Kanner / 19536次阅读 时间: 2010年8月14日
标签: 自闭症 Autistic affective disturbances
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网心理学空间d$r0?D ~5u6Q

Autistic disturbances of affective contact心理学空间GJb:H~%Ne

`T0tv"Zs&G0Leo Kanner's Original Article心理学空间 D;O5szk ?3k
Source:  http://www.ama.org.br/kannereng12.htm accessed 2-07-05
5A#moyRX0This article is the  complete article by Leo Kanner, written in 1943 paper.  It appears on the Brazilian autism site of the Autistic Friends Association the home page of which is to be found at http://www.ama.org.br/main.htm心理学空间.pq:h2vDR+w
The hard-copy print original is to be found in the sources listed below:
+P q lgl7^"B#|bl0"Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact", Nervous Child 2 (1943): 217-250. Reprinted inChildhood Psychosis: Initial Studies and New Insights, ed. Leo Kanner (Washington, D.C.: V. H. Winston, 1973). Also reprinted in Classic Readings in Autism, ed. Anne M. Donnellan (New York: Teacher's College Press, 1985).心理学空间6x/EG4lP{Tk)y's

#R-b{'cj[1r r0wc0The following is an MS Word conversion and edited correction of the complete article as it appears on the Brazilian web site.  Kanner's article, much less often read today than Hans Asperger's article written only a year later, actually reads much easier than Asperger's more convoluted, complex description of children he worked with at the same time.  We felt it would be useful for persons interested in Kanner's observations to read his original article, which appears fresh if not a bit old fashioned today, over six decades since its first appearance in print.
nIh8oL(aL0One striking difference between Kanner's paper and that of Hans Asperger is that Kanner saw the majority of his cases in the context of expressed family of origin concerns.  These were children brought in by their parents or referred to him by private practitioners who mostly had seen the children in private consultation as opposed to institutional, clinic settings.  His paper provides family history and information about the current status of parents and relatives in each of his children, something noticeably absent in Asperger's report of children roughly the same age.  Asperger's patients were disconnected from their families by virtue of their resident institutionalized status in his clinic, some for considerable periods of time by the time he first saw them.  He also saw them in a safe, sheltered environment in Vienna where their abberant behavior, had they remained in the open community, would have prompted Nazi removal from their families and likely extermination in death camps.  Since Asperger's children weren't interactively involved with their families in the same way Kanner's children were, Asperger's observations, while keen and far-reaching, lack the family of origin and family history content and flavor of Kanner's cases.
\ C(Vb1a0It is our "amateur opinion" that many of the children in these cases, and certainly some if not most of their relatives described by Kanner would today more likely be diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
ptM ?+t'F0[Readers please note that while some some typographical and syntact errors in this text remain from our copy editing, they are due to the fact that the original article was painstakingly copied and typed from a hard-copy printed source.  We are grateful for our friends in Brazil for having made the original paper available.  We have made no effort to return to the original printed source to confirm our corrections, but believe them to largely accurate.]
A'}QUr0
9r|P)rXx0Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact by Leo Kanner心理学空间:fN|kv/S
心理学空间 Lv Pf q6W:z9w.V8\ P
CASE 1  
f5gC9H zU0CASE 2  
3y1~"i#S8lh%j0CASE 3  
E3s,G5b wq8_:`-w0CASE 4  
k^ m(o4t3d^0CASE 5  心理学空间3V-\h.y\f
CASE 6  心理学空间(wuE$VatU$M
CASE 7  
eX/q(Iv7P I0CASE 8  
F+Y&P2~6j.G,w?g*Y0CASE 9  
SA(ai/d^b g m0CASE 10 
;f(Dn_D(@ `#E+Hz0CASE 11 心理学空间(_k G!{#p
Discussion心理学空间OEa/N%\"})N L O
心理学空间:A.m/M4y,v/N'SA4EQ
Comment Since 1938, there have come to our attention a number of children whose condition differs so markedly and uniquely from anything reported so far, that each case merits - and, I hope, will eventually receive - a detailed consideration of its fascinating peculiarities. In this place, the limitations necessarily imposed by space call for a condensed presentation of the case material. For the same reason, photographs have also been omitted. Since none of the children of this group has as yet attained an age beyond 11 years, this must be considered a preliminary report, to be enlarged upon as the patients grow older and further observation of their development is made.心理学空间KC.U@ w%|S1cn*fQ
心理学空间$Lv.`#B$i
Case 1心理学空间zBg%A*\r
Donald T. was first seen in October, 1938, at the age of 5 years, 1 month. Before the family’s arrival from their home town, the father sent a thirty three-page typewritten history that, though filled with much obsessive detail, gave an excellent account of Donald’s background. Donald was born at full term on September 8, 1933. He weighed nearly 7 pounds at birth. He was breast fed, with supplementary feeding, until the end of the eighth month; there were frequent changes of formulas. “Eating,” the report said, “has always been a problem with him. He has never shown a normal appetite. Seeing children eating candy and ice cream has never been a temptation to him.” Dentition proceeded satisfactorily. He walked at 13 months.
\"t DD&qU;l `0At the age of 1 year “he could hum and sing many tunes accurately.” Before he was 2 years old, he had “an unusual memory for faces and names, knew the names of a great number of houses” in his home town. “He was encouraged by the family in learning and reciting short poems, and even learned the Twenty-third Psalm and twenty-five questions and answers of the Presbyterian Catechism.” The parents observed that “he was learning to ask questions or to answer questions unless they pertained to rhymes or things of this nature, and often then he would ask no question except in single words.” His enunciation was clear. He became interested in pictures and very soon knew an inordinate number of the pictures in a set of Compton’s Encyclopedia. ”He knew the pictures of the presidents“ and knew most of the pictures of his ancestors and kinfolks on both sides of the house. He quickly learned the whole alphabet “backward as well as forward” and to count to 100.心理学空间V(IoO7f|'F
It was observed at an early time that he got happiest when left alone, almost never cried to go with his mother, did not seem to notice his father’s homecomings, and was indifferent to visiting relatives. The father made a special point of mentioning that Donald even failed to pay the slightest attention to Santa Claus in full regalia.心理学空间M"Yp+oAOB0OZ
He seems to be self-satisfied. He has no apparent affection when petted. He does not observe the fact that anyone comes or goes, and never seems glad to see father or mother or any playmate. He seems almost to draw into his shell and live within himself. We once secured a most attractive little boy of the same age from an orphanage and brought him home to spend the summer with Donald, but Donald has never asked him a question nor answered a question and has never romped with him in play. He seldom comes to anyone when called but has to be picked up and carried or led wherever he ought to go.
(I+j,N#fmk(B/?{(bX0In his second year, he “developed a mania for spinning blocks and pans and other round objects." At the same time, he had a dislike for self-propelling vehicles, such as Taylor-tots, tricycles, and swings. He is still fearful of tricycles and seems to have almost a horror of them when he is forced to ride, at which time he will try to hold onto the person assisting him. This summer[1937] we bought him a playground slide and on the first afternoon when other children were sliding on it he would not get about it, and when we put him up to slide down it he seemed horror-struck. The next morning when nobody was present, however, he walked out, climbed the ladder, and slid down,and he has slid on it frequently since, but slides only when no other child is present to join him in sliding....He was always constantly happy and busy entertaining himself, but resented being urged to play with certain things.
B+wt"J[,Y+l0When interfered with, he had temper tantrums, during which he was destructive. He was “dreadfully fearful of being spanked or switched” but “could not associate his misconduct with his punishment.”
_([v:b{8XDbA6{0In August, 1937, Donald was placed in a tuberculosis preventorium in order to provide for him “a change of environment.” While there, he had a “disinclination to play with children and do things children his age usually take an interest in.” He gained weight but developed the habit of shaking his head from side to side. He continued spinning objects and jumped up and down in ecstasy as he watched them spin. He displayed an abstraction of mind which made him perfectly oblivious to everything about him. He appears to be always thinking and thinking, and to get his attention almost requires one to break down a mental barrier between his inner consciousness and the outside world.心理学空间 |yr+c j xZ
The father, whom Donald resembles physically, is a successful, meticulous, hard-working lawyer who has had two “breakdowns” under strain of work. He always took every ailment seriously, taking to his bed and following doctors’ orders punctiliously even for the slightest cold. “When he walks down the street, he is so absorbed in thinking that he sees nothing and nobody and cannot remember anything about the walk.” The mother, a colege graduate, is a calm, capable woman, to whom her husband feels vastly superior. A second child, a boy, was born to them on May 22, 1938.心理学空间 Vu3\5h |8Y9GX%s ay
Donald, when examined at the Harriet Lane Home in October,1938, was found to be in good physical condition. During the initial observation and in a two-week study by Drs. Eugenia S. Cameron and George Frankl at the Child Study Home of Maryland, the following picture was obtained:心理学空间`!`.Q-O8yZ1e
There was a marked limitation of spontaneous activity. He wandered about smiling, making stereotyped movements with his fingers, crossing them about in the air. He shook his head from side, whispering or humming the same three-note tune. He spun with great pleasure anything he could seize upon to spin. He kept throwing things on the floor, seeming to delight in the sounds they made. He arranged beads, sticks, or blocks in groups of different series of colors. Whenever he finished one of these performances, he squealed and jumped up and down. Beyond this he showed no initiative, requiring constant instruction (from his mother) in any form of activity other than the limited ones in which he was absorbed.心理学空间Q+L I0L"H5K3`0L5W L!w
Most of his actions were repetitions carried out in exactly the same way in which they had been performed originally. If he spun a block, he must always start with the same face uppermost. When he threaded buttons, he arranged them in a certain sequence that had no pattern to it but happened to be the order used by the father when he first had shown them to Donald.
%RqY~0~6\/U0There were also innumerable verbal rituals recurring all day long. When he desired to get down after his nap, he said, “Boo[his word for his mother], say ‘Don, do you want to get down?’”
C$cbO%T~WTu0His mother would comply, and Don would say: “Now say ‘All right.’”
2j~Lk)x0The mother did, and Don got down. At mealtime, repeating something that had obviously been said to him often, he said to his mother, “Say‘ Eat it or I won’t give you tomatoes, but if you don’t eat it I will give you tomatoes,’” or “ Say ‘If you drink to there, I’ll laugh and I ‘ll smile,’”
%}#XN QdJB;X0And his mother had to conform or else he squealed, cried, and strained every muscle in his neck in tension. They happened all day long about one thing or another. He seemed to have much pleasure in ejaculating words or phrases, such as “Chrysanthemum”; “Dahlia, dahlia, dahlia”; “Business”; “Trumpet vine”; “The right one is on, the left one off”; “Through the dark clouds shining.” Irrelevant utterances such as these were his ordinary mode of speech. He always seemed to be parroting what he had heard said to him at one time or another. He used the personal pronouns for the persons he was quoting, even imitating the intonation. When he wanted his mother to pull his shoe off, he said:”Pull off your shoe.” When he wanted a bath, he said: “Do you want a bath?”心理学空间Y.jL*Cc9W"A5h+Vjt
Words to him had a specifically literal, inflexible meaning. He seemed unable to generalize, to transfer an expression to another similar object or situation. If he did so occasionally, it was a substitution, which then “stood” definitely for the original meaning. Thus he christened each of his water color bottles by the name of one of the Dionne quintuplets - Annette for blue, Cécile for red, etc. Then, going through a series of color mixtures, he proceeded in this manner: “Annette and Cécile make purple.”
;tt-G Q/A\~pe\3[ H0The colloquial request to “put that down” meant to him that he was to put the thing on the floor. He had a “milk glass” and a “water glass.” When he spilt some milk into the “water glass,” the milk thereby became “white water.”心理学空间Ok_)XHG&O
The word "yes" for a long time meant that he wanted his father to put him up on his shoulder. This had a definite origin. His father, trying to teach him to say “yes” and “no,” once asked him, “Do you want me to put you on my shoulder?”
.z3}w!@2hV0Don expressed his agreement by repeating the question literally, echolalia-like. His father said,”If you want me to, say ‘Yes’; if you don’t want me to, say ‘No.’心理学空间4s"ON H.VEg0l8b
Don said “yes” when asked. But thereafter “yes” came to mean that he desired to be put up on his father’s shoulder.心理学空间6N S}!}?,u
He paid no attention to persons around him. When taken into a room, he completely disregarded the people and instantly went for objects, preferably those that could be spun. Commands or actions that could not possibly be disregarded were resented as unwelcome intrusions. But he was never angry at the interfering person. He angrily shoved away the hand that was in his way or the foot that stepped on one of his blocks, at one time referring to the foot on the block as “umbrella.” Once the obstacle was removed, he forgot the whole affair. He gave no heed to the presence of other children but went about his favorite pastimes, walking off from the children if they were so bold as to join him. If a child took a toy from him, he passively permitted it. He scrawled lines on the picture books the other children were coloring, retreating or putting his hands over his ears if they threatened him in anger. His mother was the only person with whom he had any contact at all, and even she spent all of her time developing ways of keeping him at play with her.
?x @2}(l%tkP0After his return home, the mother sent periodic reports about his development. He quickly learned to read fluently and to play simple tunes on the piano. He began, whenever his attention could be obtained, to respond to questions “which require yes or no for an answer.” Though he occasionally began to speak of himself as “I” and of the person addressed as “you,” he continued for quite some time the pattern of pronominal reversals. When, for instance, in February, 1939, he stumbled and nearly fell, he said of himself, “You did not fall down.”心理学空间2S:J,Y)]F rYhA7g
He expressed puzzlement about the inconsistencies of spelling: “bite” should be spelled “bight” to correspond to the spelling of “light.” He could spend hours writing on the blackboard. His play became more imaginative and varied, though still quite ritualistic.心理学空间c,g!T M%`
He was brought back for a check-up in May, 1939. His attention and concentration were improved. He was in better contact with his environment, and there were some direct reactions to people and situations. He showed disappointment when thwarted, demanded brides promised him, gave evidence of pleasure when praised. It was possible, at the Child Study Home, to obtain with constant insistence some conformity to daily routine and some degree of proper handling of objects. But he still went on writing letters with his fingers in the air, ejaculating words- “Semicolon”; “Capital”; “Twelve,twelve”; “Slain, slain”; “I could put a little comma or semicolon”-chewing on paper, putting food on his hair, throwing books into the toilet, putting a key down the water drain, climbing onto the table and bureau, having temper tantrums, giggling and whispering autistically. He got hold of an encyclopedia and learned about fifteen words in the index and kept repeating them over and over again. His mother was helped in trying to develop his interest and participation in ordinary life situations.心理学空间py4N_{ MQ
The following are abstracts from letters sent subsequently by Donald’s mother:心理学空间Fun.r5N2r T+c
September, 1939. He continues to eat, to wash and dress himself only at my insistence and with my help. He is becoming resourceful, builds things with his blocks, dramatizes stories, attempts to wash the car, waters the flowers with the hose, plays store with the grocery supply, tries to cut out pictures with the scissors. Mumblers still have a great attraction for him.
T ^GxMG$E0While his play is definitely improving, he has never asked questions about people and shows no interest in our conversation....心理学空间+?ij x5ElSw
October, 1939 [a school principal friend of the mother’s had agreed to try Donald in the first grade of her school]. The first day was very trying for them but each succeeding day he has improved very much, Don is much more independent, wants to do many things for himself. He arches in line nicely, answers when called upon, and is more biddable and obedient. He never voluntarily relates any of his experiences at school and never objects to going....
3B6y4zj3b0November, 1939. I visited his room this morning and was amazed to see how nicely he cooperated and responded. He was very quiet and calm and listened to what the teacher was saying about half the time. He does not squeal or run around but takes his place like the other children. The teacher began writing on the board. That immediately attracted his attention. She wrote:心理学空间/C@~H_7v
Betty may feed a fish.心理学空间F*M,V9_5E_`A
Don may feed a fish.
kl)|@ ai9Q0Jerry may feed a fish.
iRv2V:?X w0In his turn he walked up and drew a circle around his name. Then he fed a goldfish. Next, each child was given his weekly reader, and he turned to the proper page as the teacher directed and read when called upon. He also answered a question about one of the pictures. Several times, when pleased, he jumped up and down and shook his head once while answering...心理学空间9vxm U}u$G"x%p
March, 1940. The greatest improvement I notice is his awareness of things about him. He talks very much more and asks a good many questions. Not often does he voluntarily tell me of happenings at school, but if I ask leading questions, he answers them correctly. He really enters into the games with other children. One day he enlisted the family in one game he had just learned, telling each of us just exactly what to do. He feeds himself better and is better able to do things for himself.
%Q!Dfz:|0March, 1941. He has improved greatly, but the basic difficulties are still evident....心理学空间??*dJ0jYf
Donald was brought for another check-up in April, 1941. An invitation to enter the office was disregarded, but he had himself led willingly. Once inside, he did not even glance at the three physicians present (two of whom he well remembered from his previous visits) but immediately made for the desk and handled papers and books. Questions at first were met with the stereotyped reply, “I don’t know.” He then helped himself to pencil and paper and wrote and drew pages and pages full of letters of the alphabet and a few simple designs. He arranged the letters in two or three lines, reading them in vertical rather than horizontal succession, and was very much pleased with the result. Occasionally he volunteered a statement or question: “I am going to stay for two days at the Child Study Home.” Later he said, “Where is my mother?"心理学空间a)E#@pIl
‘Why do you want her?” he was asked.
l2U X8_`sY4O0“I want to hug her around the neck.”
-D,sQZXy'U0He used pronouns adequately and his sentences were grammatically correct.心理学空间)S+Rf8o~6S
The major part of his “conversation” consisted of questions of an obsessive nature. He was inexhaustible in bringing up variations: “How many days in a week, years in a century, hours in a day, hours in half a day, weeks in a century, centuries in half a millennium,” etc., etc.; “How many pints in a gallon, how many gallons to fill four gallons?” Sometimes he asked, “How many hours in a minute, how many in an hour?” etc. He looked thoughtful and always wanted an answer. At times he temporarily compromised by responding quickly to some other question or  request but promptly returned to the same type of behavior. Many of his replies were metaphorical or otherwise peculiar. When asked to subtract 4 from 10, he answered: “I’ll draw a hexagon.”
gU?$Hv,RmY0He was still extremely autistic. His relation to people had developed only insofar as he addressed them when he needed or wanted to know something. He never looked at the person while talking and not use communicative gestures. Even this of contact ceased the moment he was told or given what he had asked for.
@};y`8Z(Y0Z9g"[0A letter from the mother stated in Octber, 1942:心理学空间Nm Kfy3i
Don is still indifferent to much that is around him. His interests change often, but always he is absorbed in some kind of silly, unrelated subject.心理学空间7s.Q/g@n&f
His literal-mindedness is still very marked, he wants to spell words as they sound and to pronounce letters  consistently. Recently I have been able to have Don do a few chores around the place to earn picture show money.心理学空间Ek h\7|9C
He really enjoys the movies now but not with any idea of a connected story.心理学空间:iGO.`y$L[`
He remembers them in the order in which he sees them. Another of his recent hobbies is with old issues of time magazine. He found a copy of the first issue of March 3, 1923, and has attempted to make a list of the dates of publication of each issue since that time. So far he has gotten to April, 1934. He has figured the number of issues in a volume and similar nonsense.
sq4o'k'Z1D`W0心理学空间 z)W4T'w8|LQ&bi

www.psychspace.com心理学空间网

TAG: 自闭症 Autistic affective disturbances
«没有了 卡勒L.kanner
《卡勒L.kanner》
没有了»