On the road with Tom Andersen
作者: John Soderlund / 5331次阅读 时间: 2011年6月19日
标签: 安德森 反省团队 社会建构主义
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On the road with Tom Andersen

jdDqy!tZ0mints按:T·安德森(1936-2007)是挪威的精神病学家,安德森发展了米兰取向的治疗方法,打破了米兰取向中的等级的系统,倾听各方意见的策略促成了共同的公共语言,单镜面观察被反省团队(reflecting team)取代。原先“专业的”语言词汇被日常用语所取代,这种内外转换的对话为成员提供了不同的看法,新观点和理解被释放。心理学空间B*mk/WU)h
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By John Soderlund心理学空间R)jf_d!X

,D,|q6t}0Tom Andersen, the Norwegian therapist who made a name for himself with the concept of the reflecting team, briefly toured South Africa in March, running workshops in four major centres under the banner of the Family Life Centre of South Africa. New Therapist followed him for two of the stops to hear his gentle words about how carefully he likes to choose his words (see also New Therapist 2, July/August 1999). His primary focus on this, his second wandering through South Africa, was the word "walk", a word with which he says he has a particular affinity. He told of his own professional and philosophical walking of the past few decades and how he plans to turn these words into a new book, recounting the forks he has faced in his long road to becoming one of the most humble and admired therapists the world has seen.

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On writing心理学空间_Dn!Z#vf?

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"I only write if I am asked to write  So, when a Norwegian book company said why do you not write any  books, I said nobody had asked me to. So they said, 'Then we  ask you.'"心理学空间%pa!c K)e*]A'f K

a(]#I$X Li wnpT0Such was the beginning of Tom Andersen's second book, on which  he began work some eight years after the first, The Reflecting  Team: Dialogues and Dialogues about the Dialogues.心理学空间&i1E/R{s

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"But I got so bored of my own writing So, I thought writing  must be about myself, and suddenly it became less boring."

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6~'TB#TH ao4]0Andersen says his new book, at its core, is about his own "walk"  and the crossroads to which this walking has taken him. "Every  once in a while, we come to a point where the road divides and  we cannot go both ways. Definitely, I think we choose differently."

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t]'|&H+gw0Andsersen goes on to tell the stories of some of the 20 or so  forks he encountered in his own road and how he picked a direction.  "Most of the choices I have made have not been rational,"  he stresses. "If this turns out to be a book and somebody  reads it, they could think about how their own road divides and  how they choose [which way to go] Every person should write his  or her own book because what we come up with as professional  attitudes, theories and standpoints are very personal."

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4z$wv1S4x,P0The either/or, both/and fork

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One of the most significant roads was a  decision about his relationship with orthodox psychiatry. "There  was a feeling I should not continue on the routine road of psychiatry,"  he recalls, recounting a sharp break he made with the psychiatric practice of diagnosis and labelling which insists its patients  can be described immutably and completely by their diagnoses.心理学空间~5F a7[3b|AK

4e [r)o;N0"No person is like this or like that. People change all  the time Psychiatrists like certain stories to be told. They  like to learn about all the incompetencies, all the failures,"  he says, recalling how he elected a fork in the road which took  him away from the psychiatric approach in which he had been schooled.心理学空间|u1p _ LD}

/Vf(Cf w7WF[AW,zi0"With the introduction of family therapy in the 70's came  the ideas of context and time. So, the road divide was either/or  or both/and. Either/or is a tough road which invites disagreements."  The either/or, says Andersen was to oppose mainstream psychiatry  with an alternative approach which would threaten to replace  it. The both/and approach, by contrast, would adopt the view  that, in addition to what psychiatry had to offer, there was  another perspective based in different assumptions. "Heraclites  didn't write much, but he did say that in life there are always  two opposite tendencies happening simultaneously which create  balance," he adds, informing his choice of the both/and  fork.

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On physiotherapy, psychotherapy, pain  and breathing心理学空间4z:z m^-b;`q

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Tom Andersen has long spoken of his fondness  for and work with physiotherapists using essential physiotherapeutic  principles for accessing emotional material. The core idea, he  says is to understand that there are two groups of muscles, those responsible for extending or opening joints and those which retract  or close joints.

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"When feelings become too overwhelming, bending muscles  become dominant When a physiotherapist grabs a retracted muscle  and squeezes it, this [pain] produces an inhalation. If the exhalation  comes as a sigh, it's a good thing In psychotherapy, our questions  are like a pain-producing hand," he says. If they are not  unusual enough, they produce no pain. If they are too unusual,  they stop the conversation. But if they are unusual enough, they  produce an inhalation which is followed by an exhalation, an  expression that can be healing.心理学空间H ]G8n`o

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The open talk fork

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The road divide for which Tom is probably  best known is that of the reflecting team, a core concept expounded in his 1991 book The Reflecting Team: Dialogues and Dialogues  about the Dialogues, which has now been translated into dozens  of languages and is widely regarded as essential reading for  family therapists.心理学空间L9G(CV&w8m D

rF1L3I`3]|0Tom talks of the birth of this reflecting team concept as the  day of open talks

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M6qp"d\ [(_6U |0"This was a very significant day, the day of open talks," he recalls, telling how he and a group of colleagues were observing  a family therapy session one day in the basement of a building,  when it occurred to him that the family may be interested to  know what was being said about them in the adjoining observation  room. After discussing the idea with his fellow-observers, Andersen  switched off the lights in the therapy room and switched them  on in the observation room, making the family invisible to the  observers and the observers plainly visible to the family for  the first time. The observers then began to discuss, in full  view of the family, what they thought about what they had observed.  It struck Tom how naked he felt being observed by an invisible  family whose discussions about his discussions he could only  guess at.

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On starting a session心理学空间-qK}"{Xp

j'z1w3A+jH}0One of my first questions is 'How would  you like to use this meeting?' If I say 'What would you like  to talk about,' the implication is that this is place for work,  not rest. If I say 'What problem would you like to discuss?'  I implicitly assume that this is not a place for successes."

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On bonds and Chico, the King Poodle心理学空间 x V jP1X

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Tom shows a slide of a couple of pictures  of Chico, his meticulously groomed King Poodle. "By nature,  they are very intelligent and great performers," he says.  "But they are not hunting dogs." Then, one day on a  walk in the brief Norwegian Spring, Chico decided to try and  hunt the birds which emerge with vigour at this time of year. "I called him back and said 'You are not a hunting dog.  Make that part of your thinking.' But the smell of the stupid  birds kept pulling him back. So I took a leash and put a bond  between him and me. So, now we had two bonds, one between him and me and one between him and the birds."

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TAG: 安德森 反省团队 社会建构主义
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