希尔加德简介
作者: 心理空间整理 / 6410次阅读 时间: 2009年11月21日
标签: 简介 希尔加德
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  希尔加德,欧内斯特R.(Ernest Ropiequet Hilgard,1904.7.25—2001.10.22)美国心理学家。出生于美国伊利诺斯州的贝尔维尔,是普通开业内科医师的儿子。1924年以优异成绩获伊利诺斯大学化学工程学士学位。1930年在R.道奇指导下完成关于人的眼睑的条件反应的论文,获耶鲁大学实验心理学博士学位。1929年起任耶鲁大学讲师,至1933年接受L.M.推孟的邀请转入斯坦福大学。除第二次世界大战期间在华盛顿任各种机构文官并关心社会心理学以外,他的职业生涯一直是在斯坦福大学度过的,他在该校人文学院和教育学院同时任心理学教授,1942-1950年和1951-1955年,分别任该校心理学系主任和研究生院院长,1969年退休后仍任荣誉教授。他曾当选为美国心理学会主席(1948-1949)和国际催眠学会会长(1973 -1976)。

  希尔加德的研究兴趣主要是学习和动机心理学,涉及面广,从早期的眼睑条件反应的实验工作,到对动机的作用、随意与不随意反应、志向以及催眠的心理动力学的研究等。
  其主要成就之一是将学习心理学的基础研究与应用研究概括为六种类型,揭示了这两类研究的复杂关系。
  类型1,与教育无直接联系,如动物的学习研究,学习的生理、生化研究。
  类型2,被试或课题与教育有关,如人的言语学习、概念形成等的研究。
  类型3,被试和课题均与教育有关,如用桎联想法学习外语词汇的研究。以上三类研究属基础研究范畴。
  类型4,实验性课堂内由专门教师进行试验,如程序教学、早期的语言实验室的研究。
  类型5,正常课堂内试行,如优秀教师对新内容、新方法采用有规定时间的研究。
  类型6,提倡和采用。以上三类均属应用研究范畴。

  对两大研究范畴六种研究类型的划分,表明了他对学习的基础研究至教育革新的分步观点。希尔加德的另一成就是强调学习理论的可应用性。认为研究学习而主要精力不放在教育问题上的人仍能提供某种有用的忠千,各种学习理论或多或少能对教育或教学提供某种有用的建议。如对行为目标进行任务分析,从而规定可测量的教育目标,要求主动应答,支委会学习策略,强化与任务有关的行为,为理解而教等。希尔加德和G.H.鲍尔等人认为,教育工艺学是更加广泛意义上的学习心理学或学习心理学的重要应用。

  希尔加德的主要成就,樗着美国心理学家对学习心理学研究基调的改变,使学习心理学研究具有从基础研究转向应用研究的新趋势。他于1940年获实验心理学沃伦奖章,1978年获美国心理学基金会金质奖章,并曾获B.富兰克森奖章。主要论文有:《人的眼睑条件反应的获与保持过程》(1940)、《学习论及其应用》(1960)、《学习理论和教学》《当代学习论》(1964)等;著作有:《条件作用与学习》(1940,合著)、《著学习理论》(1948年初版,1981年第5版,合著)、《心理学导论》(1953年初版,1983年第8版,合著)、《催眠的敏感性》(1965)等。
沈生民 尤正明
希尔加德(Ernest Hilgard,1965)的斯坦福催眠感受性量表(Stanford hypnotic susceptibility scale,SHSS)被公认最为有效.至于受暗示性的实质,过去人们曾认为那属于一人格特质,与易受吸引和表象清晰有关,但研究表明二者的相关很低.再考虑其他方面,发现对催眠的受暗示性与一个人的态度和期望密切联系,凡对催眠持积极态度,相信催眠的可能性,同时又对该催眠者表示信赖时,他就容易很好地配合接受暗示并取得成功.这也与我国在宗教信仰上常用的一句谚语"心诚则灵"正相符合.


希尔加德(1992)提出催眠的意识分离理论,认为催眠将心理过程分离为两个同时进行活动的层面.第一个层面为接受暗示以后所经历的意识活动,性质可能是扭曲的;第二个层面是被掩蔽的,当时难于觉察的意识经验,但其性质是比较真实的,希尔加德称之为"隐蔽观察者".意识分离是生活中一种经常出现的正常体验.例如,长途驾驶的人对交通信号和其他车辆做出了一系列反应但多不能回忆,就是由于当时意识明显地分离为驾驶汽车与个人思考两部分了.正是由于隐蔽观察者的存在,所以,人在催眠状态下也不会完全接受暗示而失去自我.
 
Ernest Hilgard distinguished himself through his studies of the role of hypnosis in human behavior and response. Hypnotism, often regarded as nothing more than a stage trick by pseudo-psychics, is in fact an important psychological tool; it can be used to alter behavior (smoking cessation, for example), and to relieve pain. Much of Hilgard's research and writing on the topic was done with his wife, Josephine R. Hilgard (1906-1989).

Born in Belleville, Illinois, on July 25, 1904, Ernest Ropiequit Hilgard was the son of a physician, and he showed an early interest in science. Interestingly, it was engineering, not psychology, that originally attracted Hilgard; he received a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from the University of Illinois in 1924. He decided that he wanted to study psychology, and he went to Yale, where he was awarded his Ph.D. in 1930. His initial area of interest was conditioned responses. He did extensive research with the human eye lid; as part of this research he developed a photographic technique for examining the responses. His work demonstrated the relation between voluntary and involuntary responses, and won him the Warren Medal in Experimental Psychology in 1940.

Begins work on hypnosis

Later, Hilgard became intrigued by the mechanism behind hypnosis. In part, this was not an unusual move: his work on voluntary and involuntary responses focused on the control factor, as does hypnosis. The popular stereotype of hypnosis, in which a person falls into a trance-like state after staring at a moving watch and then involuntarily being made to bark like a dog, is hardly all there is to the process. Nor is hypnotism some mystical power that channels evil forces. It is true that, under certain hypnotic conditions, patients can be given suggestions that they will follow-moving a limb, for example, or holding it rigid. But to treat hypnotism as nothing more than showmanship misses the point. Hypnosis is a tool that, used under the right circumstances, can be useful and even beneficial.

Hilgard, working with his wife and other colleagues, began experimenting and collecting data on hypnosis as a means of, among other things, treating pain. One of the interesting aspects of Hilgard's research into hypnosis is the concept of what he calls the "hidden observer." Ostensibly, a person undergoing hypnosis to manage pain, for example, feels no conscious pain. That does not mean the pain is not there, however; nor does it mean that the patient's subconscious is not registering the pain. In one experiment conducted by the Hilgards, subjects were hypnotized and told they would feel no pain or discomfort when an arm was placed in ice water, or when a tourniquet was tied at the elbow to restrict blood flow to the arm. The subjects reported no pain or discomfort during these procedures. When their "hidden observers" were tapped into, however (usually by a prearranged sign or suggestion from the experimenter), there were reports of pain and discomfort (although not necessarily as severe as would be expected). In subjects particularly susceptible to hypnotic suggestion-those who could be rendered hypnotically deaf or blind, for example-the "hidden observer" could recall "heard" or "seen" objects.



Wins praise for writings

In addition to his important work as a researcher, Hilgard was also a noted author. He wrote a number of books and papers on the specific areas he studied, and his authorship was distinguished by an ability to make complex issues understandable. This was evident not only in his first book (written with Donald G. Marquis in 1940), Conditioning and Learning, but throughout his distinguished career, perhaps most notably in his textbooks for introductory psychology courses such as Introduction to Psychology (first edition 1953) with Rita and Richard Atkinson.

After teaching at Yale for three years, Hilgard accepted a position at Stanford in 1933 . He headed the psychology department at Stanford from 1942 to 1951 and served as dean of the graduate division from 1951 to 1955. He became a professor emeritus in 1969 but continued on as head of the laboratory of Hypnosis Research. Among Hilgard's awards over the years are the American Psychological Association's Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award (1969) and the American Psychological Foundation's Gold Career Award (1978). His memberships include the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the National Academy of Education.

Further Reading

For Your Information
Bower, Gordon H. and Ernest R. Hilgard. Theories of Learning, 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1981.
Hilgard, Ernest R. and Josephine R. Hilgard. Hypnosis in the Relief of Pain. Los Altos, CA: W. Kaufmann, 1983.
McGraw-Hill Modern Scientists and Engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980.

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