The Origin and History of the Term Empathy术语共情的起源与历史
作者: Hojat / 8217次阅读 时间: 2011年11月27日
来源: mints 译 标签: 冯特 共情 铁钦纳
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The Origin and History of the Term Empathy术语共情的起源与历史

来源:Empathy in Patient Care: Antecedents, Development, Measurement, and Outcomes ( Mohammadreza Hojat ) Springer 2010
翻译:mints




The concept of Empathy ( not the English term ) was first discussed in 1873 by Robert Vischer, a German art historian and philosopher who used the word Einfühlung to address and observer's feelings elicited by works of art ( Hunsdahl, 1967;Jackso,1992 ).Accordng to Pigman (1995), the word was used to describe the projection of human feeling onto the natural world and inanimate objects. However, th German term was originally used not to describe an interpersonal attribute but to portray the individual's feelings when appreciating a work of art, specifically when those feelings blurred the distinction between the observer's self and the art object (Wispe,1986).

1873年历史学家哲学家罗伯特•费舍尔第一次论述了共情Einfühlung(非英文术语)的概念——描述观察者从艺术作品中引发的情绪。Pigman认为,共情被用于描述人们将感情投射到自然世界和无生命的客体上的这种现象。然而,德文术语的起源并非用于描述人际关系的特征,而是描绘个体在欣赏艺术作品时的情绪,尤其是指这样的情绪模糊不清的处于观察者自身和艺术对象之间时。

In 1897, the German psychologist-philosopher Theodore Lipps brought the word Einfühlung form aesthetics to psychology. In describing personal experiences associated with the concept of Einfühlung, Lipps indicated that "when I observe a circus performer on a hanging wire, I feel I am inside him" (cited in Carr, Iacoboni, Dubeau, Mazziotta, & Lenzi, 2003,p.5502). In 1903, wilhelm Wundt, the father of experimental psychology, who established the first laboratory of experimental psychology in 1879 at the University of Leipzing in Germany, used Einfühlung for the first time in the context of human relationships (Hunsdalh,1967). In 1905, Sigmund Freud (1960)used Einfühlung to describe the psychodynamics of putting oneself in another person's position ( cited in Pigman,1995).

1897年,德国心理学-哲学家Theodore Lipps将 Einfühlung 这个词从美学引入心理学,用于描述与共情相关的个人体验,Lipps指出,“当我目睹一个吊线上马戏表演时,我觉得我就在他的里面。” 1903年实验心理学家威廉·冯特(就是那个1879年在德国莱比锡建立了第一个心理学实验室的老鼻子)第一次将Einfühlung用于人与人的场景之中。1905年弗洛伊德用Einfühlung 描述动力心理学中将自己(的情绪)置于他人的处境之下(的情景)。


The english term "empathy" is a neologism coined by psychologist Edward Bradner Titchener (1909) as an english equivalent or the translation of the meaning of Einfühlung, The term empathy derivers from the Greek word empatheia, Which means appreciation of another person's feelings (Astin, 1967; Wispe, 1986).

英文术语empathy 这个新词,由心理学家 爱德华·布拉德福德· 铁钦纳编译创造。等同于德文Einfühlung的含义。术语Empathy来自于希腊词语empatheia,——欣赏另一个人的情感

Althought Titchener (1915) used the term empathy to convey "Understanding" of other human beings, Southard (1918) was the first to describe the significance of empathy in the relationship between a clinician and a patient for facilitating diagnostic outcomes. Thereafter, American social and behavioral scientists have often used the concept of empaty in relation to the psychotherapeutic or counseling relationship and in the discussion of prosocial behavior and altruism ( Baston & Coke, 1981; Carkhuff),1969; Davis, 1994;Eisenberg $ strayer, 1987b; feshbach. 1989; Feudtmer, christakis, & Christakis, 1994;Hoffman 1981; Ickes,1997;Stotland, Mathews, Sherman Hansson, & Richardson, 1978). Empathy also has been discussed frequently in the psychoanalytic literature (Jackson, 1992) and in social psychology, counseling, and clinical psychiatry and psychology (Berger,987; Davis 1994;Eisenberg & Strayer,1987c; Ickes,1997).

虽然,铁钦纳用共情这一术语传达对他人的“理解”。Southard第一个描述了共情在临床医师与病人之间的重要性——促进诊断结果。此后,美国社会和行为科学家经常在心理治疗或咨询关系中使用共情的概念,用于讨论亲社会行为与利他。共情也被经常被精神分析文学和社会心理学、咨询辅导,临床精神病学和心理学提及。

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TAG: 冯特 共情 铁钦纳
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