ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF THE PSYCHOANALYTICAL BIOGRAPHER:THE CASE OF DONALD WINNICOTT
作者: Brett Kahr. / 7223次阅读 时间: 2010年1月09日
来源: http://www.human-nature.com/ 标签: Winnicott BIOGRAPHER DONALD WINNICOTT
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF THE PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL  BIOGRAPHER:THE CASE OF DONALD WINNICOTT.心理学空间 m.i%alE2fy+y1I&`
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Within the last fifteen years, devotees of the history of  psycho-analysis will have had the opportunity to enjoy a veritable bevy of  newly published biographical studies, detailing the lives of our celebrated  Freudian ancestors. These books have included a variety of titles about  Sigmund Freud himself, notably the hefty tome by Peter Gay (1988), as well  as the worthy study of Freud's mid-life crisis by Peter Newton (1995), among  others (cf. Roith, 1987; Donn, 1988; Gay, 1990; Schultz, 1990; Appignanesi  and Forrester, 1992; Freud, 1992; Rosenzweig, 1992; Lohser and Newton, 1996;  Margolis, 1996).心理学空间#A%R7y5mTd!ax5S

Additional biographies might be mentioned, especially  Edward Hoffman's (1994) survey of the life of the much neglected pioneer  Alfred Adler; Martin Stanton's (1990) guide to the career of Sándor  Ferenczi; E. James Lieberman's (1985) definitive book on Otto Rank; John  Kerr's (1993) study of Sabina Spielrein; Paul Roazen's (1985) affectionate  tribute to his dear friend and mentor Helene Deutsch; Elisabeth  Young-Bruehl's (1988) detailed examination of the career of Anna Freud;  Phyllis Grosskurth's (1986a) commendable and controversial attempt to  grapple with Melanie Klein; as many as two thorough treatments of Karen  Horney, by Susan Quinn (1987) and by Bernard Paris (1994); a biography of  Dorothy Tiffany Burlingham, written by her grandson, Michael John Burlingham  (1989); Lawrence Friedman's (1990) well-documented analysis of Karl  Menninger and his family; John Sutherland's (1989) appreciation of Ronald  Fairbairn; élisabeth Roudinesco's (1993, 1997) informed coverage of the life  and work of the notorious Jacques Lacan; Judy Cooper's (1993) stimulating  account of the infamous Masud Khan; Paul Roazen's (1993) study of Freud's  children; Adrian Laing's (1994) biography of his father, Ronald Laing (cf.  Mullan, 1995; Burston, 1996; Clay, 1996; Kotowicz, 1997); two portraits of  Bruno Bettelheim, by Nina Sutton (1995) and by Richard Pollak (1997); Jeremy  Hazell's (1996) work on Harry Guntrip; George MacLean and Ulrich Rappen’s  (1991) biography of Hermine Hug-Hellmuth; Suzan van Dijken’s (1998) survey  of the early life of John Bowlby; a number of studies on Carl Gustav Jung  (e.g. Smith, 1996; Noll, 1997; Shamdasani, 1998); Michel Grignon’s (1998)  edited festschrift for Clifford Scott; as well as some shorter publications  such as Jeremy Holmes's (1993) work on John Bowlby; Sheila Spensley's (1995)  useful assessment of the contributions of Frances Tustin; and James Astor's  (1995) intellectual biography of Michael Fordham (cf. Evans, 1996; Siegel,  1996; Symington and Symington, 1996).心理学空间1aE9C1x2Q6H/| A

One could of course extend this laundry list greatly by  including briefer article-length studies of recent years such as those by  Martin Stanton (1988, 1992) on Wilhelm Stekel and Otto Gross; Athol Hughes  (1991) on Joan Riviere; Michael Sinason (1995) on William Gillespie; and  Naome Rader Dragstedt (1998) on Marion Milner. And the survey could be  expanded even further by including autobiographies of important figures who  have now since died such as Martin Grotjahn (1987), Margaret Mahler (1988),  Wilhelm Reich (1988), Esther Menaker (1989), Michael Fordham (1993), and  Clifford Scott (1993, 1998). The autobiography of Freud's early disciple,  Sándor Rádo (1995), has recently appeared in print, under the joint  editorship of Paul Roazen and Bluma Swerdloff, and so have the memoirs of  another Viennese refugee, Fritz Wittels (1995), under the editorship of  Edward Timms. Several volumes of selected letters have appeared as well,  namely those by Donald Winnicott (1987), those by Anna Freud (1992) to Eva  Rosenfeld, and those by Heinz Kohut (1994), as well as Sigmund Freud's  letters to Eduard Silberstein (Freud and Silberstein, 1990), to Ernest Jones  (Freud and Jones, 1993), and to Sándor Ferenczi (Freud and Ferenczi, 1993,  1996).

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We might also add the studies about Freud's patients,  such as Patrick Mahony's (1986) text on Ernst Lanzer [Rat Man], as well as  his more recent study of Ida Bauer [Dora] (Mahony, 1996); Hannah Decker's  (1991) book on Ida Bauer; and Zvi Lothane's (1992) thesis on Daniel Paul  Schreber (cf. Roazen, 1995). Additional titles might include the study of  two of Carl Jung's patients, namely Forrest Robinson's (1992) biography of  Henry Murray, and Claire Douglas's (1993) work on Christiana Morgan. This  collection of titles does not purport to be comprehensive, and no doubt, a  wealth of scholarly biographies will continue to materialise. In the very  near future, we can anticipate Lawrence Friedman's book on Erik Homburger  Erikson; Joel Kanter's sketch of Clare Winnicott; and ultimately, Sonu  Shamdasani's magnum opus on Carl Gustav Jung, not to mention the complete  text of the correspondence between Sigmund Freud and Karl Abraham, and the  final volume of Freud's letters with Sándor Ferenczi.

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My own contribution to this increasingly unwieldly  literature will be a set of books on the life and work of Donald Winnicott.  An edited book of essays on Winnicott, which will include personal  reminiscences of the great child analyst, as well as a transcript of Paul  Roazen's hitherto unpublished interview with Winnicott, conducted more than  thirty years ago, in 1965, will be published by Karnac Books of London in  the latter part of 1998. This will be followed by an introductory guide to  Winnicott's life and work which will be published by Karnac Books in 1999. I  have also completed a short, biographical portrait of Winnicott (Kahr,  1996); and by the end of the century, I will hope to have completed a full  biography of Winnicott, of the size of Professor Phyllis Grosskurth's work  on Melanie Klein. The larger biography will be based on a detailed scrutiny  of Winnicott's extensive body of writings, both published and unpublished,  penned between 1919 and 1971; and this primary data will be supplemented by  a study of hundreds and hundreds of unpublished letters housed in the Donald  W. Winnicott Papers at the New York Academy of Medicine, in New York City. I  have also utilised other archival holdings in Great Britain, and in  Switzerland; and I have conducted approximately seven hundred interviews  with some of Winnicott's surviving relatives, patients, friends, colleagues,  associates, supervisees, students, admirers, and detractors, in order to  form as comprehensive a portrait as possible of the man whom I regard as the  undisputed cartographer of infancy.

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The formal research for the biography began in the last  months of 1990, but fortunately, I have had the opportunity to conduct more  informal interviews with such figures as Dr. John Bowlby and Dr. Margaret  Little, both now deceased, since 1985. Needless to say, I have spent a great  deal of my time ruminating about Winnicott in the last ten years, and as the  project has begun to adopt a more coherent shape, as a full-scale work, I  find that I have become increasingly concerned, as well as disturbed, about  the implications of writing a psycho-analytically orientated biography of a  fairly recently departed figure in the international psycho-analytical  community.心理学空间[ H V+w.vb9y#O3p

Of the many biographers or editors responsible for the  works cited above, I have estimated that some thirty-five authors have  received training in one of the clinical disciplines, and have devoted a  substantial part of their lives to professional psychotherapeutic work; two  of these individuals have undergone clinical training, Professor Peter Gay  and Mr. John Kerr, but do not practise; and the remaining thirty-two authors  have not qualified as mental health practitioners, but rather, have worked  as academics, as writers, or as independent scholars. We can indeed count  ourselves fortunate that the history of our field continues to be written  both by practising clinicans, and by scholars from non-clinical fields as  well. Those biographies authored by psycho-analysts and other  psychotherapists benefit from the fact that substantive professional issues  will no doubt be addressed with aplomb; furthermore, the clinically trained  authors often possess unique first-hand knowledge of their subjects through  personal contact in the analytical institutions; and furthermore, because  clinicians have virtually no spare time, they tend to write their books over  decades, thus affording an extensive period of cogitation, and for the  sophisticated development of insight. By contrast, the works of  psycho-analytical biography undertaken by university-based scholars possess  an entirely different set of merits. Perhaps most vitally, academics need  not chain themselves to consulting rooms for approximately forty-two weeks  of the year, or more; and therefore, they can travel with greater freedom to  consult archival collections all over the world, devoid of any anxieties  about abandoning patients. Academic historians also tend to have a more  critical appreciation of source materials; and as a general rule, they read  more foreign languages than the clinicans do, and they tend to be less  phobic about the increasingly computerised complexities of modern libraries.  In an ideal world, the best biographies would be written as collaborative  efforts, or under the single authorship of those who can claim expertise in  both clinical psycho-analysis and in history.心理学空间;b&f2JM%] ^ m6wr

Clearly, both groups of writers can boast of the  advantageous aspects of their particular backgrounds, as well as bemoan  their deficits. As a clinician with a longstanding interest in  historiography, I have attempted to utilise the best methodological  strategies from both clinical psycho-analysis and from professional  biography to construct as accurate, comprehrensive, and readable a biography  of Donald Winnicott as I can muster, ever aware that this work must be done  in stolen moments, in between sessions with patients, over a very long  period of time.

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The fact that I devote a bit of time each day to Donald  Winnicott, sandwiched in the pauses amid clinical encounters, has meant that  whenever I think about Donald Winnicott and his life, I invariably find  myself thinking about my own patients and my own clinical practice at the  same time. Since I have begun to work with forensic patients in more recent  years, I often call to mind the image of Winnicott working in a psychiatric  hostel in Oxfordshire during World War II with deprived, delinquent  children. The continuous picture of Winnicott unearthing the infantile  psychic injuries of his highly aggressive patients has helped me  immeasurably in the often frustrating task of working with paedophile  offenders.

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So, I think about my own patients, and I ponder about  Winnicott's patients, and how he worked with them. But since I have now met  a handful of Winnicott's surviving analysands, I also feel that I must  consider carefully how a biography of their late analyst will affect them.  In spite of the growth of psycho-analytical historiography in recent years,  I cannot recall a single instance in which an author stopped to write about  the possible effect of revealing intimate, personal information on the  analysands of the particular biographical subject. Perhaps such a concern  will be of interest only to psychotherapists and psycho-analysts, but  perhaps it should become a concern of all those who aspire to write  the history of psycho-analysis.心理学空间+Zn [&o [

In December of 1983, I had the good fortune to have lunch  with a brilliant and charming Kleinian psycho-analyst who spent a good deal  of time extolling the virtues of Professor Phyllis Grosskurth, whose  biography of Melanie Klein had not yet appeared. On 28th June of 1986, I had  supper with Grosskurth herself, shortly after the publication of her  outstanding, though much criticised, and much maligned, biography. She  seemed desolate, and shocked, that the eminent Kleinian informant who had  once praised her, had now dropped her flat, ostensibly for revealing that  Mrs. Klein's son, Hans Klein, may have had homosexual tendencies, and that  he may even have committed suicide. Grosskurth (1986b) seemed quite  surprised that some of Melanie Klein's former analysands might have felt  resentful that a biographer with scant connection to the psycho-analytical  world had forced them to confront some ugly insight into the mothering  abilities of their late analyst.心理学空间`9f8m/Gk:Y A(v

Similarly, one of Wilfred Bion's surviving patients told  me that he had become livid when Bion's widow, Francesca Bion, published the  two volumes of Bion's (1982, 1985) autobiography which described his  childhood history and his private life in great detail. The analysand told  me that he did not want to read the books, and yet, at the same time, he  also felt compelled to do so. Even after all these years, he still regarded  the publication of Bion's autobiographies as an intrusion into his own  analysis.心理学空间6WtnK"]$Y

My research on Winnicott has confirmed to me his  greatness, and his unparalleled ability to communicate with disturbed  children. But in the course of having studied Winnicott in considerable  depth, the less salubrious side of his character structure has of course  begun to emerge, and I find myself pausing and hesitating before sharing  this information with the general reading public, ever mindful that many  people who cherish an idealised image of Donald Winnicott still remain alive  today.

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During the course of an interview with one of Winnicott's  many cousins, I learned that Winnicott's aunt by marriage could trace her  lineage to a certain soldier who had committed a terrible series of military  blunders during the English Civil War, more than three hundred years ago.  The cousin instructed me that I must not include the precise details of this  one piece of information in my biography in case it might embarrass the  family. I regard this vignette as but one of many comparable instances in  which the biographer must tread with extremely great delicacy. Such a piece  of data could be readily excluded from the biography in deference to the  wishes of Winnicott's cousin, with very little sacrifice. But what about the  more crucial areas of Winnicott's vulnerability.心理学空间 z-U ?yL6h

I now have extensive information about Winnicott's sexual  impotency, his infertility, his unconsummated marriage of twenty-five years  to Alice Buxton Taylor Winnicott, the history of Alice Winnicott's  psychiatric illness, as well as confirmation of quite a number of patients  who committed suicide during the course of analysis with Winnicott. I have  also ascertained quite a good deal of information about some of the  irregularities of Winnicott’s clinical practices, and about his many  technical experiments with highly regressed and psychotic patients (cf.  Kahr, 1999a, 1999b). For instance, one of Winnicott’s associates told me a  story that on a certain occasion, Winnicott felt very sleepy in the middle  of a psycho-analytical session, and he asked his patient to trade places, so  that Winnicott ended up lying on the couch, and the patient had to sit in  Winnicott’s chair. Apparently, Winnicott had explained that he needed to lie  down, but that he would still be able to listen effectively to his patient  from this recumbent position! Any portrait of Winnicott that withheld such  aspects of his life would be both corrupt and incomplete; and yet, a book  which communicated such data might be felt to be offensive or hurtful to  those who knew healthier areas of Winnicott's life, and who wish to remember  him that way.

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Although many of Winnicott's former analysands have now  reached ripe old ages and may well be deceased before I will have completed  the biography, I now realise that we must consider not only the patients of  Winnicott's, but, also, the patients of Winnicott's patients, as  well. Quite a number of his analysands became Training Analysts at The  Institute of Psycho-Analysis in London, or psychotherapy trainers in their  own right, and at least four influential teachers have acknowledged this in  public, or in print, namely, Enid Balint (1994), Harry Guntrip (1975), Masud  Khan (1987), and Margaret Little (1985, 1990). A very large number of  individuals received their own formation from these distinguished analysands  of Winnicott's; therefore, one must consider not only Winnicott's analytical  children, but also, his analytical grandchildren, who now constitute a very  large percentage of contemporary practitioners of psycho-analysis and  psycho-analytical psychotherapy.心理学空间['D#fX0k1e5r%QE

I have a clear set of guidelines in my mind which I use  in the writing of my historical work. Under no circumstances will I reveal  any identifying biographical information about any of Winnicott's patients,  however interesting or relevant it may be. I regard this as common courtesy  as well as an allegiance to our professional codes of confidentiality. I  will of course report information which has already appeared in the public  record by patients who have written about their own treatment. But in view  of my concerns, how much should I reveal about Winnicott and his family? No  doubt I shall struggle with this vexing question throughout the construction  of the biography and beyond, but whatever data I do impart, I plan to do so  in a consistently psycho-analytical manner, explaining with compassion how  the less attractive aspects of Winnicott's character emerged from infantile  and childhood experiences, well beyond his control.

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In a marvellous essay on the maligned therapist,  published first in the Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse, the formidable  psycho-analyst and historian, Dr. Kurt Eissler (1991), has written bravely  about how various insults and crass remarks hurled at him by Peter Gay  (1988) and by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl (1988) have had a significant impact  upon Eissler's own analytical patients. Eissler has cited numerous examples  of the ways in which allegations by Professor Gay and Professor Young-Bruehl  concerning Eissler's ostensibly totalitarian control of the Sigmund Freud  Archives caused distress to several of Eissler's patients. Dr. Eissler also  cited an instance in which Anna Freud suffered similarly. In his biography  of Freud, published posthumously, Dr. Max Schur (1972, p. 499) reported on a  conversation between Freud and his daughter from 1938. Schur wrote that  after the Anschluss, Anna Freud had asked her father, ‘“Wouldn't it be  better if we all killed ourselves?”’, whereupon Sigmund Freud replied,  ‘“Why? Because they would like us to?”’ One can readily imagine that Anna  Freud's patients might have squirmed substantially upon reading of Miss  Freud's suicidal comment, irrespective of the extremity of the  circumstances. A suicidal patient might have seriously questioned Miss  Freud's capacity to contain such a treatment. Eissler (1993, p. 193) noted  that, "it would have been sufficient to report that one of his children had  asked the question, which would have spared Anna Freud the anguish she must  have felt repeatedly when her patients reminded her of that tragic episode."  This comment illustrates Eissler's sensitivity to those matters, a  sensitivity far greater than that of Max Schur.心理学空间1RC"SB;p6S/]6yI5R,_

Dr. Eissler's article, extended further in his recent  book on Three Instances of Injustice (Eissler, 1993), serves as a  sobering reminder that the psycho-analytical biographies and histories that  we write have an impact far beyond the reaches of the academy, and we must  begin to devote very much more attention to the effect of our works on  analytical patients and on their families. Previous attempts to theorise  about psycho-analytically orientated biography have not always grappled with  this issue in full (cf. Roazen, 1987). Historians who do not pontificate  about clinical matters, and psychotherapists who do not reflect on these  matters with enough depth, should think more prudently about these concerns,  and would do well to cogitate upon these preliminary words of caution.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.心理学空间 QIJGd N"??T4_l+Q,|

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I first presented this paper at the Second Annual  Conference of the Universities Association for Psychoanalytic Studies in  Sheffield, South Yorkshire, on 20th May, 1995. I want to extend my  particular thanks to the members of the audience for their helpful comments,  in particular, Professor Robert Young. I also want to express my gratitude  to Dr. Sonu Shamdasani and to Mr. Richard Skuse for alerting my attention to  the essay by Dr. Kurt Eissler.心理学空间&M \.jrd k1f

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BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON THE AUTHOR.

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Brett Kahr is Senior Lecturer in Psychotherapy in the  School of Psychotherapy and Counselling at Regent's College in London, and  Course Tutor in Mental Handicap in the Child and Family Department at the  Tavistock Clinic in London. Additionally, he is a Tutor in the Department of  Primary Care and Population Sciences at the Royal Free and University  College London Medical School of the University of London, and an Honorary  Psychologist at St. George’s Hospital.

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He is the author of D.W. Winnicott: A Biographical  Portrait (London: Karnac Books, 1996), which won the Gradiva Prize for  biography and history from the National Association for the Advancement of  Psychoanalysis.心理学空间AS6? cM y

Copyright: The Author心理学空间g*T$v/j%})N/n\

Not to be quoted without permission.

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Address for Correspondence.

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Brett Kahr心理学空间7?z7aikMLh"F Q-C
School of Psychotherapy and Counselling
CVq3A]1B#bYH Hf0Regent's College
k"AE C e%|i|%l \ u0Inner Circle
g*k&T#?&h U0Regent's Park
,C'TIY&Vv.Q0London NW1 4NS.

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