Davis共情量表
作者: 转载 / 11701次阅读 时间: 2012年10月15日
标签: 感同身受 共情 人际交往
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Davis共情量表

简介

共情量表由 Davis 编制。此量表主要测查你是否能够对别人“感同身受”,是否能够设身处地站在他人的角度考虑问题。善于共情的特点可能会对你的人际交往以及建立亲密关系很有帮助。

指导语:

此量表共有 28 项问题,请认真阅读下面的每个问题,判断句中的描述符合你的情况的程度 , 然后选择 1-5 中适当的数字代表符合程度。请注意数字越大代表这个描述 越符合你:

1 :非常不符合2 :有些不符合3 :不能确定4 :有些符合5 :非常符合

FS 01.我会常常幻想或设想一些可能发生在我身上的事情。

EC 02.对于比我不幸的人,我常常为他们担心。

PF 03.有时我觉得很难从对方的角度来看事情。

EC 04.有时当别人遇到问题时,我不会为他们难过。

FS 05.我能深深体验到小说中人物的感情。

PD 06.在紧急情况下,我感到忧虑不安。

FS 07.我通常能够客观地观看一部电影或戏剧,而很少被完全打动。

PT 08.我会试图体会争议中每个人的视角,再对争议的事情做决定。

EC 09.当我看到有人被利用的时候,我会有种想保护他们的感觉。

PD 10.有时处在情绪非常激动的情境下,我会感到无助。

PT 11.我有时会想象从朋友的角度去看事情,借此来更好地理解他们。

FS 12.我很少会对一本好书或电影深深地入迷。

PD 13.当我看到有人受到伤害时,我会保持平静。

EC 14.别人的不幸很少让我无法平静。

PT 15.如果我确定我是对的,我不会浪费许多时间来听别人的争论。

FS 16.在看完一场电影或戏剧后,我感到自己仿佛是其中的一个角色。

PD 17.我害怕处于情绪强烈的情境中。

EC 18.当我看到有人受到不公平对待时,我有时对他们不是非常同情。

PD 19.我通常能有效处理紧急状况。

EC 20.我常常被看到的事情打动。

PT 21.我认为任何事情都有两面,并且力图看到这两面。

EC 22.我会把自己描述成一个心肠很软的人。

FS 23.当我看一场好电影的时候,我能很容易地把自己设想成主角。

PD 24.在紧急情况下我容易失去控制。

PT 25.当我对别人感到不快时,我常常会试着设身处地的考虑一下。

FS 26.我在阅读有趣的故事或小说时,会想象如果故事中的事情发生在我身上我会有什么感受。

PD 27.当我看到有人处于紧急情况中急需帮助时,我会不知所措。

PT 28.在批评别人以前,我会试图想象如果我是他们会有什么感受。


Items Comprising the Final Four Empathy Scales

Fantasy Scale
(Standardized alpha coefficients: Males, .78; Females, .79)

26. When I am reading an interesting story or novel, I imagine how I would feel if the events in the story were happening to me.
05. I really get involved with the feelings of the characters in a novel.
07. I am usually objective when I watch a movie or play, and I don't often get completely caught up in it. (-)
16. After seeing a play or movie, I have felt as though I were one of the characters.
01. I daydream and fantasize, with some regularity, about things that might happen to me.
12. Becoming extremely involved in a good book or movie is somewhat rare for me. (-)
23. When I watch a good movie, I can very easily put myself in the place of a leading character.

Perspective-Taking Scale
(Standardized alpha coefficients: Males, .71; Females, .75)

28. Before criticizing somebody, I try to imagine how I would feel if I were in their place.
15. If I'm sure I'm right about something, I don't waste much time listening to other people's arguments. (-)
11. I sometimes try to understand my friends better by imagining how things look from their perspective.
21. I believe that there are two sides to every question and try to look at them both.
03. I sometimes find it difficult to see things from the "other guy's" point of view. (-)
08. I try to look at everybody's side of a disagreement before I make a decision.
25. When I'm upset at someone, I usually try to "put myself in his shoes" for a while. 

Empathic Concern Scale
(Standardized alpha coefficients: Males, .68; Females, .73)

09. When I see someone being taken advantage of, I feel kind of protective toward them.
18. When I see someone being treated unfairly, I sometimes don't feel very much pity for them. (-)
02. I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me.
22. I would describe myself as a pretty soft-hearted person.
04. Sometimes I don't feel sorry for other people when they are having problems. (-)
14. Other people's misfortunes do not usually disturb me a great deal. (-)
20. I am often quite touched by things that I see happen.

Personal Distress Scale
(Standardized alpha coefficients: Males, .77; Females, .75)

27. When I see someone who badly needs help in an emergency, I go to pieces.
10. I sometimes feel helpless when I am in the middle of a very emotional situation.
06. In emergency situations, I feel apprehensive and ill-at-ease.
19. I am usually pretty effective in dealing with emergencies. (-)
17. Being in a tense emotional situation scares me.
13. When I see someone get hurt, I tend to remain calm. (-)
24. I tend to lose control during emergencies.

The end result of the instrument construction process, then, was a 28-item questionnaire, consisting of four discrete, seven-item subscales. The fantasy scale (FS), which includes the three items from Stotland's (Stotland, Mathews, Sherman, Hansson, & Richardson, 1978) Fantasy-empathy scale, appears to tap the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional situations (e.g., books, movies, daydreams). The second subscale, the perspectivetaking scale (PT), on its face seems to reflect an ability or proclivity to shift perspectives -- to 12 step "outside the self" -- when dealing with other people. The items comprising this scale refer not to fictitious situations and characters, but to "real life" instances of perspective-taking. The other two subscales explicitly deal with individual differences in emotional responses to observed emotionality in others. The first of these, the empathic concern scale (EC), consists of items assessing the degree to which the respondent experiences feelings of warmth, compassion and concern for the observed individual. The personal distress scale (PD), on the other hand, measures the individual's own feelings of fear, apprehension and discomfort at witnessing the negative experiences of others.

The results of the factor analyses, coupled with the internal reliabilities (standardized alpha coefficients) computed for each scale and also displayed in Table 3, strongly support the view that these four subscales are reliably tapping separate dimensions of individual differences.

However, in order to confirm this factor structure, the new 28-item questionnaire was administered to a third, independent set of respondents

----------------------------------------------------

×上面是28项的最终版,下面是 Davis MH 1980年的45项(第二次问卷)版,详情参见 http://www.uv.es/~friasnav/Davis_1980.pdf

----------------------------------------------------

45 ITEM VERSION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

Fantasy Items 幻想
18. After seeing a play or movie, I have felt as though I were one of the characters.
09. I really get involved with the feelings of the characters in a novel.
03. When I am reading an interesting story or novel, I imagine how I would feel if the events in the story were happening to me.
44. When I watch a good movie, I can very easily put myself in the place of a leading character.
33. Becoming extremely involved in a good book or movie is somewhat rare for me.
19. I daydream and fantasize, with some regularity, about things that might happen to me.
23. I do not try very often to imagine how my life might have been different.
12. I am usually objective when I watch a movie or play and I don't often get completely caught up in it.
41. When someone is telling a good story or joke, I become pretty involved with listening to it.

Perspective-taking Items 换位思考
26. I believe that there are two sides to every question and try to look at them both.
39. When I'm upset at someone, I usually try to "put myself in his shoes" for a while.
36. I try to look at everybody's side of a disagreement before I make a decision.
21. It's rare that some issue is ever black and white -- usually the truth is somewhere in between.
31. I sometimes find it difficult to see things from the "other guy's" point of view.
08. Before criticizing somebody, I try to imagine how I would feel if I were in their place.
13. If I'm sure I'm right about something, I don't waste much time listening to other people's arguments.
29. It's often harmful to spend lots of time trying to get everyone's point of view -- some decisions have to be made quickly.
16. I sometimes try to understand my friends better by imagining how things look from their perspective.

Empathic Concern Items 移情关注
43. I am often quite touched by things that I see happen.
14. Seeing warm, emotional scenes melts my heart and makes me teary-eyed.
25. When I watch a sad, "tear-jerker" movie, I almost always have warm, compassionate feelings for the characters.
32. I would describe myself as a pretty soft-hearted person.
20. Occasionally I am not very sympathetic to my friends when they are depressed.
37. Usually I am not extremely concerned when I see someone else in trouble.
34. Sometimes I don't feel sorry for other people when they are having problems.
27. When I see someone being treated unfairly, I sometimes don't feel very much pity for them.
06. When a friend tells me about his good fortune, I feel genuinely happy for him.
11. When I see someone being taken advantage of, I feel kind of protective toward them.
10. I care for my friends a great deal.
28. I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me.
04. When someone gets hurt in my presence, I feel sad and want to help them.
07. I feel sad when I see a lonely stranger in a group.

Personal Distress Items 个人痛苦
17. In emergency situations, I feel apprehensive and ill-at-ease.
45. I tend to lose control during emergencies.
38. Being in a tense emotional situation scares me.
30. When I am with a friend who is depressed, I become so uncomfortable that I can't really talk to him.
01. When I see someone who badly needs help in an emergency, I go to pieces.
24. It bothers me to see poor people on the street.
05. It occasionally embarrasses me when someone tells me their problems.
40. Sometimes disagreements with others become so intense that I can't deal with it at the time.
35. Other people's misfortunes do not usually disturb me a great deal.
42. When I see someone get hurt, I tend to remain calm.
22. I am usually pretty effective in dealing with emergencies.
15. I sometimes feel helpless when I am in the middle of a very emotional situation.
02. Although tense emotional confrontations are unpleasant, I can usually control myself pretty well.

The goal in the item selection process was to produce four sets of items which tapped as closely as possible the four psychological domains discovered in the preliminary analysis. Those items which had loaded most heavily on these four factors, therefore, served as "core" items, and the new items written for this version of the questionnaire were designed to match as closely as possible their content.

Administration of the second questionnaire. The items from the second item pool were randomly ordered to produce the 45-question instrument. Subjects again responded to each item on a 5-point scale running from 0 (does not describe me well), to 4 (describes me very well).

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TAG: 感同身受 共情 人际交往
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