加西亚效应(Garcia effect)味觉厌恶(Taste aversion)
作者: 转载 / 13735次阅读 时间: 2013年4月01日
标签: GARCIA 加西亚 加西亚效应 味觉厌恶
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加西亚效应(Garcia effect)味觉厌恶(Taste aversion)

味觉厌恶(英文:Taste aversion),也称加萨效应、加西亚效应(Garcia effect),为心理学的古典条件作用的一种典型现象,该经典反射行为通过味觉(应激源)和潜在结果一次匹配即可形成。

20世纪六七十年代,随着认知心理学的兴起,越来越多的人开始对行为主义的理念产生了怀疑,加西亚通过实验证实了这种怀疑。在一系列的研究中,加西亚喂给老鼠食物,几个小时之后通过一定剂量的辐射让老鼠恶心。尽管老鼠在进食几个小时之后才发生呕吐反应,但一般来说,老鼠只需要一次试验就学会了不再去吃刚才喂给它们的那种食物。它们似乎“意识”到是这种食物导致它们恶心。然而,当加西亚用蜂鸣器或闪光灯来和呕吐反应配对时,他却未能让老鼠学会避开这些伴随刺激。换句话说,老鼠似乎预先编制好了能学会某些事情(比如避开与呕吐有关的食物),而学会另一些事情却异常困难。

其最初的研究为约翰·加西亚(John Garcia)和罗伯特·库林(Robert Koelling)通过老鼠试验,和巴甫洛夫的狗试验不同,加西亚证明老鼠存在一种先天的特定刺激和特定结果相联结的偏好,其行为反射还依赖于遗传预设的有机体对待环境刺激的方式[1]。加西亚还通过在饱受狼群袭击的牧场四周放置引发狼生疾病的毒羊肉汉堡,这些狼群在吞食了汉堡后反映出强烈的呕吐等疾病反应,此后这些狼对羊肉产生厌恶,并远离羊群和牧场。

在人类行为中,也存在味觉厌恶现象。比如接受化疗的癌症患者会对食物产生恶心,因为其化疗往往在进食后进行,由此使癌症患者感到是食物导致其化疗痛苦。

Conditioned Taste Aversion

In the mid 1950′s, John Garcia and his colleagues at the Radiological Defense Laboratory at Hunters Point in San Francisco assessed the effects of ionizing radiation on a myriad of behaviors in the laboratory rat. One of their behavioral findings was that radiated rats avoided consumption of solutions that had been present during radiation, presumably due to the association of the taste of the solution with the aversive effects of the radiation. These results were published in Science and introduced to the literature the phenomenon of conditioned taste aversion learning (or the Garcia Effect). Subsequently, Garcia and his colleagues demonstrated that such learning appeared unique in a number of respects, including the fact that these aversions were acquired often in a single conditioning trial, selectively to gustatory stimuli and even when long delays were imposed between access to the solution and administration of the aversive agent. Together, these unique characteristics appeared to violate the basic tenets of traditional learning theory and along with a number of other behavioral phenomena (e.g., bird song learning, species-specific defense reactions, tonic immobility and schedule-induced polydipsia) introduced the concept of biological constraints on learning that forced a reconceptualization of the role evolution played in the acquisition of behavior (Garcia and Ervin, 1968; Revusky and Garcia, 1970; Rozin and Kalat, 1971).

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