Echo & Narcissus 厄科/回声&那喀索斯/自恋
作者: greecegreek / 10869次阅读 时间: 2010年3月06日

Echo and Narcissus

0C_+UKH.X*X+t0Echo was a beautiful nymph, fond of the woods and hills, where
^4t)I:e @L]]0she devoted herself to woodland sports. She was a favorite of
3i:U3dZv!U)akp#t|#r0Diana, and attended her in the chase. But Echo had one failing;心理学空间UBo+EUVF J
she was fond of talking, and whether in chat or argument would心理学空间Q m'~1s(a!l
have the last word. One day Juno was seeking her husband, who,心理学空间T;r'bv8~W c/cnV
she had reason to fear, was amusing himself among the nymphs.
*o-R"iu+~*b0Echo by her talk contrived to detain the goddess till the nymphs
FU!p1Ib:qwm,N`"m0made their escape. When Juno discovered it, she passed sentence心理学空间&e1CX)eb:y7c#l @+h3`
upon Echo in these words: "You shall forfeit the use of that心理学空间p_2Se W@\)K
tongue with which you have cheated me, except for that one心理学空间m1fF"Ya)[
purpose you are so fond of REPLY. You shall still have the
y7Sduyi0last word, but no power to speak first."心理学空间1m6W"skjJ

j9| ~mrIWxN0This nymph saw Narcissus, a beautiful youth, as he pursued the
|+rR9uKN3R-b/B2o0chase upon the mountains. She loved him, and followed his心理学空间 f^B3|y%f;Yk
footsteps. Oh, how she longed to address him in the softest
hjU'mae/[hY0accents, and win him to converse, but it was not in her power.
x6u9O5w:u7GY oh)H0She waited with impatience for him to speak first, and had her
yL8u-bf g)K:{MR0answer ready. One day the youth, being separated from his
o{ Uc%]Q WK _\)f0companions, shouted aloud, "Who's here?" Echo replied, "Here."心理学空间ts3zX'o._5A
Narcissus looked around, but seeing no one, called out, "Come."心理学空间}Ot:b}
Echo answered, "Come." As no one came, Narcissus called again,心理学空间/M6?4K_s%IPa
"Why do you shun me?" Echo asked the same question. "Let us
J)f#kcN SKD.Il0join one another," said the youth. The maid answered with all
-gXo7Yi*o ZZ0her heart in the same words, and hastened to the spot, ready to
vw;TI]#\L#@r*\0throw her arms about his neck. He started back, exclaiming,
9LBQ o @#v0"Hands off! I would rather die than you should have me." "Have心理学空间 q M]k.~1eoa|
me," said she; but it was all in vain. He left her, and she went心理学空间9k AToOT3@
to hide her blushes in the recesses of the woods. From that time
X7Y%@_Rd0forth she lived in caves and among mountain cliffs. Her form
hZ"C0f.xFl0faded with grief, till at last all her flesh shrank away. Her心理学空间S\Sd%?+\)N @y!~
bones were changed into rocks, and there was nothing left of her心理学空间 {?4l/R/cO8_p
but her voice. With that she is still ready to reply to any one心理学空间D _6wPF8J2]
who calls her, and keeps up her old habit of having the last

m LS~5h6n4T0Narcissus was cruel not in this case alone. He shunned all the
4R:QE*b(k N5{7f0rest of the nymphs as he had done poor Echo. One day a maiden,
n Y4]#U ha0who had in vain endeavored to attract him, uttered a prayer that
xJ;V$E%hO0he might some time or other feel what it was to love and meet no心理学空间[ Hqx-{ R [
return of affection. The avenging goddess heard and granted the心理学空间] q9cSY$m}
I/G&m2^T8FP H0
Sy X+tH0There was a clear fountain, with water like silver, to which the
]rz?1H2M0shepherds never drove their flocks. Nor did the mountain goats心理学空间uBC+E`6U1G B?
resort to it, nor any of the beasts of the forest; neither was it
8b w"r)Vm0defaced with fallen leaves or branches; but the grass grew fresh心理学空间j_q*nKE
around it, and the rocks sheltered it from the sun. Hither came心理学空间s9B2KRo;g?8~H
one day the youth fatigued with hunting, heated and thirsty. He
v S&YU#?+c m0stooped down to drink, and saw his own image in the water; he心理学空间3qu9v5wM
thought it was some beautiful water=spirit living in the心理学空间Kf SKWT
fountain. He stood gazing with admiration at those bright eyes,
Is3a)\B+O2r0those locks curled like the locks of Bacchus or Apollo, the
p3B4_*HCk8`w0rounded cheeks, the ivory neck, the parted lips, and the glow of
| N })zF0health and exercise over all. He fell in love with himself. He
1^b+P!fP+aU2B0brought his lips near to take a kiss; he plunged his arms in to心理学空间1V$A2K*H!\7JN
embrace the beloved object. It fled at the touch, but returned心理学空间BpDx(C:M(H
again after a moment and renewed the fascination. He could not
/sZ&]Dw,P$r*@7E0tear himself away; he lost all thought of food or rest, while he
fD*}'C]R%e;N Q0hovered over the brink of the fountain gazing upon his own image.
"uD5I3R"~xH0He talked with the supposed spirit: "Why, beautiful being, do you
0LMx?"b _7P0shun me? Surely my face is not one to repel you. The nymphs
\`+O/g+n l/}!DU0love me, and you yourself look not indifferent upon me. When I
\ J0S1lo[5dP0stretch forth my arms you do the same; and you smile upon me and心理学空间\(J'ewn
answer my beckonings with the like." His tears fell into the
I1tklW&cP"OQ0water and disturbed the image. As he saw it depart, he心理学空间 NCrW5b!ll
exclaimed, "Stay, I entreat you! Let me at least gaze upon you,
7HtNr6LQ0if I may not touch you." With this, and much more of the same
Wu1d m'h0kind, he cherished the flame that consumed him, so that by心理学空间u.Po6e"nvK
degrees he lost his color, his vigor, and the beauty which
's6_Q/s'F'Mb0formerly had so charmed the nymph Echo. She kept near him,
6UFWq/zi"bl^0however, and when he exclaimed, "Alas! Alas!" she answered him
.`SRf7\sy0with the same words. He pined away and died; and when his shade心理学空间yVP"@c \ QGa6}1@
passed the Stygian river, it leaned over the boat to catch a look心理学空间UO b1p2Ck{-hX
of itself in the waters. The nymphs mourned for him, especially心理学空间9VsnAN
the water-nymphs; and when they smote their breasts, Echo smote心理学空间hs*UH S
hers also. They prepared a funeral pile, and would have burned
+e$j7qsUTA@Q0the body, but it was nowhere to be found; but in its place a心理学空间#O%RI]*BY$r dV"Bv
flower, purple within, and surrounded with white leaves, which
*}@c(onV e0bears the name and preserves the memory of Narcissus.
/ujNtk BAs"]0心理学空间Qb rq y_1v
Milton alludes to the story of Echo and Narcissus in the Lady's心理学空间 yF/|%a*E2G
song in Comus. She is seeking her brothers in the forest, and
q*G`"A eW:If2S0sings to attract their attention.心理学空间Ne1W,H5pa g

a.H U g\/_*z4YL0"Sweet Echo, sweetest nymph, that liv'st unseen心理学空间e| h)dd.?TL|
Within thy aery shell心理学空间qI6m2V#V+zQ0I;Z+Wh1q
By slow Meander's margent green.心理学空间:u A-hAQ~2Z6e
And in the violet-embroidered vale,心理学空间/V {!P \tayo1n
Where the love-lorn nightingale
@ c/kfF`0Nightly to thee her sad song mourneth well;
K0T/KP){W'yVg8K4tU0Canst thou not tell me of a gentle pair心理学空间+T#^4[!Ezr f(f;l
That likes thy Narcissus are?
2k6~Z n%h!S4U&@PW E0Oh, if thou have心理学空间Z \R Fr1k*| u2^
Hid them in some flowery cave,心理学空间){9o,c"yb)T-o]*l
Tell me but where,
L1X.YdB's&PY){8f0Sweet queen of parly, daughter of the sphere,
2I8p2~y;Hk}0So may'st thou be translated to the skies,心理学空间-W'O eu,pBu9vwt
And give resounding grace to all heaven's harmonies."心理学空间+zV V{6G(G

b9prc:G Rj!Q4U0Milton has imitated the story of Narcissus in the account which心理学空间.R6@/N2O0m3NP
he makes Eve give of the first sight of herself reflected in the
#R1Ow AyP0fountain:心理学空间|R }4b!\Nw&xA1}+q
心理学空间7dt)B3\ EAw*CR6n
"That day I oft remember when from sleep心理学空间-]!K.v7]E ~|)?7|r.~
I first awaked, and found myself reposed心理学空间 [nL3FB
Under a shade on flowers, much wondering where心理学空间-KUh'qW)w9a
And what I was, whence thither brought, and how心理学空间J*_,p1a ^5nC+w
Not distant far from thence a murmuring sound
B[["rS&L_0Of waters issued from a cave, and spread
S6O2EPG[0]|0Into a liquid plain, then stood unmoved心理学空间vh,y,MAr
Pure as the expanse of heaven; I thither went
2o j:Adg$k#OT M0With unexperienced thought, and laid me down心理学空间1YFi*j {Obza;]
On the green bank, to look into the clear心理学空间8j*G0_|'g;w%~I
Smooth lake that to me seemed another sky.心理学空间Y+^-|@'E
As I bent down to look, just opposite
3| aU}Vi0A shape within the watery gleam appeared,心理学空间O,l"N$n rDX
Bending to look on me. I started back;心理学空间9Bw"n`HI
It started back; but pleased I soon returned,
,{a sqC.ih0Pleased it returned as soon with answering looks心理学空间uI6f&v;{wBw(f\
Of sympathy and love. There had I fixed心理学空间&E,iN{#W Y
Mine eyes till now, and pined with vain desire,
BXk L i0Had not a voice thus warned me: 'What thou seest,心理学空间:UC"oz#P-]I'YRA
What there thou seest, fair creature, is thyself.'"
5o-\&S^#hA)u0Paradise Lost, Book IV心理学空间%ak ^` ZQJKU
The fable of Narcissus is often alluded to by the poets. Here心理学空间O7`%c g(bn/e
are two epigrams which treat it in different ways. The first is
1zl{@sw7{V+t)U)D0by Goldsmith:心理学空间oHfV6{_0iB

Lrw-b l,DrP0
$@c;B9`-B)WE0"Sure 'twas by Providence designed,心理学空间Or1[zu
Rather in pity than in hate,
wi'[:h Rl0That he should be like Cupid blind,
/Q:t.Lel+{0To save him from Narcissus' fate"
,k&CZ5x)V;y0The other is by Cowper:
*W8~QN$Tz0L1a#T0心理学空间$R1F @?W
"Beware, my friend, of crystal brook
js~Y2m"s?3n0Or fountain, lest that hideous hook.心理学空间w0LR&mNfj%I@
Thy nose, thou chance to see;
[H Q;}_7s&R0Narcissus' fate would then be thine,
"W0A)O,~%r0And self-detested thou would'st pine,心理学空间Vi1{cv6@!N!In2h
As self-enamored he."

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«Freud 1914 On Narcissism: An Introduction 自恋 Narcissism
《自恋 Narcissism》