THE ANALYTIC THIRD: AN OVERVIEW
作者: OGDEN / 13009次阅读 时间: 2010年2月24日
来源: Psyche Matters 标签: ANALYTIC OGDEN 奥格登
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THE ANALYTIC THIRD: AN OVERVIEW心理学空间o!IB A9U#z*J$P|
THOMAS H. OGDEN, M.D.
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"d!V \#Y~c0I have made some progress in becoming clearer with myself about what I mean when I use the term "the intersubjective analytic third" in the five years since writing "The Analytic Third-Working with Intersubjective Clinical Facts" (Ogden, 1994); in large part through making clinical use of the concept. I shall very briefly attempt to convey here a part of this enhanced understanding. It seems to me that I use the term analytic third to refer to a third subject, unconsciously co-created by analyst and analysand, which seems to take on a life of its own in the interpersonal field between analyst and patient. This third subject stands in dialectical tension with the separate, individual subjectivities of analyst and analysand in such a way that the individual subjectivities and the third create, negate, and preserve one another. In an analytic relationship, the notion of individual subjectivity and the idea of a co-created third subject are devoid of meaning except in relation to one another, just as the idea of the conscious mind is meaningless except in relation to the unconscious.
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MK ^+l p,M0While both analyst and analysand participate in the creation and elaboration of the unconscious analytic third, they do so asymmetrically. The relationship of roles of analyst and analysand in an analysis strongly privileges the exploration of the analysand's unconscious internal object world and forms of relatedness to external objects. This is a consequence of the fact that the analytic enterprise is most fundamentally a therapeutic relationship designed to facilitate the patient's efforts to make psychological changes that will enable him to live his life in a more fully human way. It is, therefore, the conscious and unconscious experience of the analysand that is the primary (but not exclusive) focus of analysis. The analytic third is not only asymmetrical in terms of the contributions of analyst and analysand to its creation, it is also asymmetrical in the way it is experienced by analyst and analysand: each experiences the analytic third in the context of his own separate personality system, his own particular ways of layering and linking conscious and unconscious aspects of experience, his own ways of experiencing and integrating bodily sensations, the unique history and development of his external and internal object relations, and so on. In short, the analytic third is not a single event experienced identically by two people; it is an unconscious, asymmetrical co-creation of analyst and analysand which has a powerful structuring influence on the analytic relationship.心理学空间T)y f+gt/y:D
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The term analytic third, as I am using it, should not be equated with Lacan's (1977) "le nom de pere " (the name of the father) which, as the representative of law, culture, and language creates a space between mother and infant. For Lacan, with the introduction of language there is always a third: the chain of signifiers constituting the language with which we speak that mediates and gives order to the relationship of the subject to his lived sensory experience and to his relations with others. (There are, however, a great many ways in which the unconscious internal object father may play a critical role in the formation and function of the analytic third as I understand it.)心理学空间hyL9y3IE1s

l*V%yh&ye l0Neither am I using the term analytic third to denote a normal maturational progression in which mother and infant, analyst and patient, together create a third area of experiencing between reality and fantasy. As will be discussed, the experience of the analytic third at times may overlap with, but is by no means synonymous with, Winnicott's (1951) notion of a generative potential space that is created between analyst and analysand when an analysis is going well.
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-MfyO&M S P0Rather, I view the intersubjective analytic third as an ever-changing unconscious third subject (more verb than noun) which powerfully contributes to the structure of the analytic relationship. The analyst's and patient's experience in and of the analytic third spans the full range of human emotion and its attendant thoughts, fantasies, bodily sensations, and so on. The task of the analyst is to create conditions in which the unconscious intersubjective analytic third (which is always multi-layered and multi-faceted and continually on the move) might be experienced, attached to words, and eventually spoken about with the analysand. However, this highly schematic description of the analysis of the analytic third obscures the enormous difficulty of the task. In my experience, the analyst's capacity to name and talk to himself about his experience of the analytic third almost always takes place after-the-fact, that is, after the analyst unwittingly (and often for a considerable period of time) has played a role in the specific experiential "shapes" reflecting the nature of the unconscious analytic third.
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A%ISO+Rj \0The possible experiential shapes (thoughts, feelings, sensations, fantasies, behaviors, and so on) generated by the influence of the analytic third on the analytic relationship are endless. For example, the influence of the analytic third might come to life in the form of an acting-in or an acting-out on the part of the analyst or the analysand or both; at other times, in the form of a somatic delusion on the part of the analyst (as in the second clinical example presented in my 1994 paper); or on still other occasions, almost entirely in the form of the analyst's reverie experiences (as in the first of the two clinical illustrations presented in the same 1994 paper).
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s3J#x(lg} r8~`0To make matters even more complex, the analytic third is at first almost entirely an unconscious phenomenon. Since the unconscious, by definition, cannot be invaded on the wings of the brute force of will, the analyst and analysand must use indirect (associational) methods to "catch the drift" (Freud, 1923/1955, p.115) of the unconscious co-creation. For the analyst, this means relying to a very large degree on "the foul rag-and-bone shop" (Yeats, 1936/1966, p. 336) of his reverie experience (his mundane, everyday thoughts, feelings, ruminations, preoccupations, daydreams, bodily sensations, and so forth). The analyst's use of his reverie experience requires tolerance of the experience of not knowing, of finding himself (or, perhaps more accurately, losing himself) adrift and apparently directionless. The emotional residue of a reverie experience is usually, at first, unobtrusive and inarticulate, an experience that is more a sense of dysphoric emotional disequilibrium than a sense of having arrived at an understanding. And yet, in my own clinical work, the use of my reverie experience is the emotional compass upon which I most heavily rely (but cannot clearly read) in my efforts to orient myself to what is happening in the analytic relationship in general, and in the workings of the analytic third in particular.心理学空间 ^(B8ILi h
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The recognition and subsequent naming of one's experience in and of the analytic third involves psychological work on the part of the analyst in which he comes to sense that something is going on which is both created by analyst and analysand and, simultaneously, in an important sense, is creating the analyst and analysand at that juncture in the analysis. The work of analyzing the experience of the analytic third involves gaining a sense of the nature and history of the unconscious fantasies, anxieties, defenses, and object relations comprising the third co-created "subject of analysis." While the use of my own reverie experience is an indispensable aspect of my analytic technique, when I eventually speak to the patient about what I sense is happening between us, I speak to the patient from, but infrequently about my reverie experience (or about other forms of countertransference experience).
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f~k#a{k0In analytic work conducted with a conception of the analytic third as part of one's theoretical framework, one makes one's way from experiential shapes (such as a patient's dream, the analyst's reveries, an enactment in which both patient and analyst have participated) toward an expanded sense of the fundamental nature of the third, i.e., that which renders "humanly understandable or humanly ununderstandable" (Jarrell, 1955, p.62) the psychological purposes served by the experiential shapes that are generated and how (that is, according to what sense of self and the world) those shapes are linked with one another. Often, in my experience, the "third subject" is of a subjugating sort which creates the effect of tyrannically limiting the range of thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations "permissible" to both analyst and analysand. Under such circumstances, neither analyst nor analysand is able to experience himself or the other in terms outside of a very narrow band of (predominantly irrational) thoughts and feelings. At other times, the analytic third is of a perverse sort that has the effect of locking the analyst and patient into a specific, compulsively repeated perverse scenario. (See Ogden, 1997, for a discussion and clinical illustration of an analysis dominated by a perverse form of the analytic third.)心理学空间&~p&Z2b6g

iF?3b^} P*sT ?0At still other times, the analytic third may be of a powerfully creative and enriching sort. Such forms of the analytic third are enlivening in the sense that "shapes" are generated in the analytic relationship (for instance, interesting, sometimes novel, forms of considering, dreaming, and fantasizing as well as richer and more fully human qualities of object relatedness marked, for example, by humor, compassion, playfulness, flirtatiousness, camaraderie, charm, love, and anger which have "all the sense of real" [Winnicott, 1963, p. 184]).
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#@3f;tw"c#Q? }[0Some forms of playing in the analytic setting involve an experience of the analytic third that might be thought of as an experience of the patient and analyst engaged in playing in the presence of the unconscious (jointly, but asymmetrically constructed) mother who facilitates the capacity of the child to be alone in her ("invisible," unobtrusive) presence (Winnicott, 1958). 1 place emphasis on the words "to be" because it is the experience of coming into being as an individual with one's own distinct and unique qualities that is of central importance in the experience of this form of the analytic third. One can see and feel and hear and smell and touch something like oneself in the activity of playing. This experience of playful symbol- and metaphormaking allows one to create symbols which give shapes and emotional substance (sensate "embodiments") to the self-as-object ("me") which serve as mirrors in which the self-as-subject ("I") recognizes/creates itself. Other forms of playing in the analytic relationship involve an unconscious experience of the father or the "father-in-the-mother" (Ogden, 1987) whose protectively watchful eye is felt to make safe, for example, Oedipal flirtation between analyst and analysand. The creation of various forms of the analytic third which create and preserve conditions in which playing might safely occur evolves throughout the course of every analysis that is "a going concern" (to borrow Winnicott's apt phrase).
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Many forms of the analytic third coexist at any moment of an analysis, some of which are pathological in the sense of limiting the range of human emotion and depth of object relatedness into which patient and analyst are able to enter. As analysis progresses, none of these pathological forms of the analytic third is "conquered" or eliminated any more than transferences are eliminated in the course of analysis (Loewald, 1960). Rather, as is the case with transferences, in the course of the analysis of a given form of pathological analytic third, the capacity of the third to timelessly hold the analytic pair hostage in a given, unchanging, unconscious form of relatedness (or unrelatedness) is gradually transmuted into forms of experience of self and other that can be preconsciously and consciously experienced, verbally symbolized, reflected upon, spoken about and incorporated into one's larger sense of self (including one's experience of and understanding of how one has come to be who one is and who one is becoming).心理学空间W5^V b,~P/P0ba
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As I often find true, a poet, in this case A.R. Ammons, is able to convey/create in words what I can only talk about—"that stolid word about" (James, 1890, p. 246).The experience of engaging in the analysis of the analytic third is心理学空间 k#sO5W k$p m

t"h{.y!G(l:y R0not so much looking for the shape心理学空间8EZ/tj-p{
As being available心理学空间5H!p!ly hXR
To any shape that may be心理学空间'e DoT if ? d%l_
Summoning itself
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(Ammons, "Poetics," 1986, p. 61)
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v]-tx[&[^Q?9q0REFERENCES心理学空间 MD,w$au7e

*lj1I~ G+g4v`0Ammons, A. R. (1986). Poetics. In A.R. Ammons: The Selected Poems. New York: Norton.
G0Z6apm&nO'f C0Freud, S. (1955). Two encyclopaedia articles. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete works of Sigmund Freud (Vol 18, pp. 235-259). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published in 1923)心理学空间Q-GXMst
James, W. (1950). Principles of psychology: Vol. I (P. Smith, Ed.). New York: Dover. (Original work published in 1890)
^|+|Qb%k:z0Jarrell, R. (1955). Poetry and the age. New York: Vintage.心理学空间a-i{_V@~Y
Lacan, J. (1977). Ecrits: A selection (A. Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Norton.
sB1Y+x^Sh0Loewald, H. (1980). On the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis. In Papers on psychoanalysis (pp. 221-256). New Haven: Yale University Press. (Original work published 1960)心理学空间Xiwtcg
Ogden, T. (1987). The transitional oedipal relationship in female development. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 68, 485-498.心理学空间 fS6j'W{-x'kE"ju*WO
Ogden, T. (1994). The analytic third: Working with intersubjective clinical facts. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 75, 3-20.
R%kQ!I V v0Ogden, T.(1997). Reverie and interpretation: Sensing something human. Northvale, NJ: Aronson.心理学空间WG1F{"yz ~*I y
 Winnicott, D. W. (1971). Transitional objects and transitional phenomena. In Playing and reality (pp. 1-55). New York: Basic Books. (Original work published 1951)
Bu k ~/f0Winnicott, D. W. (1965). The capacity to be alone. In The maturational processes and the facilitating environment (pp. 29-36). New York: International Universities Press. (Original work published 1958)
!?TDJ0aL7M oW0Winnicott, D. W.(1965). Communicating and not communicating leading to a study of certain opposites. In The maturational processes and the facilitating environment (pp. 170-192). New York: International Universities Press. (Original work published 1963)
DnsXs*j#xb0Yeats, W. B. (1966). The circus animals' desertion. In The collected poems of W. B. Yeats (pp. 335-336). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1936)心理学空间_eJ2R7ia^.P

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