Klein 1952 自我与本我在发展上的相互影响
作者: Melanie Klein / 6769次阅读 时间: 2012年10月23日
标签: Klein klein KLEIN 本我 幻想 克莱茵 客体关系 内摄 潜意识 投射 自我
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_-~7J@4G] k^Di0在《可结案与不可结案的分析》(Analysis Terminable and Interminable,S.E.23)中,包含了弗洛伊德对于自我的最终结论,他如此假设:“……自我具有最初与天生的区辨特质,这是重要的。”多年来我保持着这个观点,并且在我的《儿童精神分析》(1932)一书中如此表达:自我在生命一开始就运作了,而其最早的活动包括应付焦虑的防卫,以及使用投射内摄的过程。在该书里,我也提出自我在初期忍受焦虑的能力,是由它本有的强度所决定,也就是说由先天的因素所决定的。我一再地表达了这些观点:自我从最早与外在世界的接触中,建立了客体关系。最后,我界定了朝向整合的驱力为自我的另一个原初功能。57-1心理学空间sx7uC-w$P1I*T

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我现在要来讨论本能(以及特别是生之本能与死之本能之间的挣扎)在这些和谐自我功能中所扮演的角色。在弗洛伊德对生与死之本能的概念中,存在着这样的看法:作为所有本能汇聚之处的本我,从一开始就运作着。我完全同意这个概念,不过我和弗洛伊德不同之处,在于我提出的假设:最原初的引发焦虑因子,是对于灭绝(死亡)的恐惧,而它们源自于死之本能的内在运作。在生与死之本能之间的挣扎,源自于本我涉及了自我。最初对于被灭绝的恐惧迫使自我采取行动,因而发生了防卫。这些自我活动的终极来源是在于生之本能的运作;自我朝向整合与组织化的活动,明白的显示了它是生之本能的衍生产物,如弗洛伊德说的:“……生之本能的主要目的是统合(uniting)与连接(binding)57-2。”与朝向整合的驱力相对抗、而且与其交替运作的是分裂的过程,这些过程与内摄与投射一起代表了某些最根本的早期机制。这些都在生之本能的刺激推动下,从一开始就被迫成为防卫的作用。心理学空间S?aK2\

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在此需要思考另一个来自本能驱力对于自我之原初功能的贡献。和我对于最初婴儿期的概念一致的是:根源于本能的潜意识幻想活动(以苏珊·伊萨克斯的说法)是本能在心智的必然结果。我相信潜意识幻想从最初就开始运作了,如同本我一样,而且它们是生、死本能活动的心智表现。潜意识幻想活动构成了内摄与投射机制的基础,这些机制让自我能够运行上述许多基本功能之一,也就是建立客体关系。借由投射将原欲与攻击性转向外界,并且将客体浸染在其中,于是,婴儿的最早客体关系发生了;我认为这个过程是促成客体灌注的基础。由于内射的过程,这个最初客体同时也被摄取进入自体中。从一开始的时候,与外在客体以及和内在客体的关系就是互动的。这些我称为“内化的客体”中,最早的是一个部分客体,也就是母亲的乳房,从我的经验看来,即使是用奶瓶喂养婴儿,这点仍然是成立的,不过,我若是在此讨论这些象征性等同(symbolic equation)借以发生的过程,就离题太远了。乳房很快地被附加上其他的母性,成为一个内化的客体,强烈的影响着自我的发展。随着与完整客体的关系发展,父母以及其他家族成员被内摄为好人或坏人,所依据的是婴儿不断变化的感觉、幻想以及经验,于是充满好、坏客体的世界于内在被建立起来,这个内在世界不仅是内在之富足与稳定的资源,也是内在迫害的来源。在最早的三至四个月期间,迫害的焦虑盛行并对于自我施压,严酷的考验自我承受焦虑的能力,这种迫害的焦虑有时候会弱化自我,有时候则具有推动自我朝向整合与智能成长的效果。在四到六个月之间,婴儿需要保存所爱的内在客体,而这个需要受到他自己的攻击与威胁,再加上随之而来的忧郁,焦虑与罪恶感再次地对自我造成加倍的影响:它们可能具有征服自我的威胁,也可能激发自我朝向修复与升华。借由这些我只能在此稍加一提的各种不同方式,自我受到其与内在客体的关系攻击与滋养。58-1

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以婴儿内在世界为中心的潜意识幻想所具有的特殊系统,对于自我的发展来说是无比重要的。小婴儿感觉到活生生的内化客体,其彼此之间以及与自我的关系是和谐共处、或是相互冲突的,这些不同的结果是依据婴儿的情绪与经验而定,当婴儿感觉到含有好的客体时,他经验到信任、自信以及安全;当他感觉到含有坏的客体时,他经验到迫害与怀疑。婴儿与内在客体的关系好坏,和他与外在客体之关系是同步发展的,并且对后者的走向有永久性的影响。而另外一方面,和内在客体的关系从一开始就受到了挫折与满足(这是婴儿日常生活的一部分)影响,于是,在内在客体的世界(是以一种潜意识幻想的方式来反映获取与外界的印象)与外在世界(必然受到投射的影响)之间有持续的互动。

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XejU"_S]d P0如我经常描述的,内在的许多客体也形成了超我的核心59-1,而超我是在儿童期头一年中持续发展起来的,它在(根据古典理论)超我继承了伊底帕斯情节的阶段,达到了顶点。心理学空间a3oe`fU {0b

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由于自我与超我的发展与投射的过程息息相关,它们从一开始就是密不可分的,而且由于他们的发展强烈地受到本能驱力的影响,自从生命开始起,心智的所有三个区域就是紧密互动的。我了解在此提到的三个区域,并不符合本篇说要讨论的题旨,但是我对于最初婴儿的概念,使我不可能只考虑到自我与本我哦之间的相互影响。心理学空间[Q(J$w7G LeC

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1C^,K0w#}q0因为生之本能与死之本能之间持续不断的互动,以及源自于两者对立(融合与去融合)的冲突主导了心智生活,在潜意识中存在着不断改变的接续互动事件、情绪与焦虑之波动。我曾试图提供一个关于多种过程的指标,焦点放在内在客体与外在客体的关系上,这些客体从最早阶段开始就存在于潜意识中,我现在要提出几点结论:

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一、我在此明白阐述的假说,代表了对于早期潜意识过程的一个观点,它比弗洛伊德之心智结构概念所隐含的观点更为宽泛。

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q9Sp.}R X4u7z0二、如果我们假设超我是从这些早期潜意识过程中发展出来的,而这些潜意识过程同时也塑造了自我、决定了自我的功能,让自我与外在世界的关系成形,那么我们需要对自我发展以及形成超我的基础再加以检视。心理学空间IA ~!W7o/J

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三、因此,我的假设将造成重新评估超我与自我的本质与范围,以及组成自体之心智各部分之间的关系。

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作为结尾,我想重述一个为人所熟知的事实(不过,当我们穿透心智愈深时,就愈是信服这个事实):认识到潜意识是一切心智过程的根源,决定了心智生活的全部,因此,只有借由深入而广泛的探索潜意识,我们才能够分析全部的人格心理学空间5j a@ x r[5?Z

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57-1《对于某些类分裂机制的评论》。

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57-2 《自我与本我》p.45

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58-1 关于这些早期过程的最新报告,见于我的多篇论文。心理学空间W7X4]E2^L:^'pr

4@1C%DX9s"rl(p059-1 形成了以下的问题:到什么程度、以及在什么条件下,内化的客体形成了自我的一部分?有多少形成了超我的部分?我想,这个问题引出了更多的问题,现在仍是不清楚的,需要进一步厘清。宝拉·海曼(1952)在这个面向上曾经提出的一些建议。心理学空间N'E+]J$X2A


"yQ2p L'k}i8H&U01952 The Mutual Influences in the Development of Ego and Id's Discussants. Psychoanal. St. Child, 7:51-53 (PSC)

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Q#Qho%j g*zH.]0The Mutual Influences in the Development of Ego and Id's Discussants

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Melanie Klein

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In "Analysis Terminable and Interminable,"1 which contains Freud's latest conclusions about the ego, he assumed "?the existence and importance of primary congenital variations in the ego." I have for many years held the view, and expressed it in my book, The Psycho-Analysis of Children,2 that the ego functions from the beginning and that among its first activities are the defense against anxiety and the use of processes of introjection and projection. In that book I also suggested that the ego's initial capacity to tolerate anxiety depends on its innate strength, that is to say, on constitutional factors. I have also repeatedly expressed the view that the ego establishes object relations from the first contacts with the external world. More recently I defined the drive toward integration as another of the ego's primal functions.3

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I shall now consider the part which the instincts梐nd particularly the struggle between life and death instincts梡lay in these functions of the ego. It is inherent in Freud's conception of the life and death instincts that the id as the reservoir of the instincts operates ab initio. With this conception I fully agree. I differ, however, from Freud in that I put forward the hypothesis that the primary cause of anxiety is the fear of annihilation, of death, arising from the working of the death instinct within. The struggle between life and death instincts emanates from the id and involves the ego. The primordial fear of being annihilated forces the ego into action and engenders the first defenses. The ultimate source of these ego activities lies in the operation of the life instinct. The ego's urge toward integration and organization clearly reveals its derivation from the life instinct: as Freud put it, "?the main purpose of Eros梩hat of uniting and binding ?4 Opposed to the drive toward integration and yet alternating with it, there are splitting processes which, together with introjection and projection, represent some of the most fundamental early mechanisms. All these, under the impetus of the life instinct, are from the beginning pressed into the service of defense.心理学空间hEU zI9m-?d

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1Collected Papers, London: Hogarth Press, 1937.

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i.k*g4L"T$v-W*r02London: Hogarth Press, 1932.心理学空间"kS _3A#oYC

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3Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms. Int. J. Psa., XXVII, 1946.心理学空间 A$| ls!c\m(~

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4(1923) The Ego and The Id. London: Hogarth Press, 1927, p. 64.

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Another major contribution from instinctual drives to the primal functions of the ego needs consideration here. It is in keeping with my conception of early infancy that fantasy activity, being rooted in the instincts, is梩o use an expression of Susan Isaacs梩heir mental corollary. I believe that fantasies operate from the outset, as do the instincts, and are the mental expression of the activity of both the life and death instincts. Fantasy activity underlies the mechanisms of introjection and projection, which enable the ego to perform one of the basic functions mentioned above, namely, to establish object relations. By projection, by turning outward libido and aggression and imbuing the object with them, the infant's first object relation comes about. This is the process which, in my opinion, underlies the cathexis of objects. Owing to the process of introjection this first object is simultaneously taken into the self. From the outset the relations to external and internal objects interact. The first of these "internalized objects," as I termed them, is a part-object, the mother's breast; in my experience this applies even when the infant is bottle-fed, but it would take me too far if I were to discuss here the processes by which this symbolic equation comes about. The breast, to which are soon added other features of the mother, as an internalized object vitally influences ego development. As the relation to the whole object develops, the mother and the father, and other members of the family, are introjected as persons in good or bad aspects, according to the infant's experiences as well as according to his alternating feelings and fantasies. A world of good and bad objects is thus built up within, and here is the source of internal persecution as well as of internal riches and stability. During the first three or four months persecutory anxiety is prevalent and exerts a pressure on the ego which severely tests its capacity to tolerate anxiety. This persecutory anxiety at times weakens the ego, at other times it acts as an impetus toward the growth of integration and intellect. In the second quarter of the first year the infant's need to preserve the loved internal object, which is felt to be endangered by his aggressive impulses, and the resulting depressive anxiety and guilt again have a twofold effect on the ego: They may threaten to overcome it as well as spur it on toward reparation and sublimations. In these various ways at which I can only hint here the ego is both assailed and enriched by its relation to internal objects.5

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The specific system of fantasies centering on the infant's internal world is of supreme importance for the development of the ego. The internalized objects are felt by the young infant to have a life of their own, harmonizing or conflicting with each other and with the ego, according to the infant's emotions and experiences. When the infant feels he contains good objects, he experiences trust, confidence and security. When he feels he contains bad objects he experiences persecution and suspicion. The infant's good and bad relation to internal objects develops concurrently with that to external objects and perpetually influences its course. On the other hand, the relation to internal objects is from the outset influenced by the frustrations and gratifications which心理学空间 D _1}i o!K&N|

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5The most up-to-date presentation of these early processes is contained in the forthcoming book, Developments in Psycho-Analysis, London: Hogarth Press, 1952.心理学空间}C&z5Za2n

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form part of the infant's everyday life. There is thus a constant interaction between the internal object world, which reflects in a fantastic way the impressions gained from without, and the external world which is decisively influenced by projection.心理学空间v~O(h5XKG$Z9eg

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As I have often described, the internalized objects also form the core of the superego6 which develops throughout the first years of childhood, reaching a climax at the stage when梐ccording to classical theory梩he superego as the heir of the oedipus complex comes into being.心理学空间'm"r@g.E$y

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Since the development of ego and superego are bound up with processes of introjection and projection, they are inextricably linked from the outset, and since their development is vitally influenced by instinctual drives, all three regions of the mind are from the beginning of life in the closest interaction. I realize that in speaking here about the three regions of the mind I am not keeping within the topic suggested for discussion; but my conception of earliest infancy makes it impossible for me to consider exclusively the mutual influences of ego and id.

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Because the perpetual interaction between the life and death instincts and the conflict arising from their antithesis (fusion and defusion) govern mental life there is in the unconscious an ever-changing flow of interacting events, of fluctuating emotions and anxieties. I have attempted to give an indication of the multitude of processes, focusing on the relation to internal and external objects which from the earliest stage onward exist in the unconscious, and I shall now draw some conclusions:心理学空间 Z&\c:q&CI]i

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1. The hypothesis which I have broadly outlined here represents a much wider view of early unconscious processes than was implied in Freud's concept of the structure of the mind.

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2. If we assume that the superego develops out of these early unconscious processes which also mold the ego, determine its functions, and shape its relation to the external world, the foundations of ego development, as well as of superego formation, need to be re-examined.

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1dv&d%{)d03. My hypothesis would thus lead to a reassessment of the nature and scope of the superego and of the ego, as well as of the interrelation between the parts of the mind which make up the self.

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I shall end by restating a well-known fact梠ne of which, however, we become more and more convinced the deeper we penetrate into the mind. It is the recognition that the unconscious is at the root of all mental processes, determines the whole of mental life, and therefore that only by exploring the unconscious in depth and width are we able to analyze the total personality.

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5p-q)rY}o3h |i06The question arises: How far and under what conditions does the internalized object form part of the ego, how far of the superego? This question, I think, raises problems which are still obscure and awaiting further elucidation. In a forthcoming publication Paula Heimann has put forward some suggestions in this direction (Developments in Psycho-Analysis, to be published by the Hogarth Press, 1952).

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