在《可结案与不可结案的分析》（Analysis Terminable and Interminable,S.E.23）中，包含了弗洛伊德对于自我的最终结论，他如此假设：“……自我具有最初与天生的区辨特质，这是重要的。”多年来我保持着这个观点，并且在我的《儿童精神分析》（1932）一书中如此表达：自我在生命一开始就运作了，而其最早的活动包括应付焦虑的防卫，以及使用投射与内摄的过程。在该书里，我也提出自我在初期忍受焦虑的能力，是由它本有的强度所决定，也就是说由先天的因素所决定的。我一再地表达了这些观点：自我从最早与外在世界的接触中，建立了客体关系。最后，我界定了朝向整合的驱力为自我的另一个原初功能。57-1
1952 The Mutual Influences in the Development of Ego and Id's Discussants. Psychoanal. St. Child, 7:51-53 (PSC)
The Mutual Influences in the Development of Ego and Id's Discussants
In "Analysis Terminable and Interminable,"1 which contains Freud's latest conclusions about the ego, he assumed "?the existence and importance of primary congenital variations in the ego." I have for many years held the view, and expressed it in my book, The Psycho-Analysis of Children,2 that the ego functions from the beginning and that among its first activities are the defense against anxiety and the use of processes of introjection and projection. In that book I also suggested that the ego's initial capacity to tolerate anxiety depends on its innate strength, that is to say, on constitutional factors. I have also repeatedly expressed the view that the ego establishes object relations from the first contacts with the external world. More recently I defined the drive toward integration as another of the ego's primal functions.3
I shall now consider the part which the instincts梐nd particularly the struggle between life and death instincts梡lay in these functions of the ego. It is inherent in Freud's conception of the life and death instincts that the id as the reservoir of the instincts operates ab initio. With this conception I fully agree. I differ, however, from Freud in that I put forward the hypothesis that the primary cause of anxiety is the fear of annihilation, of death, arising from the working of the death instinct within. The struggle between life and death instincts emanates from the id and involves the ego. The primordial fear of being annihilated forces the ego into action and engenders the first defenses. The ultimate source of these ego activities lies in the operation of the life instinct. The ego's urge toward integration and organization clearly reveals its derivation from the life instinct: as Freud put it, "?the main purpose of Eros梩hat of uniting and binding ?4 Opposed to the drive toward integration and yet alternating with it, there are splitting processes which, together with introjection and projection, represent some of the most fundamental early mechanisms. All these, under the impetus of the life instinct, are from the beginning pressed into the service of defense.
1Collected Papers, London: Hogarth Press, 1937.
2London: Hogarth Press, 1932.
3Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms. Int. J. Psa., XXVII, 1946.
4(1923) The Ego and The Id. London: Hogarth Press, 1927, p. 64.
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Another major contribution from instinctual drives to the primal functions of the ego needs consideration here. It is in keeping with my conception of early infancy that fantasy activity, being rooted in the instincts, is梩o use an expression of Susan Isaacs梩heir mental corollary. I believe that fantasies operate from the outset, as do the instincts, and are the mental expression of the activity of both the life and death instincts. Fantasy activity underlies the mechanisms of introjection and projection, which enable the ego to perform one of the basic functions mentioned above, namely, to establish object relations. By projection, by turning outward libido and aggression and imbuing the object with them, the infant's first object relation comes about. This is the process which, in my opinion, underlies the cathexis of objects. Owing to the process of introjection this first object is simultaneously taken into the self. From the outset the relations to external and internal objects interact. The first of these "internalized objects," as I termed them, is a part-object, the mother's breast; in my experience this applies even when the infant is bottle-fed, but it would take me too far if I were to discuss here the processes by which this symbolic equation comes about. The breast, to which are soon added other features of the mother, as an internalized object vitally influences ego development. As the relation to the whole object develops, the mother and the father, and other members of the family, are introjected as persons in good or bad aspects, according to the infant's experiences as well as according to his alternating feelings and fantasies. A world of good and bad objects is thus built up within, and here is the source of internal persecution as well as of internal riches and stability. During the first three or four months persecutory anxiety is prevalent and exerts a pressure on the ego which severely tests its capacity to tolerate anxiety. This persecutory anxiety at times weakens the ego, at other times it acts as an impetus toward the growth of integration and intellect. In the second quarter of the first year the infant's need to preserve the loved internal object, which is felt to be endangered by his aggressive impulses, and the resulting depressive anxiety and guilt again have a twofold effect on the ego: They may threaten to overcome it as well as spur it on toward reparation and sublimations. In these various ways at which I can only hint here the ego is both assailed and enriched by its relation to internal objects.5
The specific system of fantasies centering on the infant's internal world is of supreme importance for the development of the ego. The internalized objects are felt by the young infant to have a life of their own, harmonizing or conflicting with each other and with the ego, according to the infant's emotions and experiences. When the infant feels he contains good objects, he experiences trust, confidence and security. When he feels he contains bad objects he experiences persecution and suspicion. The infant's good and bad relation to internal objects develops concurrently with that to external objects and perpetually influences its course. On the other hand, the relation to internal objects is from the outset influenced by the frustrations and gratifications which
5The most up-to-date presentation of these early processes is contained in the forthcoming book, Developments in Psycho-Analysis, London: Hogarth Press, 1952.
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form part of the infant's everyday life. There is thus a constant interaction between the internal object world, which reflects in a fantastic way the impressions gained from without, and the external world which is decisively influenced by projection.
As I have often described, the internalized objects also form the core of the superego6 which develops throughout the first years of childhood, reaching a climax at the stage when梐ccording to classical theory梩he superego as the heir of the oedipus complex comes into being.
Since the development of ego and superego are bound up with processes of introjection and projection, they are inextricably linked from the outset, and since their development is vitally influenced by instinctual drives, all three regions of the mind are from the beginning of life in the closest interaction. I realize that in speaking here about the three regions of the mind I am not keeping within the topic suggested for discussion; but my conception of earliest infancy makes it impossible for me to consider exclusively the mutual influences of ego and id.
Because the perpetual interaction between the life and death instincts and the conflict arising from their antithesis (fusion and defusion) govern mental life there is in the unconscious an ever-changing flow of interacting events, of fluctuating emotions and anxieties. I have attempted to give an indication of the multitude of processes, focusing on the relation to internal and external objects which from the earliest stage onward exist in the unconscious, and I shall now draw some conclusions:
1. The hypothesis which I have broadly outlined here represents a much wider view of early unconscious processes than was implied in Freud's concept of the structure of the mind.
2. If we assume that the superego develops out of these early unconscious processes which also mold the ego, determine its functions, and shape its relation to the external world, the foundations of ego development, as well as of superego formation, need to be re-examined.
3. My hypothesis would thus lead to a reassessment of the nature and scope of the superego and of the ego, as well as of the interrelation between the parts of the mind which make up the self.
I shall end by restating a well-known fact梠ne of which, however, we become more and more convinced the deeper we penetrate into the mind. It is the recognition that the unconscious is at the root of all mental processes, determines the whole of mental life, and therefore that only by exploring the unconscious in depth and width are we able to analyze the total personality.
6The question arises: How far and under what conditions does the internalized object form part of the ego, how far of the superego? This question, I think, raises problems which are still obscure and awaiting further elucidation. In a forthcoming publication Paula Heimann has put forward some suggestions in this direction (Developments in Psycho-Analysis, to be published by the Hogarth Press, 1952).www.psychspace.com心理学空间网