Joseph Wolpe沃尔普
作者: 心理空间整理 / 10223次阅读 时间: 2012年4月18日
标签: 沃尔普
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网Joseph Wolpe,(April 20, 1915 – December 4, 1997)心理治療師,在南非的約翰尼斯堡執業,大學讀書期間曾讀過Pavlov的文章,自己也進行一個實驗:把貓關在實驗室的籠子裡,餵食時給予電擊,使他出現精神病。過一陣子後,他們即使餓的半死也不在籠子裡進食。接著Wolpe想把制約反射顛倒過來,讓牠們在一間看起來很不一樣的房間裡進食,在這屋子裡,它們的焦慮程度較低,因而很快就學會在這間屋子的籠子裡進食,接著在一間與實驗室的房子差不多的籠子裡進食,然後在更相像的屋裡,最後再回到實驗室去。
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 Wolpe稱這個方法叫做「交互抑制」(reciprocal inhibition)或是『減敏感法』(desensitization)。他的理論是:如果一種抑制焦慮的愉快反應(如進食),在產生焦慮的刺激之前出現,則會減弱這些刺激的強度。在這些貓的情形中,將對食物的愉快反應與籠子、而且最終與實驗室裡的籠子產生聯繫,於是克服了在這些地方產生的焦慮。根據這樣的結果,Wolpe開始尋找一種可比較的、能夠用於病人身上的技巧(進食在人類身上不會形成足夠強烈的反應,而且在任何情況之下,也不可能在辦公室裡運用),並以此治療許多精神官能症。
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Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition《交替抑制治疗》. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
K YL'wM$\0Wolpe, J. (1982). The practice of behavioral therapy《行为治疗的实践》. (3rd ed.). New York: Pergamon Press.心理学空间NP:?6x(ld?
Wolpe, J., & Lazarus, A. A. (1966). Behavior therapy technique. New York: Pergamon Press. 心理学空间&b*ZP9H[`IC
《主题和变化:行为治疗案例》心理学空间 M\ G_/w_K ts
《条件作用疗法》(与A.索尔特、L. J.雷纳合著)
#DP Usj:j0精神病学一家的行为治疗》(与雷纳合著)。心理学空间U d1F ^$Ep5wb0}
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Dr. Joseph Wolpe, 82, Dies; Pioneer in Behavior Therapy 
k1Y)Zo'a gVm(u9s7d0By ERIC PACE  
kq!@k.ek#g;n[x{I0 Published: December 08, 1997 
L MCrXW b-?0Dr. Joseph Wolpe, a South African-born psychiatrist who was a pioneer in behavior therapy, died on Thursday at his home in Los Angeles. He was 82. 
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The cause was lung cancer, said his wife, Eva. 心理学空间RN/U E&b^
Behavior therapy is an approach to psychotherapy based on the idea that people's neurotic disorders are to a large degree learned -- the result of experience -- and that other learning experiences can be used to correct those disorders. 
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B"U;yJ_9J*V0ZK*F0Dr. Wolpe was a professor of Pyschiatry at Temple University's Medical School in Philadelphia from 1965 to 1988, when he retired from that post. Concurrently he was the director of the behavior therapy unit at the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute, also in Philadelphia. 心理学空间ZPG!s(Eg
He was also the second president of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, and when he won the association's lifetime achievement award in 1995, the citation said that following World War II, his ''experimental and clinical research laid the intellectual foundations for the field.'' It said his writings, which were influential, included two textbooks that had become classics, ''Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition'' (Stanford, 1958) and ''The Practice of Behavior Therapy'' (Allyn, 1969). 心理学空间~&w/V:V)n;?X7{
xo P/o"j-Et"t0Dr. Roger Poppen, a psychologist at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale and the author of ''Joseph Wolpe'' (Sage, 1995), a biography of the doctor, said: ''He was a major force in steering psychotherapy in the direction of empirical science. He inspired and encouraged the direct comparison of carefully specified psychotherapy procedures by means of clear measurements of the therapy's outcome.'' 
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Dr. Wolpe wrote in ''The Practice of Behavior Therapy'' that ''behavior therapy is an applied science, in every way parallel to other modern technologies, and in particular those that constitute modern medical therapeutics.'' 心理学空间Pa_x ]7@
Pd(@8i,o$eve }9x&g#A8P0He also devised the psychotherapy techniques of systematic desensitization and assertiveness training, and, as Dr. Poppen put it, ''they stimulated a generation of researchers and provided the benchmarks for the development of additional methods.'' 
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Two measuring systems that Dr. Wolpe developed have become very popular in the field. They are the Subjective Anxiety Scale and the Fear Survey Schedule, which are used in research and in the practice of behavior therapy.www.psychspace.com心理学空间网
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