Freud 1913m [1911] 论精神分析
作者: Freud / 6252次阅读 时间: 2016年4月20日
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Freud 1913m [1911] 论精神分析心理学空间i,b6{ W`M
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L4g5CF-tZb3o0In response to a friendly request by the Secretary of your Section of Neurology and Psychiatry, I venture to draw the attention of this Congress to the subject of psycho-analysis, which is being extensively studied at the present time in Europe and America.心理学空间;K_u;Seg6B




S.]m,ZoX(a1\(t6R0Psycho-analysis is a remarkable combination, for it comprises not only a method of research into the neuroses but also a method of treatment based on the aetiology thus discovered. I may begin by saying that psycho-analysis is not a child of speculation, but the outcome of experience; and for that reason, like every new product of science, is unfinished. It is open to anyone to convince himself by his own investigations of the correctness of the theses embodied in it, and to help in the further development of the study.心理学空间)l:L1rW@$F/`+j

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Psycho-analysis started with researches into hysteria, but in the course of years it has extended far beyond that field of work. The Studies on Hysteria by Breuer and myself, published in 1895, were the beginnings of psycho-analysis. They followed in the track of Charcot’s work on ‘traumatic’ hysteria, Liébeault’s and Bernheim’s investigations of the phenomena of hypnosis, and Janet’s studies of unconscious mental processes. Psycho-analysis soon found itself in sharp opposition to Janet’s views, because (a) it declined to trace back hysteria directly to congenital hereditary degeneracy, (b) it offered, instead of a mere description, a dynamic explanation based on the interplay of psychical forces and (c) it ascribed the origin of psychical dissociation (whose importance had been recognized by Janet as well) not to a failure of mental synthesis resulting from a congenital disability, but to a special psychical process known as ‘repression’ (‘Verdrängung’).

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It was conclusively proved that hysterical symptoms are residues (reminiscences) of profoundly moving experiences, which have been withdrawn from everyday consciousness, and that their form is determined (in a manner that excludes deliberate action) by details of the traumatic effects of the experiences. On this view, the therapeutic prospects lie in the possibility of getting rid of this ‘repression’, so as to allow part of the unconscious psychical material to become conscious and thus to deprive it of its pathogenic power. This view is a dynamic one, in so far as it regards psychical processes as displacements of psychical energy which can be gauged by the amount of their effect on the affective elements. This is most significant in hysteria, where the process of ‘conversion’ creates the symptoms by transforming a quantity of mental impulses into somatic innervations.心理学空间M+F2t cy j


这决定性地证明了歇斯底里的症状是一种十分生动的经验,这种经验已经从日常意识中撤回了,并且他们的形式是由创伤经历的细节决定的。(用一种逃避了有意行为的方式)。因此,治疗的目标就在于摆脱这种“压抑”,以便于让部分无意识精神材料成为意识的,如此来剥夺其病理力量。这是一种动力学的观点,至于它视精神过程为一种精神能量的移置,这种精神能量可以通过其对情感元素的影响力度来得到测量。这是歇斯底里症中最显著的特点,在癔症中,“转换”这种过程通过把一些精神冲动转化为躯体神经上,从而创造出了症状。 心理学空间+Nsw9K,Hh,rO

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The first psycho-analytic examinations and attempts at treatment were made with the help of hypnotism. Afterwards this was abandoned and the work was carried out by the method of ‘free association’, with the patient remaining in his normal state. This modification had the advantage of enabling the procedure to be applied to a far larger number of cases of hysteria, as well as to other neuroses and also to healthy people. The development of a special technique of interpretation became necessary, however, in order to draw conclusions from the expressed ideas of the person under investigation. These interpretations established with complete certainty the fact that psychical dissociations are maintained entirely by ‘internal resistances’. The conclusion seems justified, therefore, that the dissociations have originated owing to internal conflict, which has led to the ‘repression’ of the underlying impulse. To overcome this conflict and in that way to cure the neurosis, the guiding hand of a doctor trained in psycho-analysis is required.心理学空间)_!L(s+X0pu



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C,NW^qR7Ax_{8g0Furthermore, it has been shown to be true quite generally that in all neuroses the pathological symptoms are really the end-products of such conflicts, which have led to ‘repression’ and ‘splitting’ of the mind. The symptoms are generated by different mechanisms: (a) either as formations in substitution for the repressed forces, or (b) as compromises between the repressing and repressed forces, or (c) as reaction-formations and safeguards against the repressed forces.


"m7NuF+U r0此外,在所有神经症中,病理症状确实是这种导致心灵“压抑”和“分裂”的冲突的最终产物,这是相当普遍地表现出来的了。症状是由不同的机制形成的:(a)要么是对压抑力量的替换了的形式,(b)要么是压抑和被压抑的力量之间的妥协形式,(c)要么对预防被压抑力量的反应形式。心理学空间,Q lP[D sYfP

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1Q-Y+~}1j#|q0Researches were further extended to the conditions which determine whether or not psychical conflicts will lead to ‘repression’ (that is, to dissociation dynamically caused), since it goes without saying that a psychical conflict, per se, may also have a normal outcome. The conclusion arrived at by psycho-analysis was that such conflicts were always between the sexual instincts (using the word ‘sexual’ in the widest sense) and the wishes and trends of the remainder of the ego. In neuroses it is the sexual instincts that succumb to ‘repression’ and so constitute the most important basis for the genesis of symptoms, which may accordingly be regarded as substitutes for sexual satisfactions.心理学空间MQ"CI"b

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研究更深入地触及到了那些决定着心理冲突是否会导致“压抑”(那就是有动力学效果的分解)的条件,这是因说心理冲突自身也可能会有一种正常的结果。由精神分析所得的结论是这样的冲突常常是性本能,愿望(在最广泛的意义使用“性”一词)和自我保留的趋势之间的冲突。在神经症那里,性本能屈服于“压抑”,并且因此组成了症状发生的最重要的基础,这种症状也就相应地被视为是对性满足的替代。心理学空间4LP/a `(N Hy%p3^

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Our work on the question of the disposition to neurotic affections has added the ‘infantile’ factor to the somatic and hereditary ones hitherto recognized. Psycho-analysis was obliged to trace back patients’ mental life to their early infancy, and the conclusion was reached that inhibitions of mental development (‘infantilisms’) present a disposition to neurosis. In particular, we have learnt from our investigations of sexual life that there really is such a thing as ‘infantile sexuality’, that the sexual instinct is made up of many components and passes through a complicated course of development, the final outcome of which, after many restrictions and transformations, is the ‘normal’ sexuality of adults. The puzzling perversions of the sexual instinct which occur in adults appear to be either inhibitions of development, fixations or lop-sided growths. Thus neuroses are the negative of perversions.


"J&Nb? ie0对于神经症情感倾向问题的工作,我们已经添加了“婴儿的”因素到那些迄今为止还被视为是躯体性的和遗传性的神经症情感。精神分析必须要追溯病人的心理生活直到他的早年婴儿期,而结论是心理发展(婴儿性的)的阻抑展现出了神经症倾向。我们尤其是从我们对于性生活的研究中发现,确实有一种“婴儿性欲”的东西,而性本能是有许多部分组成的,并且它贯穿于整个心理发展复杂过程,而它最终的结果在许多约束和转换之下就是“正常”的成人性欲。而发生在成人身上的性本能的那些令人疑惑的倒错似乎要么是发展受阻,发展固着,要么就是发展不平衡。如此神经症就是性倒错的消极形式。心理学空间~"`-{+t U#iCT


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The cultural development imposed on mankind is the factor which necessitates the restrictions and repressions of the sexual instinct, greater or lesser sacrifices being demanded according to the individual constitution. Development is hardly ever achieved smoothly, and disturbances may occur (whether on account of the individual constitution or of premature sexual incidents) leaving behind a disposition to future neuroses. Such dispositions may remain harmless if the adult’s life proceeds satisfactorily and quietly; but they become pathogenic if the conditions of mature life forbid satisfaction of the libido or make too high demands on its suppression.心理学空间$I/lJ I1h b5}0Tk+X@



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6b0ux,MZB2iv%{0Researches into the sexual activity of children have led to a further conception of the sexual instinct, based not on its purposes but on its sources. The sexual instinct possesses in a high degree the capacity for being diverted from direct sexual aims and for being directed towards higher aims which are no longer sexual (‘sublimation’). The instinct is thus enabled to make most important contributions to the social and artistic achievements of humanity.8心理学空间!k+NUa?!~v)n

[7wh[t9W0Recognition of the simultaneous presence of the three factors of ‘infantilism’, ‘sexuality’ and ‘repression’ constitutes the main characteristic of the psycho-analytic theory, and marks its distinction from other views of pathological mental life. At the same time, psycho-analysis has demonstrated that there is no fundamental difference, but only one of degree, between the mental life of normal people, of neurotics and of psychotics. A normal person has to pass through the same repressions and has to struggle with the same substitutive structures; the only difference is that he deals with these events with less trouble and better success. The psycho-analytic method of investigation can accordingly be applied equally to the explanation of normal psychical phenomena, and has made it possible to discover the close relationship between pathological psychical products and normal structures such as dreams, the small blunders of everyday life, and such valuable phenomena as jokes, myths and imaginative works. The explanation of these has been carried furthest in the case of dreams, and has resulted here in the following general formula: ‘A dream is a disguised fulfilment of a repressed wish.’ The interpretation of dreams has as its object the removal of the disguise to which the dreamer’s thoughts have been subjected. It is, moreover, a highly valuable aid to psycho-analytic technique, for it constitutes the most convenient method of obtaining insight into unconscious psychical life.

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There is often a tendency in medical and especially in psychiatric circles to contradict the theories of psycho-analysis without any real study or practical application of them. This is due not only to the striking novelty of these theories and the contrast they present to the views hitherto held by psychiatrists, but also to the fact that the premisses and technique of psycho-analysis are much more nearly related to the field of psychology than to that of medicine. It cannot be disputed, however, that purely medical and non-psychological teachings have hitherto done very little towards an understanding of mental life. The progress of psycho-analysis is further retarded by the dread felt by the average observer of seeing himself in his own mirror. Men of science tend to meet emotional resistances with arguments, and thus satisfy themselves to their own satisfaction! Whoever wishes not to ignore a truth will do well to distrust his antipathies, and, if he wishes to submit the theory of psycho-analysis to a critical examination, let him first analyse himself.

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I cannot think that in these few sentences I have succeeded in painting a clear picture of the principles and purposes of psycho-analysis. But I will add a list of the chief publications on the subject, a study of which will give further enlightenment to any whom I may have interested.


d`e PK+Im `0我不认为这简短的几句话就能成功地描绘出精神分析的原则和目的的清晰图像。但是我将要列举一个关于这个主题的书单,对于这些书单的研究将能提供给那些我也许有兴趣的人士更深的启迪。心理学空间8r*x8unuG/oj

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1. Breuer and Freud, Studies on Hysteria, 1895. Fr. Deuticke, Vienna.A portion of the above has been translated into English in ‘Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psycho-neuroses’, by Dr. A. A. Brill, New York, 1909.


`o2|:`M7W7}02. Freud, Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie, Vienna, 1905.心理学空间\ t7z/anZ4w$Q P R)z0v j

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English translation by Dr. Brill, ‘Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory’, New York, 1910.心理学空间L2gter(]g#G%V

m5Vy0R@03. Freud, Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens, S. Karger, Berlin. 3rd edition, 1910.心理学空间3V^mf0RF1J


4. Freud, Die Traumdeutung, Vienna, 1900. 3rd ed., 1911.

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/G"Yl#k%} q05. Freud, ‘The Origin and Development of Psycho-analysis’,Amer. Jour. of Psychology, April, 1910. Also in German:Ueber Psychoanalyse. Five Lectures given at the Clark University, Worcester, Mass, 1909.心理学空间k#u&`%bQ z5I

7]5Y q/_Q\q7N hNn2Kq06. Freud, Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten, Vienna, 1905.

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7. Freud, Collection of minor papers on the Doctrine of Neuroses,3-1906. Vienna,1906.心理学空间9iwQ b:YV#\a8wd


8. Idem. A second collection. Vienna, 1909.心理学空间;JE3BD%C*ms(o8m;Q

0K[l$Xw2I[g2F1k09. Hitschmann, Freud’s Neurosenlehre, Vienna, 1911.心理学空间a#aJ kN n4N9^t*F

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10. C. G. Jung, Diagnostische Associationsstudien. Two volumes, 1906-1910.

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11. C. G. Jung, über die psychologie der Dementia Praecox, 1907.心理学空间N(Dg Ab`w

jB3?w(M012. Jahrbuch für psycho-analytische und psychopathologische Forschungen,published by E. Bleuler and S. Freud, edited by Jung. Since 1909.

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13. Schriften zur angewandten Seelenkunde. Fr. Deuticke, Vienna.Since 1907. Eleven parts, by Freud, Jung, Abraham, Pfister, Rank, Jones, Riklin, Graf, Sadger.心理学空间4uq(K8|I7u

pzw O2~X,ioD3[014. Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse.Edited by A. Adler and W Stekel. J. Bergmann, Wiesbaden. Since Sept., 1910.

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