异常心理学术语表
作者: mints 编译 / 3863次阅读 时间: 2023年5月04日
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ABAB设计(逆向设计)ABAB (reversal) design 

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"La`#_.h9js-}0type of experimental design in which an intervention is introduced, withdrawn, and then reinstated, and the behavior of a participant is examined on and off the treatment心理学空间s&Ja\O \iI2P

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破堤效应 abstinence violation effect 心理学空间%IL"dc-Tti

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what happens when a person attempting to abstain from alcohol use ingests alcohol and then endures conflict and guilt by making an internal attribution to explain why he or she drank, thereby making him or her more likely to continue drinking in order to cope with the self-blame and guilt心理学空间|:V I$i#k3q

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急性应激障碍 acute stress disorder 心理学空间CNKr$@8SX

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disorder similar to post-traumatic stress disorder but occurs within 1 month of exposure to the stressor and does not last more than 4 weeks; often involves dissociative symptoms心理学空间d8op&AtFx

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适应障碍 adjustment disorder 心理学空间9}-[fk;?t$W'y%F0XV

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stress-related disorder that involves emotional and behavioral symptoms (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and/or antisocial behaviors) that arise within 3 months of the onset of a stressor

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*c._/lS!Y0青少年期起病品行障碍 adolescent-onset conduct disorder 

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a conduct disorder characterized by aggression, destructiveness, deceitfulness, and rules violation beginning after age 10

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领养研究 adoption study 

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;w.c F] {b ZIoPF'n0study of the heritability of a disorder by finding adopted people with a disorder and then determining the prevalence of the disorder among their biological and adoptive relatives, in order to separate out contributing genetic and environmental factors

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失认症 agnosia心理学空间]_$b B0zXk

_$vS"@D M0impaired ability to recognize objects or people心理学空间u5F%D [+i6I|0qv

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1cU5xs+kj"R0广场恐怖症 agoraphobia anxiety disorder 

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characterized by fear of places and situations in which it would be difficult to escape, such as enclosed places, open spaces, and crowds

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$\L E(AA'm0匿名戒酒者协会 Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) 

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an organization created by and for people with alcoholism involving a 12-step treatment program心理学空间@j {'A a!I9i7UL

-ees8hX[.|0美国法律学会规则 ALI rule 

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2kYF1A@l3R6O0legal principle stating that a person is not responsible for criminal conduct if he or she lacks the capacity to appreciate the criminality (wrongfulness) of the act or to conform his or her conduct to the requirements of the law as a result of mental disease

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x'R9Z?NdN`0非稳态负荷 allostatic load 心理学空间 d"ma8gG

,wPLPP9n;z0physiological condition resulting from chronic arousal of the fight-or-flight response to stress心理学空间:J~iC _

V8|5r2G&[y9~0利他型自杀 altruistic suicide

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 suicide committed by people who believe that taking their own life will benefit society

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阿尔茨海默病 Alzheimer’s disease 

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5e,Cye9Xzr`h0progressive neurological disease that is the most common cause of dementia

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闭经 amenorrhea 心理学空间_M.}/U4s%f8wE,}_({4T

'D;N1U1e3CZ4{6sm9{9J0cessation of the menses

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美国精神病学协会的精神病定义American Psychiatric Association definition of insanity 

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definition of insanity stating that people cannot be held responsible for their conduct if, at the time they commit crimes, as the result of mental disease or mental retardation they are unable to appreciate the wrongfulness of their conduct心理学空间.o/M(RUWp Q

5z*M8{m5E6p ?*Jt0遗忘症 amnesia 心理学空间 VY6{(G#e vmf

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impairment in the ability to learn new information or to recall previously learned information or past events心理学空间4J!mYF6e0WH

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苯丙胺类 amphetamines 

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stimulant drugs that can produce symptoms of euphoria, self-confidence, alertness, agitation, paranoia, perceptual illusions, and depression心理学空间f#qRNL.X?

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杏仁核 amygdala 

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T9J1IY-SH}U j0structure of the limbic system critical in emotions such as fear

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ev(A#nl0动物研究animal studies

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studies that attempt to test theories of psychopathology using animals

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动物型恐怖症animal-type phobias 

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-D*Ui9j)q5T'~0extreme fears of specific animals that may induce immediate and intense panic attacks and cause the individual to go to great lengths to avoid the animals

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:@3Z3VOe5n3hl R.j|0失范型自杀 anomic suicide 心理学空间%_&z8p)G3Qn2z4x6\n]

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suicide committed by people who experience a severe disorientation and role confusion because of a large change in their relationship to society

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)w#C` ~e{0神经性厌食症 anorexia nervosa心理学空间`,r aS#d.a dO5v%y

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eating disorder in which people fail to maintain body weights that are normal for their age and height and have fears of becoming fat, distorted body images, and amenorrhea

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对抗antagonism 

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hostility toward others

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拮抗剂 antagonist drugs 心理学空间^m&V8GtTS w

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drugs that block or change the effects of an addictive drug, reducing desire for the drug心理学空间!u,t A)^+pO'r4J

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顺行性遗忘 anterograde amnesia 

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{G.cutn#kH,U0deficit in the ability to learn new information

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Q0D:}0H}0]3?F0焦虑药antianxiety drugs 

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drugs used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and other psychological symptoms心理学空间1f Mbuh4?ec

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抗惊厥药anticonvulsants drugs 

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used to treat mania and depression心理学空间_#q f+L4LF

$hJVH a0抑郁药antidepressant drugs 心理学空间Bx0}Bz

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drugs used to treat the symptoms of depression, such as sad mood, negative thinking, and disturbances of sleep and appetite; common types are tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors心理学空间f&}v @?#w4J[7k7X/t

9pue#c Rh{:S0抗精神病药 antipsychotic drugs 心理学空间3~-G:I(DR$s+|$Iy

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drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking心理学空间&c d1l H3D#T0Z s

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反社会型人格障碍antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) 

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$Ls5Br }4`xQ N0pervasive pattern of criminal, impulsive, callous, and/or ruthless behavior, predicated on disregard for the rights of others and an absence of respect for social norms心理学空间_f7s+f(UB:Pm#]DJ

7r KA"t"| s C N&G7]5} jH0焦虑 anxiety 

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state of apprehension, tension, and worry

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焦虑敏感性 anxiety sensitivity 

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pk!Dhv&b sUS0belief that bodily symptoms have harmful consequences

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失语症 aphasia 心理学空间!L(v:r^9p*Xt

Ddru)_9](r0impaired ability to produce and comprehend language

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应用紧张技术applied tension technique心理学空间;X{;F"h`-J+co}J

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technique used to treat blood-injection-injury type phobias in which the therapist teaches the client to increase his or her blood pressure and heart rate, thus preventing the client from fainting心理学空间oBFVgi({6}

VlPf"\0失用症apraxia

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"T5i/P%z}e&N0 impaired ability to initiate common voluntary behaviors心理学空间B3J*nm5{+O)l Wn@

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唤起期 arousal phase 

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in the sexual response cycle, psychological experience of arousal and pleasure as well as physiological changes, such as the tensing of muscles and enlargement of blood vessels and tissues (also called the excitement phase)心理学空间 l~gh s~!zG%q

RE!j+]2O0主动性社区治疗计划 assertive community treatment programs 

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!r0JV)G!ONEk)a_a0system of treatment that provides comprehensive services to people with schizophrenia, employing the expertise of medical professionals, social workers, and psychologists to meet the variety of patients’ needs 24 hours a day心理学空间6~ `bACOH

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评估 assessment 心理学空间"M-`/w,{"?9^Gt"wn/o

o?0P6p$z_0process of gathering information about a person’s symptoms and their possible causes

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genetic studies in which researchers identify physical disorders associated with a target psychological disorder for which genetic abnormalities or markers are known; the DNA of individuals with the psychological disorder and their first-degree relatives is then examined to determine if they also have this genetic marker (one form of molecular genetic studies)

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注意缺陷/多动障碍 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 心理学空间h#^A)_g x9p

b lu AU J zWF0syndrome marked by deficits in controlling attention, inhibiting impulses, and organizing behavior to accomplish long-term goals心理学空间+\-B.fK7V"b%Y e"w

8a#NjI-Z'@h0非典型抗精神病药 atypical antipsychotics 心理学空间cppHf%suPw9z([

L Vu6E/D2Q0drugs that seem to be even more effective in treating schizophrenia than phenothiazines without the same neurological side effects; they bind to a different type of dopamine receptor than other neuroleptic drugs

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幻听 auditory hallucinations 

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auditory perceptions of a phenomenon that is not real, such as hearing a voice when one is alone心理学空间8h^6s&Xk$pd

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孤独症 autism 

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childhood disorder marked by deficits in social interaction (such as a lack of interest in one’s family or other children), communication (such as failing to modulate one’s voice to signify emotional expression), and activities and interests (such as engaging in bizarre, repetitive behaviors)

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孤独症谱系障碍 autism spectrum disorder 

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a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by disrupted social and language development (formerly referred to as autism)心理学空间a)cC'{-\

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厌恶疗法 aversion therapy 心理学空间-^ y7`mk;O4A

-YE^g O?8}i0treatment that involves the pairing of unpleasant stimuli with deviant or maladaptive sources of pleasure in order to induce an aversive reaction to the formerly pleasurable stimulus心理学空间@ G2i {O&u

;|v%k0J,M!l0回避型人格障碍avoidant personality disorder 心理学空间 ]E&X\/J*V"_Q

)eQE,gj,m[.W6o]ht0pervasive anxiety, sense of inadequacy, and fear of being criticized that lead to the avoidance of most social interactions with others and to restraint and nervousness in social interactions

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意志减退 avolition 

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-u:SQ2pM:f4f0inability to persist at common goal-directed activities

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aXkxJFA%PR0barbiturates drugs used to treat anxiety and insomnia that work by suppressing the central nervous system and decreasing the activity level of certain neurons

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d-|/Nk!{)g$|;DI0行为取向心理学空间%D^]U^y:R V

q U \_FW0behavioral approaches approaches to psychopathology that focus on the influence of reinforcements and punishments in producing behavior; the two core principles or processes of learning according to behaviorism are classical conditioning and operant conditioning心理学空间-u7k#Ep3I R

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行为抑制

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)w1yuN%jq)hL2c0behavioral inhibition set of behavioral traits including shyness, fearfulness, irritability, cautiousness, and introversion; behaviorally inhibited children tend to avoid or withdraw from novel situations, are clingy with parents, and become excessively aroused when exposed to unfamiliar situations心理学空间U^2BHa AQbj A

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行为观察

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w7LVG-V[d#pX0behavioral observation method for assessing the frequency of a client’s behaviors and the specific situations in which they occur

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抑郁的行为理论心理学空间9C/z5U[r6U"M(X0L9t

Q%u@3Rx1s0behavioral theories of depression theories that view depression as resulting from negative life events that represent a reduction in positive reinforcement; sympathetic responses to depressive behavior then serve as positive reinforcement for the depression itself心理学空间VLrJz}/R"[y!BQ

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行为治疗心理学空间7U/{&RHezD(M

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behavioral therapies psychotherapeutic approaches that focus on identifying the reinforcements and punishments contributing to a person’s maladaptive behaviors and on changing specific behaviors

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behavioral therapy therapy that focuses on changing a person’s specific behaviors by replacing unwanted behaviors with desired behaviors心理学空间8F)^'X I:MG"W i0V'H

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行为遗传学心理学空间%Y+pZ`m0Ve2~)ek2B

5| Kf'I e)w6|;~:S0behavior genetics study of the processes by which genes affect behavior and the extent to which personality and abnormality are genetically inherited

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行为主义

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X9ov7p*o9l|lk0behaviorism study of the impact of reinforcements and punishments on behavior

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苯二氮卓类心理学空间"fG2s|Qf

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benzodiazepines drugs that reduce anxiety and insomnia心理学空间8M9T6Z0Phu

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β-淀粉样蛋白

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beta-amyloid class of proteins that accumulates in the spaces between neurons in the brain, contributing to Alzheimer’s disease

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暴食障碍心理学空间R.R'gp\{I

*Fn4{%`SM D-pU0binge-eating disorder eating disorder in which people compulsively overeat either continuously or on discrete binges but do not behave in ways to compensate for the overeating

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暴食

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bingeing eating a large amount of food in one sitting心理学空间RmzFjL*r

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暴食/ 清除型神经性厌食症心理学空间'z[-OeD0ToD!g

wCRw R%e.A0J4|3R0binge/purge type of anorexia nervosa type of anorexia nervosa in which periodic bingeing or purging behaviors occur along with behaviors that meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa

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生物学取向

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biological approach view that biological factors cause and should be used to treat abnormality

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生物学理论心理学空间d9N'L+s K(qF"W

v!d;q#zR1z^"C0biological theories theories of abnormality that focus on biological causes of abnormal behaviors心理学空间1h\:D/OW2Y3ZP9^

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生物心理社会取向

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biopsychosocial approach approach to psychopathology that seeks to integrate biological, psychological, and social factors in understanding and treating psychopathology

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[6o{%\4B!~0双相障碍心理学空间V;[dHi`{\-d#S

/p/kF["@LY0bipolar disorder disorder marked by cycles between manic episodes and depressive episodes; also called manic-depression

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双相I型障碍

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bipolar I disorder form of bipolar disorder in which the full symptoms of mania are experienced; depressive aspects may be more infrequent or mild

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edT b"C-_}0双相Ⅱ型障碍心理学空间rj2N,iG,[)yK

ooQ3S mJ0bipolar II disorder form of bipolar disorder in which only hypomanic episodes are experienced and the depressive component is more pronounced

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vwt7Dd4]` ?5N*t0血液-注射-损伤型恐怖症心理学空间"]7cJ*L/G k1c!}

0z {UcxY x A0blood-injection-injury type phobias extreme fears of seeing blood or an injury or of receiving an injection or another invasive medical procedure, which cause a drop in heart rate and blood pressure and fainting心理学空间*{.{J-?ur

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躯体变形障碍心理学空间aI,^R C

M W5dd)F6Y1i%j0body dysmorphic disorder syndrome involving obsessive concern over a part of the body the individual believes is defective心理学空间yx0xc:gh0D

R"u2a4` Dd0边缘型人格障碍心理学空间'wgdMYw.T;w eB

2A8|.t3|;sPf0borderline personality disorder syndrome characterized by rapidly shifting and unstable mood, self-concept, and interpersonal relationships, as well as impulsive behavior and transient dissociative states

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-h ~4F3ZO Soi0与呼吸相关的睡眠障碍

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breathing-related sleep disorder group of sleep disorders characterized by numerous brief sleep disturbances due to problems breathing

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,d2V(I|2M"C*@0短暂精神病性障碍心理学空间/o-~ pn/U j

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brief psychotic disorder disorder characterized by the sudden onset of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior that lasts only between 1 day and 1 month, after which the symptoms vanish completely心理学空间\#Hnv@2Q7T

OJ'\7n5D1c[M0神经性贪食症心理学空间U@|%r)s k3|@x

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bulimia nervosa eating disorder in which people engage in bingeing and behave in ways to prevent weight gain from the binges, such as self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and abuse of purging drugs (such as laxatives)

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咖啡因心理学空间Z-V5qjS7n2O)d'O

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caffeine chemical compound with stimulant effects

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w/I#UJ\]@ ]5C0cannabis substance that causes feelings of well-being, perceptual distortions, and paranoid thinking

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个案研究(也译作案例研究)

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case studies in-depth analyses of individuals心理学空间)^Me(qy6EH/J9eg A1?

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cataplexy episodes of sudden loss of muscle tone lasting under 2 minutes, triggered by laughter or joking in people who have had narcolepsy for a long time

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紧张症心理学空间jK+n m@B$U

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catatonia group of disorganized behaviors that reflect an extreme lack of responsiveness to the outside world

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宣泄

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"{G ndq0catharsis expression of emotions connected to memories and conflicts, which, according to Freud, leads to the release of energy used to keep these memories in the unconscious心理学空间$QC5n.G| Y

e ~[Q~%GK+n(H0因果归因

9F7QYE/b? jNzOj0

"Hu*WNc/\k,M0causal attribution explanation for why an event occurred

er'Bs{5|!u,{)|*T]0心理学空间U?Q:Sw(FC2M;V]

中枢性睡眠呼吸暂停心理学空间Un%g vS"_S

心理学空间xRs0K9MWA(Y

central sleep apnea sleep disorder characterized by complete cessation of respiratory activity for brief periods of time (20 seconds or more); sufferers do not have frequent awakenings and do not tend to feel tired during the day; occurs when the brain does not send the signal to breathe to the respiratory system

N s6k~$zOGR0心理学空间'| G T;E7tmc\

大脑皮层心理学空间bC!W*K_$q]G

.kpH0w%D'R)` AN0cerebral cortex part of the brain that regulates complex activities, such as speech and analytical thinking

0u6n0nycH L.t3H2W0心理学空间`D!N9W2mj

脑血管疾病心理学空间Tr;x)q qVk(^

1p)kmk1xux0cerebrovascular disease disease that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked, causing tissue damage to the brain心理学空间T^v2zEN&m@9N

心理学空间 kos%zs5Krw.W]

儿童期起病品行障碍心理学空间_+}5Za7Y1Di'Z

心理学空间%G;`3f&CT:QS

childhood-onset conduct disorder a conduct disorder characterized by aggression, destructiveness, deceitfulness, and rules violation beginning before age 10 that tends to worsen with age心理学空间"~"`]1CU

5W-z Y2Y+l2^2~v u0氯丙嗪心理学空间U qc,f?bch

心理学空间{+A%M-x'`(L

chlorpromazine antipsychotic drug

d R$k3i'u0心理学空间?O-W]4k

长期运动或发声抽动障碍

P!|G&W:}U0

lt U+B2Xq:W0chronic motor or vocal tic disorder (CMVTD) a motor disorder characterized by persistent motor or vocal tics

'yf)]|?]kU0心理学空间c%G$zh2b&y'o

昼夜节律睡眠-觉醒障碍心理学空间5fhhwe3PU7P{

{8x/k+i^2|0circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder sleep disorder characterized by insomnia, excessive sleepiness, or both due to disruptions in circadian rhythms心理学空间\b"DG t]ct

心理学空间IV!i ^ @ L;pp%Bx%[F?

民事收容

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civil commitment forcing of a person into a mental health facility against his or her will心理学空间[,o*Eu ``B3y

心理学空间V-G,iH@;J

经典条件作用

p7Mya&ea}w H0

GKCf(j0classical conditioning form of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that naturally elicits a response, thereby making the neutral stimulus itself sufficient to elicit the same response心理学空间/RS,{4M0Y/SD _T#O/G

心理学空间1SZ} e$G)i$\

分类系统心理学空间5QX;g-@#]$` JTv

心理学空间4X%B?\HC

classification system set of syndromes and the rules for determining whether an individual’s symptoms are part of one of these syndromes

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C+uiJ;Y J!?wz0来访者中心疗法

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"OZ I0o wn/h$G~m{$o0client-centered therapy (CCT) Carl Rogers’s form of psychotherapy, which consists of an equal relationship between therapist and client as the client searches for his or her inner self, receiving unconditional positive regard and an empathic understanding from the therapist

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1tQ0\ `'S+_Y0可卡因

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cocaine central nervous system stimulant that causes a rush of positive feelings initially but that can lead to impulsiveness, agitation, and anxiety and can cause withdrawal symptoms of exhaustion and depression心理学空间0[ d o+R4TY bP H+B

7`1v,AP9yb"V0认知心理学空间%JwCQ$v)U

心理学空间z;x7k,| r(p2|

cognitions thoughts or beliefs

a4XrK:_%?;w/X0

#A8Z_#D k+M1pj0认知行为治疗(也译作认知行为疗法)心理学空间bU|+f#y

1Hj.|3iA)dL0cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment focused on changing negative patterns of thinking and solving concrete problems through brief sessions in which a therapist helps a client challenge negative thoughts, consider alternative perspectives, and take effective actions心理学空间JR3AJZ

心理学空间M7|^#@br

认知理论

f {0s&y*V:m4U)k&w"d0心理学空间#^ _Tyv8C'Q4It

cognitive theories theories that focus on belief systems and ways of thinking as the causes of abnormal behavior心理学空间 Amv HE%X-L1\j

心理学空间)x+X5c(^4[v \w$X.|E

认知治疗

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cognitive therapies therapeutic approaches that focus on changing people’s maladaptive thought patterns

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世代效应

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cohort effect effect that occurs when people born in one historical period are at different risk for a disorder than are people born in another historical period

m:{K&CZp,f0心理学空间 ]UY9d%f+O

集体无意识心理学空间d7d#g4RHD

心理学空间;hE |&l/x\`,@9ys

collective unconscious according to Carl Jung, the wisdom accumulated by a society over hundreds of years of human existence and stored in the memories of individuals心理学空间|&["?.Rt Z uqL+n"~8g

心理学空间}o!j`2v$k,AS

交流障碍心理学空间R!O5wU4nr

-W2g&Zl-C"Xo0communication disorders disorders characterized by persistent difficulties in the acquisition and use of language and other means of communicating

;X],L&cmOU0心理学空间4j4?9c;e6?(xvQw

社区精神卫生中心心理学空间.wl"~lP y z

心理学空间,c)anS)B9}9G4T

community mental health centers institutions for the treatment of people with mental health problems in the community; may include teams of social workers, therapists, and physicians who coordinate care

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;mu/{{ t9D0community mental health movement movement launched in 1963 that attempted to provide coordinated mental health services to people in community-based treatment centers心理学空间 b-uU"_ f)kK-l[\,a

{P-rAfC ]f0共病

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comorbidity meeting the criteria for two or more diagnostic categories simultaneously心理学空间 Q R D"cl-m

2Jv9pG{^8k0强迫行为

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compulsions repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels he or she must perform

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iM qY"i0计算机断层扫描心理学空间 x&x!kNre-O+de-R

心理学空间-h9o3T)cr Z(vm

computerized tomography (CT) method of analyzing brain structure by passing narrow X-ray beams through a person’s head from several angles to produce measurements from which a computer can construct an image of the brain

0SKJ1Hl0心理学空间3cI{L(o|&iU"d,z

同病率心理学空间"u7^_3U.Ktx

心理学空间r9FT Zp#@

concordance rate probability that both twins will develop a disorder if one twin has the disorder心理学空间"VmZ6n;{$KB7h Y"Q#K

心理学空间$I_,ZQh M#Xh

条件化回避反应

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conditioned avoidance response behavior that is reinforced because it allows individuals to avoid situations that cause anxiety

4ioogu}Q A0

;|0{^:j5Z1K\0条件反应心理学空间E5X/|\_#^9pV_4J

心理学空间1hf!WzD(q6w,c0}k

conditioned response (CR) in classical conditioning, response that first followed a natural stimulus but that now follows a conditioned stimulus心理学空间(R8y^@_;[8E^8p

心理学空间/F wP7TF6Z

条件刺激心理学空间2Q5H/_%Y$b%^t8bQ'l%d}w

Q'b.qD.D0conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical conditioning, previously neutral stimulus that, through pairing with a natural stimulus, becomes sufficient to elicit a response

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a@~X)MlY0品行障碍心理学空间#mT iX,{7i

;[K._(k&O C0conduct disorder syndrome marked by chronic disregard for the rights of others, including specific behaviors such as stealing, lying, and engaging in acts of violence

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wu Y!m!V jfbU0意识

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E&` s?if h#l4l0conscious refers to mental contents and processes of which we are actively aware心理学空间9Fs8G0R_ R YB0V

B;bY]Y/Z(A0连续变量心理学空间/lSl{X-s] i'{

vWx2gV k+B{0continuous variable factor that is measured along a continuum (such as 0–100) rather than falling into a discrete category (such as “diagnosed with depression”)心理学空间3V:k T:NX9rN

C3`&j.?lT0异常的连续谱模型(也译作异常的连续体模型)心理学空间1e+n+xopAK#_!L6e

.x8gf7j^l0continuum model of abnormality model of abnormality that views mental disorders not as categorically different from “normal” experiences but as lying somewhere along a continuum from healthy, functional behaviors, thoughts, and feelings to unhealthy, dysfunctional behaviors, thoughts, and feelings

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控制组(也译作对照组)心理学空间W t6q s:dS})OB6KL

@ X$L1d&U;Pyf(\9D!h0control group in an experimental study, group of subjects whose experience resembles that of the experimental group in all ways except that they do not receive the key manipulation心理学空间I ?K z r-Ig"@ h

nO4jB!|0转换障碍(功能性神经症状障碍)心理学空间#{:e9hZ;PD/ly:l&t

O nu`@Bh0conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) syndrome marked by a sudden loss of functioning in a part of the body, usually following an extreme psychological stressor心理学空间'I%C;]7cFdB

|+B:n-E YJ.\0冠心病心理学空间9gzi[(J.c

7\5a+@S.Rd/p%d+X0coronary heart disease (CHD) chronic illness that is a leading cause of death in the United States, occurring when the blood vessels that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients are narrowed or closed by plaque, resulting in a myocardial infarction (heart attack) when closed completely心理学空间9Ii A;kq,B [

心理学空间:nz+B HX v

相关研究心理学空间JZ\i'{#zKkU

心理学空间t!jit%NF7B4~d/V

correlational studies method in which researchers assess only the relationship between two variables and do not manipulate one variable to determine its effects on another variable

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相关系数心理学空间x s'?/}%dk

UW.~8m)y h'e0correlation coefficient statistic used to indicate the degree of relationship between two variables心理学空间JG*DC@*L6N"h

8W:ps3w[ rrL9qf"j0皮质醇心理学空间&ks-uN%F \E!J5L

oQ n.z4j Hi U1r0cortisol hormone that helps the body respond to stressors, inducing the fight-or-flight response心理学空间e%q#Qf%~7lK!^.\'{xaq

心理学空间T IZ(Ms SX fg

横断心理学空间n(}&O c#X`tD

心理学空间.y1z2i so&X;PH

cross-sectional type of research examining people at one point in time but not following them over time

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文化相对论心理学空间P&M4HW9{[

心理学空间E zG\4^2nT$N

cultural relativism view that norms among cultures set the standard for what counts as normal behavior, which implies that abnormal behavior can only be defined relative to these norms and that no universal definition of abnormality is therefore possible; only definitions of abnormality relative to a specific culture are possible心理学空间'X~ S6X B"|

心理学空间Ma |vJb

环性心境障碍心理学空间*@c5G:Z2n,{~

心理学空间*PS*]0K+q

cyclothymic disorder milder but more chronic form of bipolar disorder that consists of alternation between hypomanic episodes and mild depressive episodes over a period of at least 2 years

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7f;rC2G.Ju ]8~*X0dangerousness to others legal criterion for involuntary commitment that is met when a person would pose a threat or danger to other people if not incarcerated心理学空间T8FkI2ah2nF z

z8j^'i6}*\$f9| s%h'j.H0对本人的危险性心理学空间2Yn^ i*Q2FMC

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dangerousness to self legal criterion for involuntary commitment that is met when a person is imminently suicidal or a danger to him- or herself as judged by a mental health professional心理学空间C'G6OA_b k&V5l4f4Pd

心理学空间%JBEsi

日间护理中心

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yY4z }k!N;h Z1xZ0day treatment centers mental health facilities that allow people to obtain treatment, along with occupational and rehabilitative therapies, during the day but to live at home at night

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深部脑刺激

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deep brain stimulation procedure to treat depression in which electrodes are surgically implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a pulse generator that is placed under the skin and stimulates these brain areas

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9UF7x \9oX0防御机制

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defense mechanisms strategies the ego uses to disguise or transform unconscious wishes

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降解

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sB2]8D X3z^0degradation process in which a receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse, breaking down neurotransmitters into other biochemicals

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(l/s"u&OD#T~8dK9J0去机构化运动心理学空间Z-Ms4JMC7mEM

心理学空间GF,x-b(n9Rrq$^/mQ

deinstitutionalization movement in which thousands of mental patients were released from mental institutions; a result of the patients’ rights movement, which was aimed at stopping the dehumanization of mental patients and at restoring their basic legal rights心理学空间?p R*M.G+s;D6m7E+S

0PL!Bq B)x0X0延迟射精心理学空间m$\U|A(qi1s

Ka$oC$}%P0delayed ejaculation marked delay, infrequency, or absence of ejaculation during sexual encounters心理学空间vT^[;|bnSWo

心理学空间+s'I#e}d,D0| OnDn/\

谵妄心理学空间 \.WzT VjW5U

|{ _)d(PN2_%aO0delirium cognitive disorder including disorientation and memory loss that is acute and usually transient心理学空间 u7f)p0t p D4}0D

`2]| xYpk!O0震颤性谵妄

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G_/N.DP2@d_1B4\)@0delirium tremens (DTs) symptoms that result during severe alcohol withdrawal, including hallucinations, delusions, agitation, and disorientation

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妄想障碍心理学空间2ip K8and

:X'U[5m$A~ s0delusional disorder disorder characterized by delusions lasting at least 1 month regarding situations that occur in real life, such as being followed, poisoned, or deceived by a spouse or having a disease; people with this disorder do not show any other symptoms of schizophrenia心理学空间\]Q/UF;U

心理学空间 y+to(c/ehc

关系妄想心理学空间&q Ga(klT

Fe%k\Mn;C(jC0delusion of reference false belief that external events, such as other people’s actions or natural disasters, relate somehow to oneself心理学空间h | bh ~+C*B

心理学空间e @ Jy4b.^PV

妄想心理学空间+YitPUlz*o"T?

心理学空间+KX l$Bil)@

delusions fixed beliefs with no basis in reality心理学空间/kyTy(} l

H*ByP6D1FI {1}0思维插入妄想心理学空间\5L |k2I

5a;J iUMO$L,@0delusions of thought insertion beliefs that one’s thoughts are being controlled by outside forces

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需求特征

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Rz.r&P K#O;N0demand characteristics factors in an experiment that suggest to participants how the experimenter would like them to behave

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痴呆症心理学空间eU?q(x1s:o

心理学空间sA5[Z0X#GK?

dementia cognitive disorder in which a gradual and usually permanent decline of intellectual functioning occurs; can be caused by a medical condition, substance intoxication, or withdrawal

A!Z2H7R+P0

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1]'T @.K8[ R[0dependent variable factor that an experimenter seeks to predict心理学空间Ax CKxDV

3xe m8yOWv0人格解体/现实解体障碍

s1@&J1[ w8Y@G*P0心理学空间?!S#rw u:~ |%{

depersonalization/derealization disorder syndrome marked by frequent episodes of feeling detached from one’s own body and mental processes, as if one were an outside observer of oneself; symptoms must cause significant distress or interference with one’s ability to function

t[,qN @"o0心理学空间"ngr2akO_

抑制剂心理学空间e }.f}cpmSc

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depressants drugs that slow the nervous system心理学空间h)_Ia4mnW v v8M

i sAGS1h0抑郁

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depression state marked by either a sad mood or a loss of interest in one’s usual activities, as well as feelings of hopelessness, suicidal ideation, psychomotor agitation or retardation, and trouble concentrating

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vi4A7Z hc8] {s0抑郁障碍

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depressive disorders a set of disorders characterized by depressed mood and/or anhedonia (and not mania)心理学空间z+w%Q E1H9rXe4R

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心理学空间pw6MG b+C?$R

desensitization treatment used to reduce anxiety by rendering a previously threatening stimulus innocuous by repeated and guided exposure to the stimulus under nonthreatening circumstances心理学空间s&LC5DJU6Lm#@

Eh#E)j'?1UkQ w0分离

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心理学空间}a+eY ZR

developmental coordination disorder disorder involving deficits in the ability to walk, run, or hold on to objects心理学空间)S$dCvY

8i(s3b"bCPc0诊断心理学空间'Tw:J9mbQ1_yD0~

心理学空间8o a ~Kx)lY

diagnosis label given to a set of symptoms that tend to occur together心理学空间tm;KSG8N4X$\8P^

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心理学空间'q7\Ge5lI

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) official manual for diagnosing mental disorders in the United States, containing a list of specific criteria for each disorder, how long a person’s symptoms must be present to qualify for a diagnosis, and requirements that the symptoms interfere with daily functioning in order to be called disorders

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辩证行为疗法心理学空间)M8|~9L ~2w

tC7y0j(K}r,PW4n0dialectical behavior therapy cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at teaching problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, and skill at managing negative emotions心理学空间*p:P9[)ktr

心理学空间 [+Cs+X{-v#DsP

素质–应激模型心理学空间Y n4@?8@G!O

心理学空间a&dPVFS$kl2Zri

diathesis-stress model model that asserts that only when a diathesis or vulnerability interacts with a stress or trigger will a disorder emerge

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脱抑制

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GO\Y2gq[5a3v%S0disinhibition lack of restraint心理学空间YkO|X0MK

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xg{s*a5f0disorders of arousal sleep disorders that involve recurrent episodes of incomplete awakening from sleep that seem to mix elements of wakefulness and NREM sleep

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i"\ `E'z H\0破坏性心境失调障碍

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l*d+py&W1D0disruptive mood dysregulation disorder a disorder in children characterized by immature and inappropriate temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion to a situation in intensity and duration心理学空间G!O\o^&Mce-a

心理学空间 s3S0J b8_\

分离

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i4q8Ul'IW0dissociation process whereby different facets of an individual’s sense of self, memories, or consciousness become split off from one another

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+Y4[7S2Y:uI"U:g0分离性遗忘症心理学空间4c o7Ytb!GB

Z\^/@7g'm:ona0dissociative amnesia loss of memory for important facts about a person’s own life and personal identity, usually including the awareness of this memory loss心理学空间'I cOY2Bt JB%P

心理学空间%gcg!{e@

分离性漫游

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g?x0w a&\]9A9d0dissociative fugue disorder in which a person moves away and assumes a new identity, with amnesia for the previous identity

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分离性身份障碍

]#I@H!Y0心理学空间#~1Bo^1tiKZ

dissociative identity disorder (DID) syndrome in which a person develops more than one distinct identity or personality, each of which can have distinct facial and verbal expressions, gestures, interpersonal styles, attitudes, and even physiological responses心理学空间7_2B)y~"O

2T zpG&{cVI2m)vr:m0异卵双生子心理学空间,W}&v@3E/Mi

ZI e"G^ ` X ^ @f0dizygotic (DZ) twins twins who average only 50 percent of their genes in common because they developed from two separate fertilized eggs心理学空间;Z\%cC;Jc:zMS#c

F$Rg jEM0多巴胺心理学空间2e*a [(jx{

心理学空间QU)^ NM)jvK

dopamine neurotransmitter in the brain, excess amounts of which have been thought to cause schizophrenia心理学空间w!Gm2Y9n.PS

心理学空间([lN"g(V

双盲实验心理学空间1h[p)lMqg7P

4CoO0Et:i0double-blind experiment study in which both the researchers and the participants are unaware of which experimental condition the participants are in, in order to prevent demand effects

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Durham rule legal principle stating that the presence of a mental disorder is sufficient to absolve an individual of responsibility for a crime

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ZUn oi l0G0dysthymic disorder type of depression that is less acute than major depression but more chronic; diagnosis requires the presence of a sad mood or anhedonia, plus two other symptoms of depression, for at least 2 years, during which symptoms do not remit for 2 months or longer

z |c*rUc0

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E

S(M2]!Y"}0心理学空间GSrx e^

p\$t0?m8e+g0心理学空间3q:D,o!Zn'}[A

早泄心理学空间-G?6S7Fy }{iW

-pl(O(Fs4?Xz0early ejaculation recurrent ejaculation within 1 minute of initiation of partnered sexual activity when not desired心理学空间W1]f q!f*A

0k aA&xwr|R0未特定的进食障碍

Py*ak1Yc/j/y+D0

#ls(jF"gm0eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS)心理学空间-eXw w P4g#`RS

%WJ6q)q$e W0diagnosis for individuals who have some symptoms of anorexia or bulimia nervosa but do not meet the full criteria心理学空间5~n;JKjY;g$B

心理学空间!I1V0z Zl _

言语模仿症

1ex.G5u8B0心理学空间)VC4}? w

echolalia communication abnormality in which an individual simply repeats back what he or she hears rather than generating his or her own speech心理学空间+V6x4x^({Xx(v0S^

~aT3S5{0有效性心理学空间[a cG1?%]`0G+k2BX-{

\PlGhbG-z_0effectiveness in therapy outcome research, how well a therapy works in real-world settings心理学空间6L ~?@+E#F _t0oo*|

心理学空间*iDJMI*T-bw/d'g

效力心理学空间1O A\ m'[ o3eG6c3L%\ O4r

心理学空间#i:Y{.p rQR,s

efficacy in therapy outcome research, how well a therapy works in highly controlled settings with a narrowly defined group of people

/Ec$@I8pN0心理学空间(dY']Q(gZ

自我

i"G6|?ku0

$lMS }@f+T'Zb$QhNH0ego part of the psyche that channels libido to be acceptable to the superego and within the constraints of reality

Y]+k _9j T0

u x#g{J7Gn0利己型自杀

j)uu/|(y.w0

Y;u~?"Ud5Q0egoistic suicide suicide committed by people who feel alienated from others and who lack social support

J d:J"w2?}B0心理学空间1['u~9sd8Z(}8H)y

自我心理学

:C2} d p:Rd;Hqa0

Ts[ y%D"rG0ego psychology branch of psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of the individual’s ability to regulate defenses in ways that allow healthy functioning within the realities of society

~#t&_IcS0心理学空间$fz!HNo O7b

电休克治疗(也译作电痉挛治疗、电抽搐治疗)

;W KWq'd+C)\5ZC0

]}g&m4aO3s?0electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatment for depression that involves the induction of a brain seizure by passing electrical current through the patient’s brain while he or she is anesthetized心理学空间/prZW INp`

-N%P1k:n0Tz%Fzdm0脑电图心理学空间9k`^yLQ

1h:B1t c2j K@&X R0electroencephalogram (EEG) procedure in which multiple electrodes are placed on the scalp to detect low-voltage electrical current produced by the firing of specific neurons in the brain心理学空间D#KVJ X&_ aD

#{Z)pd4Q4R-}S0排泄障碍心理学空间2Qla~DK1wR

8@N_7K8d9Q-m:zX0elimination disorders disorders in which a child shows frequent, uncontrolled urination or defecation far beyond the age at which children usually develop control over these functions

HOY$O G0

@l%F ` m%h2Y0内分泌系统

8l-Vv maV0心理学空间R)t/RQ u3Cm&?,w

endocrine system system of glands that produces many different hormones心理学空间0E,m$m2ciE~(dN+NT*o

\x(T^/a$?4FD6|0流行病学心理学空间)a*IP ^K-Nm,J

d&|5|QK3yyH0epidemiology study of the frequency and distribution of a disorder, or a group of disorders, in a population

3pElA ?VVh+u9N x%G0

b8eh@,L2p0表观遗传学

p&J A/G!g2d0心理学空间hHS1`AI'l

epigenetics study of how environmental conditions can change the expression of genes without changing the gene sequence心理学空间(d/N G%\G

]s0s6rDC0勃起障碍

0o B&t/W?9o0心理学空间5|!Pv/n Z:uJ J*v

erectile disorder in men, recurrent inability to attain or maintain an erection until the completion of sexual activity心理学空间0|m.?"kAa

心理学空间%J/R ] Y+},KeQx

寻求反复确认心理学空间 n6K[\ NN

心理学空间}*?CS:?S

excessive reassurance seeking constantly looking for assurances from others that one is accepted and loved

4v \@6jM$U$z0心理学空间$kia'kuo

执行功能心理学空间8P,Z'm!e7i,](A

心理学空间9`A'w6NGX~

executive functions functions of the brain that involve the ability to sustain concentration; use abstract reasoning and concept formation; anticipate, plan, and program; initiate purposeful behavior; self-monitor; and shift from maladaptive patterns of behavior to more adaptive ones心理学空间(D(L/W i} T,r

gB#e oG'wf:iV0露阴障碍心理学空间8@+xP#t'g8O&H%b1Q

\)q gh'B'D p'mc0exhibitionist disorder obtainment of sexual gratification by exposing one’s genitals to involuntary observers心理学空间0N,i6l!M8e/r C.l@5s

Dl*E(gOaRc C0实验组心理学空间2|y+PT'V.k!~'uv f

心理学空间$[F*W6m.s

experimental group in an experimental study, group of participants that receive the key manipulation心理学空间.UO7h(CdQ+E K"|

kW6H?D2YU P6OL&x'b0实验研究心理学空间zj^,U%?;yS

!gm u9ux8H#@f0experimental studies studies in which the independent variables are directly manipulated and the effects on the dependent variable are examined心理学空间dM.A:M[

心理学空间3P|s.DT'R0F*l

暴露与反应阻止疗法心理学空间?&dWT$R9n Y:xa

心理学空间riPQN#{#J"G

exposure and response prevention type of therapy in which individuals with anxiety symptoms are exposed repeatedly to the focus of their anxiety but prevented from avoiding it or engaging in compulsive responses to the anxiety心理学空间7|0R0h)M4c Z U8hISs

心理学空间 JZ}Z?#`u

情绪表达心理学空间{"J!o6tU X\ g

心理学空间|;SH$M ZO

expressed emotion family interaction style in which families are over-involved with each other, are overprotective of the disturbed family member, voice self-sacrificing attitudes to the disturbed family member, and simultaneously are critical, hostile, and resentful of this member心理学空间6M,G(l c2p!z2_:`.AW

d~`Gd Zd)hu6j!W0外部效度心理学空间6u(fT2hyP

5vT V`4h V)?8U0external validity extent to which a study’s results can be generalized to phenomena in real life心理学空间} iCq9u^ z2i&@

心理学空间a8Otqa

me$J*D[/X0

U k.CD}h F;|1L0

Y.I-ZFCH0

4_:M3d:n|ch0F

k_ W J'mqe&K0

P.zW n,UG\)nz#[0

1c&ZS;`-CQL[0心理学空间E'|,yG.~0_

做作性障碍

O oG(xtYA0

$vLv%_U3l3b7bQ C0factitious disorder disorder marked by deliberately faking physical or mental illness to gain medical attention

;G:RX Xw,L9[:?9i0心理学空间'[4r p3g3ON-f

对他人的做作性障碍

*~C*xe;kJ0

^#u;qOA }f`F0w0factitious disorder imposed on another disorder in which the individual creates an illness in another individual in order to gain attention

"{eknv_d0心理学空间 o2N+jZ g H0A

家庭焦点疗法心理学空间Ae w/`"v

心理学空间3H4Q if'XzY

family-focused therapy treatment for people with心理学空间1Sq#Q&l6[5\

zu DW-E0bipolar disorder in which patients and their families are given education about bipolar disorder and心理学空间2UBL9W"r%h+sy

心理学空间}HWt3L LAB&J#R

training in communication and problem-solving skills

'a.w^f~Qp0

Y] C ~ QL0家族史研究

|DlXaOl)B0心理学空间C\}qW

family history study study of the heritability of a disorder involving identifying people with the disorder and people without the disorder and then determining the disorder’s frequency within each person’s family心理学空间/P-It9j]$[X6H

brM1B6QZ'h@^ @0家庭系统理论心理学空间W#wCm R V

心理学空间 as(^*xe6h'Mx

family systems theories theories that see the family as a complex system that works to maintain the status quo心理学空间#C3_4^0u5`i

\ L6Od3h9O.Y:Jn!b0家庭系统治疗心理学空间.Aw%L8xz3\1D

B U j_of0family systems therapy psychotherapy that focuses on the family, rather than the individual, as the source of problems; family therapists challenge communication styles, disrupt pathological family dynamics, and challenge defensive conceptions in order to harmonize relationships among all members and within each member心理学空间 ? m Ka-Y8B\9G

W1ue [K0女性性高潮障碍心理学空间T0\8?"s5oe

0Qke-jm-lI x }7\*}0female orgasmic disorder in women, recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm after having reached the excitement phase of the sexual response cycle (also called anorgasmia)心理学空间.JH2_Fo)Y{ ?

心理学空间!o?y I0x@I6Hk

女性性兴趣/唤起障碍

+qvKK9oe.j vl0

`,m7q6K#NP0female sexual interest/arousal disorder in women, recurrent inability to attain or maintain the swelling-lubrication response of sexual excitement心理学空间-S^(l~,hbS2|? D0f

9E~AL~(]"b;FI!Zy0胎儿酒精综合征心理学空间g#Q m0ui

&P$Pa j(x-a:uE"f0fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) syndrome that occurs when a mother abuses alcohol during pregnancy, causing the baby to have lowered IQ, increased risk for mental retardation, distractibility, and difficulties with learning from experience

7w2P~J.xw0

WZ HG6jv P5[-Z`8}0恋物障碍

Q$^s&m]0

]dE4t#O7OK2X.u0fetishistic disorder paraphilic disorder in which a person uses inanimate objects as the preferred or exclusive source of sexual arousal心理学空间)B {7~O(P

-Qx8~h/SD6q0战斗或逃跑反应心理学空间,Cx&S1CQJ?n]D

l L6`~9c*B0fight-or-flight response physiological changes in the human body that occur in response to a perceived threat, including the secretion of glucose, endorphins, and hormones as well as the elevation of heart rate, metabolism, blood pressure, breathing, and muscle tension心理学空间0@K'Q4v x

心理学空间5FZSQf.Fw"W-\

满灌

V9j'V+e,XJBP+t#RR0心理学空间3z"w%l-p)n{

flooding behavioral technique in which a client is intensively exposed to a feared object until the anxiety diminishes (also called implosive therapy)心理学空间2Y/\NEZb {_'TI,x8S

心理学空间 W;K1V3m$xz

民间疾病

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kD4R*~*iT7f8d4p0folk illnesses problems held by a particular culture to be caused by natural forces, supernatural forces, and strong emotions, etc.心理学空间 mE9oW7oCHe+^

cDs-O5X/@O&T(t0思维形式障碍心理学空间.GZL*T Q9D _

lv3u,K |0formal thought disorder state of highly disorganized thinking (also known as loosening of associations)

.}3a:b^;`_0心理学空间[9V7n:w ]

自由联想

E&C3^?7H8y#g%MgC})cj0心理学空间^uw+Nb.?M'Q'h

free association method of uncovering unconscious conflicts in which the client is taught to talk about whatever comes to mind, without censoring any thoughts心理学空间7A,sK-p[s*K"E

xk}3w `iW0摩擦障碍

dY4Mhhe2F%wJ0心理学空间0dN w"b b/?(^d

frotteuristic disorder disorder characterized by obtainment of sexual gratification by rubbing one’s genitals against or fondling the body parts of a nonconsenting person心理学空间'K-f#F$T5fDm*M

3tO8KcHa6LA0

0q8si4B&JT G-sI0心理学空间 ];]~M"h'~^X9O#f

心理学空间"O+{.B:r&C @"G

心理学空间-@~9bW#h1C|:i

G心理学空间pn+Cv6Pb E-y

m(Kk,mIvN0心理学空间6D]-dC0uA?

&W L5U[6J^r'UL0赌博障碍心理学空间B0]_aLGh

_}4?v%BVu0gambling disorder a disorder, similar to substance abuse, characterized by the inability to resist the impulse to gamble

+n/wLi8R K8N#Q0心理学空间CgO uF m

性别烦躁

+i8j zl!W2A%N$W0

|!R%B(GVpR QQ0gender dysphoria condition in which a person believes that he or she was born with the wrong sex’s genitals and is fundamentally a person of the opposite sex

e(c-^1q&o0心理学空间e%c Z3^ dwD@&Z.g

性别认同

dHt|&@ k0

8K| A^,yo;d0gender identity one’s perception of oneself as male or female心理学空间0{"]8]2H8{+n

心理学空间3L-N9`G2NZ`C&p7\c%_

可推广性(也译作普遍性)

~'`2wdF9iV1A B0

E*aq]T3E2Yo0generalizability extent to which the results of a study generalize to, or inform us about, people other than those who were studied心理学空间BD*K(]-SS.r `5T

心理学空间+u4h }H1jG

生殖器-盆腔痛/插入障碍心理学空间"|RG6S$}D{%j

心理学空间:I(fg+l"_N SBJ U

genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder marked difficulty having vaginal penetration; pain or tightening of pelvic floor muscles during penetration心理学空间A7[t ~+c%x1_$j,|f X

+M$tMI Q4qhS`A]0广泛性焦虑障碍心理学空间C#u2QB8PCH

I2q-m ~Xv!c/BAS0generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) anxiety disorder characterized by chronic anxiety in daily life

w tW#x*T.E7i6KP)\)F0心理学空间 z%L \)^l#i4fA

麻痹性痴呆

h Jd3EN0

zS8M9u)iW qy0general paresis disease that leads to paralysis, insanity, and eventually death; discovery of this disease helped establish a connection between biological diseases and mental disorders

t'Mq(R-pUwU0心理学空间Pg/I$~8xa"_

整体性假定

0rK{FIRhO-]*{ O0

z`v%oB(jG?&ifJ0global assumptions fundamental beliefs that encompass all types of situations心理学空间I1Q$bH4LP8?}

2^K$wXt~J1W._6l0夸大妄想心理学空间$KF:w1m7Am`UIb k

z U6Esrz0grandiose delusions false, persistent beliefs that one has superior talents and traits

2Nu:KUF.g4R ~0

v;]gVbqJ0严重失能心理学空间/@^E~t9c X

D7yKOk0grave disability legal criterion for involuntary commitment that is met when a person is so incapacitated by a mental disorder that he or she cannot provide his or her own basic needs, such as food, clothing, or shelter, and his or her survival is threatened as a result

.G0E"D7w bS0心理学空间#W$b Q)PhHl

对照组研究

IcA,\4d i8oC0心理学空间U[4q%J}3R

group comparison study study that compares two or more distinct groups on a variable of interest心理学空间4gv1CjcC'V i)v/t_#j

%AMI.S Q!n8]$T.O0指导掌握技术心理学空间 O*X$f'ov

8lH ]:LO0guided mastery techniques interventions designed to increase health-promoting behaviors by providing explicit information about how to engage in these behaviors, as well as opportunities to engage in the behaviors in increasingly challenging situations心理学空间!j$R@4~XWGOO M

心理学空间)Dhz1q7Ji'kq)Q

有罪但患有精神病心理学空间O7Sx'\M

心理学空间C1y&W(]v"k B~1I

guilty but mentally ill (GBMI) verdict that requires a convicted criminal to serve the full sentence designated for his or her crime, with the expectation that he or she will also receive treatment for mental illness

A"J!K3ADP3g0心理学空间JD-~e&UG^k,A

心理学空间Wy#Y7ZR9RW!o

G"yZB`(l@0

*EQq?&Wk4fDy$t0

Z`Ij A Eb(a+r0H

7ed g5kW)WKM0心理学空间|]\l)lG2I7T-PSN5]9Y

心理学空间IDa4gS Y?:L3K

心理学空间K;u1c2`^]5I+t

拔毛障碍

FI0F2o#h0心理学空间#I/hFG0Q2g

hair-pulling disorder disorder characterized by recurrent pulling out of the hair resulting in noticeable hair loss; these individuals report tension immediately before or while attempting to resist the impulse, and pleasure or relief when they are pulling out their hair (also known as trichotillomania)心理学空间 Y0]!{I)m#z

心理学空间d |.p$zSV s)B

中途之家心理学空间%]'C g!X T7D`3[-H

0r"@3l+fFkS TF0halfway houses living facilities that offer people with long-term mental health problems the opportunity to live in a structured, supportive environment while they are trying to reestablish employment and ties to family and friends心理学空间 Y:d sf_*Za.k

,u+\8|F*o0{0幻觉心理学空间8W lX/F6Q

心理学空间 r&j,SO]Rf

hallucinations perceptual experiences that are not real

1w KlV0^0心理学空间E'j9U0y2aJcT

致幻剂心理学空间[%L&\Q.C^3I0U-a

心理学空间"Ih6SSg _A qw!R!u

hallucinogens substances, including LSD and MDMA (ecstasy), that produce perceptual illusions and distortions even in small doses

|9hqUI0心理学空间,c%JkV*O_T sGe] g

伤害减少模型心理学空间[l$H4C(t

)hsf"Wkj'N2b0harm reduction model approach to treating substance use disorders that views alcohol use as normative behavior and focuses education on the immediate risks of the excessive use of alcohol (such as alcohol-related accidents) and on the payoffs of moderation (such as avoidance of hangovers)心理学空间Ya+@-Vz

心理学空间Jl:h l1NE/] W.p,X

海马

1N1r9{1I5Lq0心理学空间 k Q5K qlw \O

hippocampus structure of the brain involved in memory and in the stress response心理学空间3l0K3K6r8s]x&p0J

心理学空间A'n?!pER.I4w

囤积障碍

Z;yJ `lM0心理学空间8OltCJ#B L_Ch

hoarding a compulsive disorder characterized by the inability to throw away unneeded possessions (such as trash)

oA p5Ni}0

%z0Eo*E\0无望感

VgU&t[0

]4c1Z A0AZ!r(Fy0hopelessness sense that the future is bleak and there is no way to make it more positive心理学空间c*G0s!f%q[%}

S;adTK@+g0激素

Cu Ae O b0心理学空间 ekX|~f|p,i

hormone chemical that carries messages throughout the body, potentially affecting a person’s mood, level of energy, and reaction to stress心理学空间"BIft1Z1D

心理学空间xs@6eZ

人本主义理论

/Nu_-uX4C,R.h2om1g0

&N0is5}Iy H ?0humanistic theories views that people strive to develop their innate potential for goodness and self-actualization; abnormality arises as a result of societal pressures to conform to unchosen dictates that clash with a person’s self-actualization needs and from an inability to satisfy more basic needs, such as hunger心理学空间 ?6| c5n{

o^x ~;h U)AK0人本主义治疗

D y| ~%wO0

DX+`3? ^VWl0humanistic therapy type of therapy in which the goal is to help the client discover his or her place in the world and to accomplish self-actualization through self-exploration; based on the assumption that the natural tendency for humans is toward growth (also called person-centered therapy)心理学空间"o kE8G2fTN

u6]Dv;h.W4j GI#Hx U0人类实验室研究心理学空间-|`bM&{b_-I

心理学空间8i4KxR#hZ.xC$xK

human laboratory study experimental study involving human participants

x$FOu3K)}'U4oT-T|3q0心理学空间 J!wfQ&n

嗜睡障碍心理学空间(bHr,Z#['v

E2N]+c^q m/n5D~0hypersomnolence disorders disorders characterized by excessive sleepiness, which can be expressed as either an excessive quantity of sleep (also referred to as hypersomnia) or a low quality of wakefulness

ddJ5p4k? Z0心理学空间/|p6Q0NBd7q5lW)z o

高血压心理学空间{ z \n;M|

(Y"q1oqL1zcb0C(x0hypertension condition in which the blood supply through the blood vessels is excessive and can lead to deterioration of the cell tissue and hardening of the arterial walls

p_ S/e3X%U N&]f0心理学空间 OROu]

轻躁狂

)^VzM:}u%t a2W0心理学空间P3PMKP%@aQB_

hypomania state in which an individual shows mild symptoms of mania心理学空间-yUB @^

心理学空间A E j+OxiC

下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴(HPA轴)

K}M!N4[(_A-|6o0心理学空间3^*~~+z:F'b6iH0Z

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) three key components of the neuroendocrine system that work together in a feedback system interconnected with the limbic system and the cerebral cortex

'F|(A:V.x\v0心理学空间Swhh'}0|'N

下丘脑

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hypothalamus component of the brain that regulates eating, drinking, sex, and basic emotions; abnormal behaviors involving any of these activities may be the result of dysfunction in the hypothalamus

j1\K!M wt%r cH0心理学空间L+NLSU&l"?

假设心理学空间_N BW&H0B6G? ~W:r*M

w}1k fv0fE,S0hypothesis testable statement about two or more variables and the relationship between them心理学空间\9Kk I#l&A0Q)y

F&JMP b?0

mUom9f1r0心理学空间 ^;RG'o&O[,`2H

2|N+{$CF0心理学空间"ZTj Yu G(s5TL

I

^ xeMz z0^9ZNm0心理学空间R5N2n6Q'i8^&}O$q

{ g3S Rq] Cl`R lR7q0

3H8Wb!wU6r:v_$F0本我心理学空间dG ?7^$~&W

+h7w$d^ K0id according to Freud, most primitive part of the unconscious; consists of drives and impulses seeking immediate gratification心理学空间!osYr0aV t

心理学空间lwqb&w5R)l|6?C

疾病焦虑障碍心理学空间6J?s3P5i ? L5WI1w

心理学空间QSY;_v e;i0}

illness anxiety disorder a form of anxiety characterized by a preoccupation with fears of having a serious medical illness based on misinterpretations of bodily sensations (formerly called hypochondriasis)心理学空间4pk/mOsGx@[ K

心理学空间Jk[ua!c]h

免疫系统

:YC5_9g)h0

"b}G0YY%Y;A0immune system system that protects the body from disease-causing microorganisms and affects susceptibility to diseases心理学空间M*] dm2q]-@ {[2Y

I RV.?_h4ds'@(^W9J2n;]0冲动性心理学空间U0m{_~:KY(]

2J7|1C)NV%DW0impulsivity difficulty controlling behaviors; acting without thinking first

U,v?Sj0心理学空间5IGj.R'Q

发病率心理学空间 p[ ee3I[

[.rF3D|v0incidence number of new cases of a specific disorder that develop during a specific period of time

s'q"V7wP)dJ0

]Nu,T(V"^t-t0无受审能力

2~~O.x'p,\9X0

1x2o,J ZgVg-t0incompetent to stand trial legal status of an individual who lacks a rational understanding of the charges against him or her, an understanding of the proceedings of his or her trial, or the ability to participate in his or her defense

'hlsz6w-aB)yHb0心理学空间.Y Fw6Ii\A2Y

自变量

il/?j?XL9y0

#BS;S k-d9o"UJ0independent variable factor that is manipulated by an experimenter or used to predict the dependent variable心理学空间b1JWu+`A,e,N-K8Yu

心理学空间.kzMnd V k

知情同意

0Yu;oUc(Jn7C C&L0心理学空间s \D ` CS a,X b`,}

informed consent procedure (often legally required prior to treatment administration) in which a patient receives a full and understandable explanation of the treatment being offered and makes a decision about whether to accept or refuse the treatment心理学空间{e,i.eO

心理学空间;Vz p qRI,j

吸入剂心理学空间'C(pL*yhj6Qh8x$q_

心理学空间L b J5W6VU"bza

inhalants solvents, such as gasoline, glue, or paint thinner, that one inhales to produce a high and that can cause permanent central nervous system damage as well as liver and kidney disease心理学空间t8M:u8Y:dv)m

心理学空间0]:G5E OR0m

精神病心理学空间6ix _wl-kS|

心理学空间|7X3g(N rT-U.\

insanity legal term denoting a state of mental incapacitation during the time a crime was committed心理学空间uO+IEV.zSl

心理学空间rTyT l,|6]B;F

精神病辩护(也译作精神失常辩护)心理学空间x7kh,K {9\ }

心理学空间 IQ(USWfv

insanity defense defense used by people accused of a crime in which they state that they cannot be held responsible for their illegal acts because they were mentally incapacitated at the time of the act

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P8Ym8g A5Y/?0精神病辩护改革法案

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9@:C&kc+w&VO0Insanity Defense Reform Act 1984 law, affecting all federal courts and about half the state courts, that finds a person not guilty by reason of insanity if it is shown that, as a result of mental disease or mental retardation, the accused was unable to appreciate the wrongfulness of his or her conduct at the time of the offense心理学空间M3~8\!TT3yV

心理学空间&pv]L+h+i6v'P f

失眠障碍心理学空间;UW {!L3_l1W m

心理学空间P Bv:J@.n-F}3|

insomnia disorder a disorder characterized by chronic difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or by sleep that does not restore energy and alertness心理学空间zMK eh$D0yU

Hy8k8{MJV V0智力发育障碍

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{ja2q.w0intellectual development disorder a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired general intellectual functioning (formerly referred to as mental retardation)心理学空间8ii![M;w`:o[

9q\^} C5Ha0智力测验心理学空间0H/X7_/lG?*@evFk5Ob

D FSWh'mH@#U:w8U0intelligence tests tests that assess a person’s intellectual strengths and weaknesses

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H qb`P0间歇性暴怒障碍

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t9fJ%hv"x0intermittent explosive disorder disorder characterized by (a) several episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property, (b) a degree of aggressiveness grossly out of proportion to the situation, and (c) symptoms not better explained by another mental disorder (such as antisocial personality disorder), the effects of substances, or a medical condition (e.g., a head trauma)

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do+N2{0h$~*R0内部效度心理学空间(R Mz!I&?rPw

心理学空间&h"u!?nB-^

internal validity extent to which all factors that could extraneously affect a study’s results are controlled within a laboratory study

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"G#cg}4B%Jc(k#~0e0内感受知觉

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W-o JZIq0interoceptive awareness sensitivity to stimuli arising from within the body, such as heart rate

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H!Y1I\ @ MR0内感受条件作用

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Qe1p^[1BC0interoceptive conditioning process by which symptoms of anxiety that have preceded panic attacks become the signals for new panic attacks

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人际和社会节奏疗法

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i.E,o0qz `-W,p F'b0interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (ISRT) treatment for people with bipolar disorder that helps them manage their social relationships and daily rhythms to try to prevent relapse心理学空间5na C E'\4l @g4C@ ^

B,^}rQ"P%[0抑郁的人际理论

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j~r.FJ:s0interpersonal theories of depression theories that view the causes of depression as rooted in interpersonal relationships

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人际治疗

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interpersonal therapy (IPT) more structured, short-term version of psychodynamic therapies心理学空间Cz_ Cm5^ r

心理学空间-?5Uo R_-D6J'r

不能控制规则心理学空间fG-s:N q

心理学空间wKu Ss

irresistible impulse rule legal principle stating that even a person who knowingly performs a wrongful act can be absolved of responsibility if he or she was driven by an irresistible impulse to perform the act or had a diminished capacity to resist performing the act

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心理学空间k)R]U~ ^may

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$p(ueqPV0语言障碍心理学空间3Si rf%E[|/NY

s*Wa"||/J'B0language disorder a communication disorder characterized by difficulties with spoken and written language and other language modalities (e.g., sign language)

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v!R8W1O j%Icd0习得性无助理论

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learned helplessness theory view that exposure to uncontrollable negative events leads to a belief in one’s inability to control important outcomes and a subsequent loss of motivation, indecisiveness, and failure of action心理学空间W/vlrs.U2f

S N,V&_pm*DHa^0力比多心理学空间8l*w9[;^N@[

G-A f+p5YPJ0libido according to Freud, psychical energy derived from physiological drives

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终身持续性反社会行为心理学空间q&`[PD:\"k;mB M

心理学空间 I9NWK/y7e"?AD m)m(e

life-course-persistent antisocial behavior a form of conduct disorder involving aggression, destructiveness, deceitfulness, and rules violation that persists into adulthood

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光疗法

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light therapy treatment for seasonal affective disorder that involves exposure to bright lights during the winter months

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9fiz v,M/H&s0边缘系统心理学空间z_G6Q,c

j)Q2D:RZ ^9]A M0limbic system part of the brain that relays information from the primitive brain stem about changes in bodily functions to the cortex, where the information is interpreted心理学空间1cWH$R'B7Fo

心理学空间+[y"\$MW+V-e

连锁分析

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8v[d9B/q;j.i3O"|tO0linkage analysis genetic study that looks for associations between psychological disorders and physical disorders for which genetic causes are known心理学空间Dk d*Z'B)c5MAw(]

9IW!D0gI/g'@0

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lithium drug used to treat manic and depressive symptoms

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-{X9E6{ Zm7Rr0\P&P0蓝斑

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p{(v2ie$~0locus ceruleus area of the brain stem that plays a part in the emergency response and may be involved in panic attacks心理学空间t#k7D_$Lb

心理学空间+wz&s}I+j

纵向心理学空间$Am,j*PlQg%?+Q_*~

`n0zn8C[0longitudinal type of research evaluating the same group(s) of people for an extended period of time

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心理学空间SdP l!}?/\

'V3S)V3t\&kO)HX+]0心理学空间$t5K%^%n,vDoeo

心理学空间La v6a4UI

M心理学空间 kw2G6z_;i

心理学空间3Q(s)n(w5lV2_7a

心理学空间s8Y4GCk?!Y&k8K

心理学空间-N0a'uM-y0[

磁共振成像

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*Hifm+i ` M0magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method of measuring both brain structure and brain function through the construction of a magnetic field that affects hydrogen atoms in the brain, emitting signals that a computer then records and uses to produce a three-dimensional image of the brain心理学空间}SbndUK;Y,h

:O(aEu1Z Q0抑郁症(重性抑郁障碍)

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0e0j1}$GPC0major depressive disorder disorder involving a sad mood or anhedonia plus four or more of the following symptoms: weight loss or a decrease in appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or severe guilt, trouble concentrating, and suicidal ideation; these symptoms must be present for at least 2 weeks and must produce marked impairments in normal functioning心理学空间\ST*^?ew*F#m

心理学空间#R@~~G

重度神经认知障碍心理学空间1GdlXV)|O2w

心理学空间-z w$D7c;f,K6u6c

major neurocognitive disorder a brain disorder characterized by a deteriorating course of deficits in neurocognitive functioning (e.g., memory, attention) that interferes significantly with independent living

M\K0E [%E0心理学空间.HeL|$r3Pt

男性性欲低下障碍心理学空间OG&l%E3Hm]5?$j.n

心理学空间!czY'T%jb?-Ko/b0O+w

male hypoactive sexual desire disorder condition in which a man’s desire for sex is diminished to the point that it causes him significant distress or interpersonal difficulties and is not due to transient life circumstances or another sexual dysfunction

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6?UgoJ~%Fo0诈病

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3K8nlt[2F6V0malingering feigning of a symptom or a disorder for the purpose of avoiding an unwanted situation, such as military service

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管理型医疗保健心理学空间R$S3}ms[

,]&m5eNhSf:]0managed care health care system in which all necessary services for an individual patient are supposed to be coordinated by a primary care provider; the goals are to coordinate services for an existing medical problem and to prevent future medical problems心理学空间_Aq{.o!Vp(m/\t

心理学空间 H(mB{h1R ~E

躁狂心理学空间%EN)Dif.QIU6J

心理学空间\2Vet5{1H

mania state of persistently elevated mood, feelings of grandiosity, overenthusiasm, racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive actions心理学空间3y-q{&{/WQ~'}

心理学空间W;^0^tR:`*F!J

心理卫生运动心理学空间7ero;h+vcR)z

心理学空间"v6D3M d t5H4SJ

mental hygiene movement movement to treat mental patients more humanely and to view mental disorders as medical diseases心理学空间 F2p Se^2R)bs

1ql'_$N}+gD(S0精神疾病

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mental illness phrase used to refer to a physical illness that causes severe abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and feelings

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基于心智化疗法

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mentalization-based treatment a form of psychodynamic treatment for borderline personality disorder based on attachment

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@9}[JR2@~/C%eI0麦斯默术心理学空间M@i'U-z T"?x

O#x&MOo8L0mesmerism treatment for hysterical patients based on the idea that magnetic fluids in the patients’ bodies are affected by the magnetic forces of other people and objects; the patients’ magnetic forces are thought to be realigned by the practitioner through his or her own magnetic force

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中脑边缘系统通路心理学空间&} }$oSDD$u

"Az(D f8]Eb0mesolimbic pathway subcortical part of the brain involved in cognition and emotion心理学空间 eJyZ5J9f&L+@ S~

心理学空间.l+r.g\ J(p$g\!S

元分析心理学空间-W3h[M2e

6jzzC-R X7f+A0meta-analysis statistical technique for summarizing results across several studies

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美沙酮

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methadone opioid that is less potent and longer-lasting than heroin; taken by heroin users to decrease their cravings and help them cope with negative withdrawal symptoms心理学空间0l K7\*da l]m

心理学空间M y6a ` qnAX z

轻度神经认知障碍心理学空间`]zQ1S J.t

心理学空间JI:BSTd

minor neurocognitive disorder a brain disorder characterized by a deteriorating course of deficits in neurocognitive functioning (e.g., memory, attention) that is not so severe that it interferes significantly with independent living

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1Y,~}|*F~-f2nc0麦纳顿规则

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M’Naghten rule legal principle stating that, in order to claim a defense of insanity, accused persons must have been burdened by such a defect of reason, from disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act they were doing or, if they did know it, as not to know what they were doing was wrong心理学空间zJ"~S8~ y8f

EJVCn0模仿

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!CaX2}pg(gW0modeling process of learning behaviors by imitating others, especially authority figures or people like oneself心理学空间 Zg.j|0| zsOF

p}(?,`S0分子遗传学研究

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molecular genetic studies studies of the structure and function of genes that help in understanding how genetic mutations can lead to disease

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单胺氧化酶抑制剂心理学空间0]Sp!d5}e

Y1} q.zRP/W8V^0monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) class of antidepressant drugs心理学空间"l8H)r?R {WEA5o

心理学空间bia$w)K HF$P

单胺类心理学空间)kI5n,f8TDxlS

心理学空间*m0hf'|$F%Ak

monoamines neurotransmitters, including catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and serotonin, that have been implicated in the mood disorders心理学空间8Zj \d]+Y

心理学空间4o'Gt V h.DQi qT5[

同卵双生子心理学空间]J3r,W8p5lX:f#X0]

心理学空间"zh:s+tg,lT$m

monozygotic (MZ) twins twins who share 100 percent of their genes because they developed from a single fertilized egg心理学空间_O*^&@4h8M;N0]5HyA,\

Vki/w+bZ(~j0人道治疗

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Ox'{ \+V+["d0moral treatment type of treatment delivered in mental hospitals in which patients were treated with respect and dignity and were encouraged to exercise self-control心理学空间,B]&@%Ik4sdln)u%~

心理学空间+?6E{ Uy+R1q

动机性访谈心理学空间 KtTr4N

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motivational interviewing intervention for sufferers of substance use disorders to elicit and solidify individuals’ motivation and commitment to changing their substance use; rather than confronting the user, the motivational interviewer adopts an empathic interaction style, drawing out the user’s own statements of desire, ability, reasons, need, and, ultimately, commitment to change

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运动障碍

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h M&\k3Yc0motor disorders a group of disorders characterized by motor symptoms such as tics, stereotypic movements, or dyscoordination

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w;f+d Z]0多轴系统

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multiaxial system a system of diagnoses on three axes used by the DSM-5, with the first axis representing mental disorders, the second axis representing psychosocial and environmental problems, and the third axis representing global level of functioning

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多基线设计心理学空间_W%Ty zA#q

心理学空间 Z(Y Q+SCT@,hr

multiple baseline design type of study in which an intervention is given to the same individual but begun in different settings or is given to different individuals but at different points in time and in which the effects of the intervention are systematically observed

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自恋型人格障碍心理学空间Dm/RbF)I%Ax

心理学空间W1g u/SGD"^c!h

narcissistic personality disorder syndrome marked by grandiose thoughts and feelings of one’s own worth as well as an obliviousness to others’ needs and an exploitative, arrogant demeanor

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S'Y5dV.VS L2~0发作性睡病

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narcolepsy sleep disorder characterized by irresistible attacks of sleep plus (1) cataplexy or (2) recurrent intrusions of elements of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep into the transition between sleep and wakefulness

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发作性睡病/下丘脑分泌素缺乏障碍

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h'}m_#X(lT0narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency disorder recurrent attacks of an irrepressible need to sleep, lapses into sleep, or naps occurring within the same day accompanied by low levels of hypocretin and cataplexy or abnormally short onset of REM sleep

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自然环境型恐怖症心理学空间2\!_%~(Dp-^%@

心理学空间lx5nD*b&dy

natural environment type phobias extreme fears of events or situations in the natural environment that cause impairment in one’s ability to function normally

W(i:F+y(_1_,z!U"q0心理学空间Q;Zp4gg.F2W

治疗需求心理学空间@S OmUmZe

心理学空间xRL}.n|3k

need for treatment legal criterion operationalized as a signed certificate by two physicians stating that a person requires treatment but will not agree to it voluntarily; formerly a sufficient cause to hospitalize the person involuntarily and force him or her to undergo treatment心理学空间'`~'oA~/_r(C

心理学空间)FW;v+Qy6G

负性情感

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[1r _WI4Hn0negative affectivity a dimension of personality characterized by negative mood states

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x}N.s5V0消极认知三联征

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negative cognitive triad perspective seen in depressed people in which they have negative views of themselves, of the world, and of the future

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负强化心理学空间6e-rR)r1F'FR{

心理学空间}V3M&vw

negative reinforcement process in which people avoid being exposed to feared objects and their avoidance is reinforced by the subsequent reduction of their anxiety心理学空间2ywR D"RWX5j!@.{

心理学空间"pq-i6Dt YF W

阴性症状心理学空间+f:hG9CWH6J9u

9acA M9?@jS:e0negative symptoms in schizophrenia, deficits in functioning that indicate the absence of a capacity present in people without schizophrenia, such as restricted affect心理学空间R*ot1Q oj7O(tU

[~JB5l0C3Hd4]0神经认知障碍

aM-Dg/W8y0MR#E Z0心理学空间;S(^FyN!ExnCo

neurocognitive disorders behavioral disorders known or presumed to result from disruptions of brain structure and functioning心理学空间;f%MaX/a5Z1A,\/Jz

{-q'C0E1|f b0神经发育障碍

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neurodevelopmental disorders behavioral disorders with onset during childhood known or presumed to result at least in part from disruption of brain development心理学空间a3aMNkz%m2o"m@

Rh[0e`x.Rb&c i0神经元纤维缠结心理学空间0]| at3U!z$c`a

心理学空间0\]Ed Z+Gz

neurofibrillary tangles twists or tangles of filaments within nerve cells, especially prominent in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, common in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients心理学空间7fN*l*@%X Q} r

心理学空间e+D6j~V

神经阻滞剂

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;{~?*P6H-L0neuroleptics drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms

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#G FZ [ yI}Z1K0神经心理测验心理学空间/`Zq!M0h ?,y O:N

Szc2?!L0neuropsychological tests tests of cognitive, sensory, and/or motor skills that attempt to differentiate people with deficits in these areas from normal subjects

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神经递质心理学空间L+Z F2l~b9J3qK!cb

SW{5X{F(Wp:Pt0neurotransmitters biochemicals, released from a sending neuron, that transmit messages to a receiving neuron in the brain and nervous system

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Qq9z `JE6tU0尼古丁心理学空间J%~;\7Q0Y7Y:P!~

心理学空间ltVU)g!QM fox F

nicotine alkaloid found in tobacco; operates on both the central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting in the release of biochemicals, including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and the endogenous opioids

n*L0d;yJj:]0

[I3A C _S5v+|+j'`0夜间进食障碍心理学空间{R ?|8nu

VGkf,wV y0night eating disorder an eating disorder characterized by the regular intake of excessive amounts of food after dinner and into the night

O!vozlu5M0

;_;l]?a mX Qw:`0梦魇障碍

c{-]\ wV9L0心理学空间,}l)Q/o*y

nightmare disorder sleep disorder characterized by nightmares frequent enough to cause significant distress or impairment in functioning

rmF*~)|0心理学空间rO+TvTN

非自杀性自我伤害心理学空间[a(x:V|dM.R

:nB`!?%D d}0nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) act of deliberately cutting, burning, puncturing, or otherwise significantly injuring one’s skin with no intent to die

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tx-v_|0去甲肾上腺素

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norepinephrine neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of mood心理学空间VCG3x9`#])lN/\

L'S CZU0去甲肾上腺素-多巴胺再摄取抑制剂心理学空间-Wir+qb'R l

心理学空间dvw\w!c

norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors drugs used to treat depression; inhibit the reuptake of both norepinephrine and dopamine

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虚无假设

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null hypothesis alternative to a primary hypothesis, stating that there is no relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable

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bzI4R?pZ0

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? A!d2Vb-|V0O心理学空间;N#_ f;|l5E9yV

心理学空间v+^ Z4wb3f

8y}:r/?9y0

Z{D~L/e0肥胖

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obesity condition of being significantly overweight, defined by the Centers for Disease Control as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or over, where BMI is calculated as weight in pounds multiplied by 703, then divided by the square of height in inches心理学空间#_ H'`el

3r `n@eq JB0客体关系

Um$X?U0

0t2gw&o:A0object relations view held by a group of modern psychodynamic theorists that one develops a self-concept and appraisals of others in a four-stage process during childhood and retains them throughout adulthood; psychopathology consists of an incomplete progression through these stages or an acquisition of poor self- and other concepts

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r&]cP(k;[RN0观察学习

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observational learning learning that occurs when a person observes the rewards and punishments of another’s behavior and then behaves in accordance with the same rewards and punishments

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强迫观念

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mM} Bs%[+v&@/^0obsessions uncontrollable, persistent thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses that an individual feels intrude on his or her consciousness and that cause significant anxiety or distress心理学空间 P)V q"Z*TY%KE7O o

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obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions (persistent thoughts) and compulsions (rituals)心理学空间 ~-hjm7f^Js

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obsessive-compulsive personality disorder pervasive rigidity in one’s activities and interpersonal relationships; includes qualities such as emotional constriction, extreme perfectionism, and anxiety resulting from even slight disruptions in one’s routine心理学空间2x)L PU%AC _%fj;~:[([

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阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气心理学空间2^]0y D_2v

'Q]U5Go)]-T;m0obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of upper-airway obstruction during sleep心理学空间Y*toe6@

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operant conditioning form of learning in which behaviors lead to consequences that either reinforce or punish the organism, leading to an increased or a decreased probability of a future response心理学空间U+]'N8j DE d

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操作化

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Q6K4DX+m4U N/q"C0operationalization specific manner in which variables in a study are measured or manipulated心理学空间?4|*uJ3qX A

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阿片类物质

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opioids substances, including morphine and heroin, that produce euphoria followed by a tranquil state; in severe intoxication, can lead to unconsciousness, coma, and seizures; can cause withdrawal symptoms of emotional distress, severe nausea, sweating, diarrhea, and fever

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oppositional defiant disorder syndrome of chronic misbehavior in childhood marked by belligerence, irritability, and defiance, although not to the extent found in a diagnosis of conduct disorder

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器质性遗忘症

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organic amnesia loss of memory caused by brain injury resulting from disease, drugs, accidents (blows to head), or surgery

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性高潮

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orgasm discharge of neuromuscular tension built up during sexual activity; in men, entails rhythmic contractions of the prostate, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and penis and seminal discharge; in women, entails contractions of the orgasmic platform and uterus心理学空间_y U-J ni `i`Y

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