投射性认同的几个经典表述
作者: 张沛超 / 10899次阅读 时间: 2010年6月06日
来源: 华中子和心理咨询中心 标签: 精神分析 客体关系 投射性认同 自体
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}p YL HL0投射性认同(Projective identification)客体关系理论中基础的不能再基础,重要的不能再重要的概念。不过这个概念的内涵和外延也经常发生着演变,笔者找到了以下三种比较经典的表述,试译一下供参考。心理学空间 |;y9x#C+rh8m

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先看原始出处,克莱因的表述:

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5J9`*]~ s,k^%t6{Mj.g0Much of the hatred against parts of the self is now directed toward the mother. This leads to a particular form of identification which establishes the prototype of an aggressive object-relation. I suggest for these processes the term “projective identification.” (Klein M: Notes on some schizoid mechanisms. Int J Psychoanal 1946; 27:99–110)

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6F_r5ch*X0对于部分自体的憎恨现在导向了母亲。这导致了一种特殊的认同,藉由此建立了欺凌性的客体关系之原型。我建议把这些过程称之为“投射性认同”(克莱因:对于某些分裂机制的评注)

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从这种表述我们可以看出,克莱因所谓的投射性认同,基本上还是一个精神内的过程,而与人际间尚无瓜葛。克莱因的弟子比昂把投射性认同的概念拓展到人际间,并发明了一对术语“容器”和“容纳物”来阐述。可惜我看了比昂的原文,他似乎没有给出自己关于投射性认同的定义。心理学空间K uhoA#C2E-V{+@ dV

3U/p${p4E$_R h;u0再看克莱因的女弟子西格尔的表述。心理学空间{ z(`-Nn#w FFJ

5z5c&U \I0In projective identification parts of the self and internal objects are split off and projected into the external object, which then becomes possessed by, controlled and identified with the projected parts. Projective identification has manifold aims: it may be directed toward the ideal object to avoid separation, or it may be directed toward the bad object to gain control of the source of danger. Various parts of the self may be projected, with various aims: bad parts of the self may be projected in order to get rid of them as well as to attack and destroy the object, good parts may be projected to avoid separation or to keep them safe from bad things inside or to improve the external object through a kind of primitive projective reparation.” (Segal H: Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein. New York,Basic Books, 1974)

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在投射性认同中,部分的自体及客体关系被分裂掉,并投射入外部客体,藉由此可以占有、控制和认同被投射的部分。投射性认同有多重的目标:它可以是指向理想客体以避免分离,或是指向坏客体以掌控危险。自体的很多部分都可以被投射,有着不同的目标:自体中坏的部分可以被投射,以便摆脱它们,或是对客体进行攻击或破坏,自体中好的部分可以被投射以避免分离,或是使之免于内在之坏物的危害,或是通过一种原始的投射认同改善外部客体。(西格尔:梅兰妮 克莱因著作导读)

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从西格尔的表述中我们看出,投射性认同已经是不全是一个个体精神内的防御过程。而且,自体中不光是令人憎恶的,坏的部分可以被投射,好的部分也可以被投射。心理学空间O"|b!zI

+gp;qTT"@0最后看看当代美国著名精神分析师托马斯 奥格登的表述:

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^`,{0B:hed M:R0Projective identification . . . is a psychological process that is simultaneously a type of defense, a means of communication, a primitive form of object relationship, and a pathway for psychological change. As a defense, projective identification serves to create a sense of psychological distance from unwanted (often frightening) aspects of the self; as a mode of communication,projective identification is a process by which feelings congruent with one’s own are induced in another person, thereby creating a sense of being understood by or of being “at one with” the other person. As a type of object relationship, projective identification constitutes a way of being with and relating to a partially separate object, and finally, as a pathway for psychological change; projective identification is a process by which feelings like those that one is struggling with are psychologically processed by another person and made available for re-internalization in an altered form. Each of these s
0rx;{5oQy'R(l0of projective identification evolves in the context of the infant’s early attempts to perceive, organize, and manage his internal and external experience and to communicate with his environment. (Ogden T: On projective identification. Int J Psychoanal 1979;60:357–373)

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2~wU _8?r |/m;WfV?0投射性认同是一种心理过程,同时也是一种防御,一种交流的手段,一种原始形式的客体关系,也是一种心理改变的途径。作为一种防御,投射性认同被用来创造这样一种感觉:远离了自体中不想要的(通常是令人害怕的)方面;作为一种交流手段,投射性认同是一种过程:在另外的一个人中引起了与自己一致的感受,这使得自己被理解,或是与对方心灵相通。作为一种客体关系,投射性认同建构了一种与一个部分的分离客体相联系并发生关系的途径。最后,作为一种心理改变的途径,投射性认同使得某人为之所困扰的感觉,可以为他人所消化,并以改变了的形式重新内化。投射性认同的每一种功能都产生于婴儿早期试图感知、组织、掌控其内在和外在的体验并与环境相交流的背景中。心理学空间Z@;[-A@L c

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奥格登对于投射性认同的表述已经是“大全”式的了。甚至已经受了科学心理学中认知心理学和发展心理学及社会心理学的影响。在表述上已经不仅仅限制在客体关系早期理论家强调的无意识幻想(Phatasy),而是试图引入更广阔的视域。在这里,已经没有什么交流不是“投射性认同”了。投射性认同已经不仅仅是一种无意识幻想过程或一种初级的防御机制,而是关乎人类生活的方方面面,无论是正常或是病理,精神内部的还是人际间的。心理学空间)y@O f Zj9Q

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因此我只将奥格登的表述译出,而没有采用其他理论家,如Gabbord, Sandler, Kernberg的表述。心理学空间 n4pD,u$Ie |

[6F4m)Y-z&l0不当之处请方家指正。

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TAG: 精神分析 客体关系 投射性认同 自体
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