Freud 1913m [1911] 论精神分析
作者: Freud / 2710次阅读 时间: 2016年4月20日
来源: 无限笔迹 标签: Freud freud FREUD
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Freud 1913m [1911] 论精神分析
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CO)Wp&aCOt/X)Z0In response to a friendly request by the Secretary of your Section of Neurology and Psychiatry, I venture to draw the attention of this Congress to the subject of psycho-analysis, which is being extensively studied at the present time in Europe and America.心理学空间V!p/f DZ!h)g

A"H _eH%d~0在对您神经病和精神病学部门秘书的友好请求的回应中,我试着引起这次大会对精神分析主题的注意,而精神分析如今正在欧洲和美洲受到广泛地研究。心理学空间)U]x8w5d

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Psycho-analysis is a remarkable combination, for it comprises not only a method of research into the neuroses but also a method of treatment based on the aetiology thus discovered. I may begin by saying that psycho-analysis is not a child of speculation, but the outcome of experience; and for that reason, like every new product of science, is unfinished. It is open to anyone to convince himself by his own investigations of the correctness of the theses embodied in it, and to help in the further development of the study.心理学空间sr!t$b e

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精神分析是一种卓越的联合体,因为它既包含了从神经症中发现的一种研究方法,还有一种基于由此发现的病因学的治疗方法。也许我通过说,精神分析不是一项孩子式的猜测,因此,它像每一个科学的新型产物一样是一种经验的结果,这是不够的。每个人都可以通过对蕴含在精神分析中的这些结果的正确性做自己的研究,从而来确信这个理论,同时这对研究的进一步发展也有帮助。

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0u^7}eZ)G |5]0Psycho-analysis started with researches into hysteria, but in the course of years it has extended far beyond that field of work. The Studies on Hysteria by Breuer and myself, published in 1895, were the beginnings of psycho-analysis. They followed in the track of Charcot’s work on ‘traumatic’ hysteria, Liébeault’s and Bernheim’s investigations of the phenomena of hypnosis, and Janet’s studies of unconscious mental processes. Psycho-analysis soon found itself in sharp opposition to Janet’s views, because (a) it declined to trace back hysteria directly to congenital hereditary degeneracy, (b) it offered, instead of a mere description, a dynamic explanation based on the interplay of psychical forces and (c) it ascribed the origin of psychical dissociation (whose importance had been recognized by Janet as well) not to a failure of mental synthesis resulting from a congenital disability, but to a special psychical process known as ‘repression’ (‘Verdrängung’).心理学空间b&?J.@0l:` [&w

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精神分析开始于对歇斯底里症的研究,但是很多年之后,它已经扩展到了这个领域之外。由我和布罗伊尔所著的《癔症的研究》一书出版于1895年,那本书是精神分析的开始。我们跟随这沙克关于癔症“创伤”研究的线索,列波和波恩海姆关于催眠现象的研究,还有让内关于无意识心理过程的研究。精神分析很快发现它处在与让内观点针锋相对的位置,因为(a)精神分析拒绝追溯癔症的先天遗传退化,(b)精神分析根据精神力量的相互作用提供了一种动力学诠释模型,而不是仅仅描述意义上的模型。(c)精神分析认为精神的分离(它的重要性让内已经认识到了)不是由于来源于先天残缺而至的心理统合失败,而是由于一种特殊的精神过程,也就是我们熟知的“压抑”。

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It was conclusively proved that hysterical symptoms are residues (reminiscences) of profoundly moving experiences, which have been withdrawn from everyday consciousness, and that their form is determined (in a manner that excludes deliberate action) by details of the traumatic effects of the experiences. On this view, the therapeutic prospects lie in the possibility of getting rid of this ‘repression’, so as to allow part of the unconscious psychical material to become conscious and thus to deprive it of its pathogenic power. This view is a dynamic one, in so far as it regards psychical processes as displacements of psychical energy which can be gauged by the amount of their effect on the affective elements. This is most significant in hysteria, where the process of ‘conversion’ creates the symptoms by transforming a quantity of mental impulses into somatic innervations.心理学空间,EJwCjZ l)p S!VP

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这决定性地证明了歇斯底里的症状是一种十分生动的经验,这种经验已经从日常意识中撤回了,并且他们的形式是由创伤经历的细节决定的。(用一种逃避了有意行为的方式)。因此,治疗的目标就在于摆脱这种“压抑”,以便于让部分无意识精神材料成为意识的,如此来剥夺其病理力量。这是一种动力学的观点,至于它视精神过程为一种精神能量的移置,这种精神能量可以通过其对情感元素的影响力度来得到测量。这是歇斯底里症中最显著的特点,在癔症中,“转换”这种过程通过把一些精神冲动转化为躯体神经上,从而创造出了症状。 

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jG/d(h/e Wh0The first psycho-analytic examinations and attempts at treatment were made with the help of hypnotism. Afterwards this was abandoned and the work was carried out by the method of ‘free association’, with the patient remaining in his normal state. This modification had the advantage of enabling the procedure to be applied to a far larger number of cases of hysteria, as well as to other neuroses and also to healthy people. The development of a special technique of interpretation became necessary, however, in order to draw conclusions from the expressed ideas of the person under investigation. These interpretations established with complete certainty the fact that psychical dissociations are maintained entirely by ‘internal resistances’. The conclusion seems justified, therefore, that the dissociations have originated owing to internal conflict, which has led to the ‘repression’ of the underlying impulse. To overcome this conflict and in that way to cure the neurosis, the guiding hand of a doctor trained in psycho-analysis is required.心理学空间)li&Bx"UW$xDX

T#Ipg _ u0精神分析对于治疗的最早检验和尝试是来源于催眠的。后来催眠被放弃了,取而代之的是让病人保持在普通状态下的“自由联想”的方法。这种修改有利于治疗的过程在大量的癔症个案上,以及其他神经症患者和健康人们身上能得到应用。解释这种特殊的技术的发展是必要的,然而,这是为了研究了人们所表达出来的观念之后下一些结论。这些解释建立在一些完全确定的事实上,那就是精神上的分离完全被“内部阻抗”所维持着。因此,这个结论似乎是公正的,那就是这种分离起源于内部冲突,这种冲突导致了对潜在冲动的压抑。为了克服这种冲突而且如此来治愈神经症,在精神分析中对医生的指导训练是必要的。心理学空间N1k3U't:vv

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N:H9T@pR0Furthermore, it has been shown to be true quite generally that in all neuroses the pathological symptoms are really the end-products of such conflicts, which have led to ‘repression’ and ‘splitting’ of the mind. The symptoms are generated by different mechanisms: (a) either as formations in substitution for the repressed forces, or (b) as compromises between the repressing and repressed forces, or (c) as reaction-formations and safeguards against the repressed forces.

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(bN E,Gt!xF\@0此外,在所有神经症中,病理症状确实是这种导致心灵“压抑”和“分裂”的冲突的最终产物,这是相当普遍地表现出来的了。症状是由不同的机制形成的:(a)要么是对压抑力量的替换了的形式,(b)要么是压抑和被压抑的力量之间的妥协形式,(c)要么对预防被压抑力量的反应形式。心理学空间%O9aSD j+h-TD&m

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Researches were further extended to the conditions which determine whether or not psychical conflicts will lead to ‘repression’ (that is, to dissociation dynamically caused), since it goes without saying that a psychical conflict, per se, may also have a normal outcome. The conclusion arrived at by psycho-analysis was that such conflicts were always between the sexual instincts (using the word ‘sexual’ in the widest sense) and the wishes and trends of the remainder of the ego. In neuroses it is the sexual instincts that succumb to ‘repression’ and so constitute the most important basis for the genesis of symptoms, which may accordingly be regarded as substitutes for sexual satisfactions.

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N+yP9r#iZ{(K+g,N/~j0研究更深入地触及到了那些决定着心理冲突是否会导致“压抑”(那就是有动力学效果的分解)的条件,这是因说心理冲突自身也可能会有一种正常的结果。由精神分析所得的结论是这样的冲突常常是性本能,愿望(在最广泛的意义使用“性”一词)和自我保留的趋势之间的冲突。在神经症那里,性本能屈服于“压抑”,并且因此组成了症状发生的最重要的基础,这种症状也就相应地被视为是对性满足的替代。

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-E2U7C'J `0Our work on the question of the disposition to neurotic affections has added the ‘infantile’ factor to the somatic and hereditary ones hitherto recognized. Psycho-analysis was obliged to trace back patients’ mental life to their early infancy, and the conclusion was reached that inhibitions of mental development (‘infantilisms’) present a disposition to neurosis. In particular, we have learnt from our investigations of sexual life that there really is such a thing as ‘infantile sexuality’, that the sexual instinct is made up of many components and passes through a complicated course of development, the final outcome of which, after many restrictions and transformations, is the ‘normal’ sexuality of adults. The puzzling perversions of the sexual instinct which occur in adults appear to be either inhibitions of development, fixations or lop-sided growths. Thus neuroses are the negative of perversions.心理学空间]J`Whp

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对于神经症情感倾向问题的工作,我们已经添加了“婴儿的”因素到那些迄今为止还被视为是躯体性的和遗传性的神经症情感。精神分析必须要追溯病人的心理生活直到他的早年婴儿期,而结论是心理发展(婴儿性的)的阻抑展现出了神经症倾向。我们尤其是从我们对于性生活的研究中发现,确实有一种“婴儿性欲”的东西,而性本能是有许多部分组成的,并且它贯穿于整个心理发展复杂过程,而它最终的结果在许多约束和转换之下就是“正常”的成人性欲。而发生在成人身上的性本能的那些令人疑惑的倒错似乎要么是发展受阻,发展固着,要么就是发展不平衡。如此神经症就是性倒错的消极形式。心理学空间5O,f/[!F!\kV

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4C'Yh*X,h{0The cultural development imposed on mankind is the factor which necessitates the restrictions and repressions of the sexual instinct, greater or lesser sacrifices being demanded according to the individual constitution. Development is hardly ever achieved smoothly, and disturbances may occur (whether on account of the individual constitution or of premature sexual incidents) leaving behind a disposition to future neuroses. Such dispositions may remain harmless if the adult’s life proceeds satisfactorily and quietly; but they become pathogenic if the conditions of mature life forbid satisfaction of the libido or make too high demands on its suppression.心理学空间*K_/VP2VvX"oT g

o[6IQlhh0文化的发展对人类的影响是一个导致性本能的限制和压抑的因素,根据个体的构造,这多多少少要求一些牺牲。发展几乎不会顺利地实现,一些干扰也许会发生(由于个体的构造和早产儿的性事件),而把留下了将来发生神经症的倾向。如果成人的生活能得到满足并且平静地进行下去,那么这样的倾向也许是无害的,但是如果成人生活的条件禁止对力比多的满足,或者对力比多的压制又太高的要求的话,这些倾向就会成为病理性的。

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Researches into the sexual activity of children have led to a further conception of the sexual instinct, based not on its purposes but on its sources. The sexual instinct possesses in a high degree the capacity for being diverted from direct sexual aims and for being directed towards higher aims which are no longer sexual (‘sublimation’). The instinct is thus enabled to make most important contributions to the social and artistic achievements of humanity.8

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Recognition of the simultaneous presence of the three factors of ‘infantilism’, ‘sexuality’ and ‘repression’ constitutes the main characteristic of the psycho-analytic theory, and marks its distinction from other views of pathological mental life. At the same time, psycho-analysis has demonstrated that there is no fundamental difference, but only one of degree, between the mental life of normal people, of neurotics and of psychotics. A normal person has to pass through the same repressions and has to struggle with the same substitutive structures; the only difference is that he deals with these events with less trouble and better success. The psycho-analytic method of investigation can accordingly be applied equally to the explanation of normal psychical phenomena, and has made it possible to discover the close relationship between pathological psychical products and normal structures such as dreams, the small blunders of everyday life, and such valuable phenomena as jokes, myths and imaginative works. The explanation of these has been carried furthest in the case of dreams, and has resulted here in the following general formula: ‘A dream is a disguised fulfilment of a repressed wish.’ The interpretation of dreams has as its object the removal of the disguise to which the dreamer’s thoughts have been subjected. It is, moreover, a highly valuable aid to psycho-analytic technique, for it constitutes the most convenient method of obtaining insight into unconscious psychical life.

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对于儿童性活动的研究导出了性本能这个概念,这不是基于性本能的目的,而是基于它的来源。性本能高度地拥有一种转移直接的性目标,而指向一些更高的,不再是“性的”(升华)目标上的能力。如此本能就能做出对人类社会和艺术成就最重要的贡献,对三个同时出现的因素——“婴儿性的”“性欲的”“压抑”的认识组成了精神分析理论的主要特点,而且这标定了精神分析与其他关于精神生活病理学观点的区别。同时精神分析已经论证了在正常人,神经症患者和精神病患者各自的精神生活之间没有根本的区别,而只有一种度上的不同。一个正常人也必须穿越同样的压抑,也必须与那些替代性的结构做斗争,唯一的区别在于他们能更成功地处理这些事件,造成的麻烦更少。精神分析的研究方法因此也可以同等地应用于解释正常心理现象,并且它可以发现那些精神病理产物与普通的结构之间的紧密关系,这些普通结构包括梦,日常生活的小过失,一些像玩笑,神话和有想象性的工作类似的有意义的现象。在这些现象里面,解释运用地最深入的是在梦例当中,结果就是产生了下文中的一个普遍性公式:“一个梦就是对一个压抑愿望伪装的满足。”对梦的解释的对象就是要解除那些持续影响着梦者思想的伪装。更多的时候,它是对精神分析技术的一种高度价值的协助,因为它提供了一种能洞察无意识精神生活的最方便的方法。

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There is often a tendency in medical and especially in psychiatric circles to contradict the theories of psycho-analysis without any real study or practical application of them. This is due not only to the striking novelty of these theories and the contrast they present to the views hitherto held by psychiatrists, but also to the fact that the premisses and technique of psycho-analysis are much more nearly related to the field of psychology than to that of medicine. It cannot be disputed, however, that purely medical and non-psychological teachings have hitherto done very little towards an understanding of mental life. The progress of psycho-analysis is further retarded by the dread felt by the average observer of seeing himself in his own mirror. Men of science tend to meet emotional resistances with arguments, and thus satisfy themselves to their own satisfaction! Whoever wishes not to ignore a truth will do well to distrust his antipathies, and, if he wishes to submit the theory of psycho-analysis to a critical examination, let him first analyse himself.

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*y;T"R+f4q5gZd3f0在医学尤其是精神病学领域有一种普遍否定精神分析理论的倾向,而且这种否认是在没有任何研究和对精神分析的实际应用的情况下的。这不仅是因为这些理论的惊人的新颖性和他们反对精神病学如今的那些观点,也是由于精神分析的前提和技术更多接近心理学的领域而不是医学领域。然而,纯粹的医学和无心理学的技术如今对于理解精神生活已经没有多大用处,这是毋庸置疑的。精神分析进步是被那种恐惧进一步延迟的,这种恐惧就是那些一般研究者在他们自己的镜子中看到自己所感受到的。科学人士倾向于用情绪的阻抗来面对争论,如此就可以用他们自己的满足来满足他们自己。不论是谁希望能不忽视真相,那么就要反对他自身对精神分析的厌恶,而且如果他想让精神分析得到批评性的检验,那么首先分析他自己。心理学空间:U pX r"_l(d*i8i

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I cannot think that in these few sentences I have succeeded in painting a clear picture of the principles and purposes of psycho-analysis. But I will add a list of the chief publications on the subject, a study of which will give further enlightenment to any whom I may have interested.心理学空间| kXm&e,p

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我不认为这简短的几句话就能成功地描绘出精神分析的原则和目的的清晰图像。但是我将要列举一个关于这个主题的书单,对于这些书单的研究将能提供给那些我也许有兴趣的人士更深的启迪。心理学空间J4~D yBn

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d,u7P$uaC01. Breuer and Freud, Studies on Hysteria, 1895. Fr. Deuticke, Vienna.A portion of the above has been translated into English in ‘Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psycho-neuroses’, by Dr. A. A. Brill, New York, 1909.

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p%Ss4s7d]x9z4T2o02. Freud, Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie, Vienna, 1905.

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English translation by Dr. Brill, ‘Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory’, New York, 1910.心理学空间#_Y9r&G7K Gv&s"kd

9sPqBL i03. Freud, Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens, S. Karger, Berlin. 3rd edition, 1910.

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3DK R-L#jS1]~O2Eun x04. Freud, Die Traumdeutung, Vienna, 1900. 3rd ed., 1911.心理学空间0@*zH.tXL9Wa1o

j.BA ZJtR|o.j05. Freud, ‘The Origin and Development of Psycho-analysis’,Amer. Jour. of Psychology, April, 1910. Also in German:Ueber Psychoanalyse. Five Lectures given at the Clark University, Worcester, Mass, 1909.心理学空间+c`8g%t;`3z

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6. Freud, Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten, Vienna, 1905.

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7. Freud, Collection of minor papers on the Doctrine of Neuroses,3-1906. Vienna,1906.心理学空间!Lt6o ?:z M

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8. Idem. A second collection. Vienna, 1909.心理学空间6\j*I8M r*va.V

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9. Hitschmann, Freud’s Neurosenlehre, Vienna, 1911.心理学空间ZiIB$I$r)YQm

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10. C. G. Jung, Diagnostische Associationsstudien. Two volumes, 1906-1910.心理学空间cR~*O g}^

`J3F!N U \`~'w011. C. G. Jung, über die psychologie der Dementia Praecox, 1907.

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12. Jahrbuch für psycho-analytische und psychopathologische Forschungen,published by E. Bleuler and S. Freud, edited by Jung. Since 1909.

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:Y Iz8B2JU9Z^013. Schriften zur angewandten Seelenkunde. Fr. Deuticke, Vienna.Since 1907. Eleven parts, by Freud, Jung, Abraham, Pfister, Rank, Jones, Riklin, Graf, Sadger.心理学空间;oV%bc~re Z

1E;JJ$QDf|/i014. Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse.Edited by A. Adler and W Stekel. J. Bergmann, Wiesbaden. Since Sept., 1910.

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