作者: mints / 18086次阅读 时间: 2010年12月07日
1. This tendency to view ongoing change in terms of the static contents it reveals can be seen also in the very many research projects which have employed psychotherapy and hospital situations to study diagnostic and classificatory aspects of people as compared with the very few researches which have employed these treatment settings to study change. Our psychometric instruments do not as yet have standardized or even defined indices of personality change, having been used so rarely before and after psychotherapy. This is another example of the way we tend to think most about the change-resistant contents of personality, even in treatment situations.
1. 我们在许多对人们进行诊断和分类的研究项目中看到使用静态的内容去看待进行中的改变的倾向。而使用治疗情境去研究改变的研究相比之下却很少。心理测量工具很少用于治疗前后,这些工具甚至没有对于人格改变的标准指标。这是另外一个例子,说明即便是在治疗情境中我们倾向于更多地考虑人格中抗拒改变的内容。

2. "Paradigm," or model, refers to the theoretical models used in these theories, regard less of whether they use the words "repression" and "content" or not.

3. The repression paradigm in its most oversimplified form can be noticed in use when person A insists that person B has some content he cannot be aware of, because it is "unconscious." B's own experiences and feelings are, by definition, undercut and "thrown out of court." No way to the supposed content exists which B can use.
3. 当A坚持认为B有些内容B无法意识到,因为这是“潜意识”的。B自己的体验和感受被切掉,被“法院驳回”,这种情况便是最简化的“潜抑范式”的使用。而根本不存在B可以使用的内容。

4. S. Freud, 1914 (p. 375), 1920 (pp. 16-19), 1930 (p. 105). H. S. Sullivan, 1940 (pp. 20-21, 205-207), 1953 (pp. 42, 160-163). C. R. Rogers, 1957, 1958, 1959a and b, 1960, 1961a and b, 1962.

5. Throughout, the new concepts and words defined here are intended to lead to new and more effective operational variables. Where research is cited, the theory has already led to some operational variables. One must distinguish theoretical concepts from operational variables. For example, above, "feeling process" is a theoretical 32,concept. The operational variables (and there will be many specific ones) which a theoretical concept aids us to isolate and define are indices of behavior and exactly repeatable procedures whereby these can be reliably measured.
5. 在这篇文章中,我们定义的新的概念和词汇是希望用来找到更多的新的可以有效操作的变量。在引用的研究中,理论已经导向一些可操作的变量。我们必须区分理论性的、概念和操作性变量。比如说,上述的“感受过程”是一个理论性的概念。理论性的概念可以在分离并定义操作变量上起到帮助。操作变量(会有许多特定的操作变量)是一些行为的指标,以及可以重复的步骤,我们可以可靠地来测量。
When it is held that the difference above between "really" and "merely" is a "subjective" difference, this only means that we have not yet defined the observable variables which enable a common-sense observer to predict differential behavioral results.

6. Rogers discovered how, in practice, the individual can be helped to overcome the repression model.
6. 罗吉斯发现在实践中个体如何被帮助以克服潜抑模型。
His discovery is that defensiveness and resistance are obviated when one responds to an individual "within his own internal frame of reference." This phrase means that the psychotherapist's response always refers to something which is directly present in the individual's own momentary awareness.
Rogers at first found that even if the therapist did nothing, more than to rephrase the patient's communication--that is to say, if the therapist clearly showed that he was receiving and exactly understanding the patient's moment-by-moment communications--a very deep and self-propelled change process began and continued in the patient. Something happens in an individual when he is understood in this way. Some change takes place in what he momentarily confronts. Something releases. He then has something else, further, to say; and if this, again, is received and understood, something still further emerges which ;he individual would not even have thought of (nor was capable of thinking), had not such a sequence of expressions and responses taken place.

7. Experiencing is essentially an interaction between feeling and "symbols" (attention, words, events), just as body life is an interaction between body and environment. In its basic nature, the physical life process is interaction. (This is an application of Sullivan's basic concepts.) For example, the body consists of cells which are interaction processes involving the environment (oxygen and food particles). If we apply this concept of interaction to experiencing, we can view it as an interaction of feeling and events ("events" here includes verbal noises, others' behaviors, external occurrences-anything that can interact with feeling).
8. For the full theory of affect and meaning see Gendlin (1962b). As will be seen later (definitions 15-18 and 26), the discussion here lays the ground for a view of personality which avoids the "content paradigm"; i.e., the erroneous assumption that psychological events involve conceptually formed static units.
9. The word "correctly" here really refers just to this interaction between the felt referent and the symbols which we are describing. The fact that, a few minutes later, the same type of interaction with further symbols can again produce a very different, yet now "correct" further conceptualization shows that "correctness" does not imply that a given set of symbols means what the felt referent alone means. Rather, "correctness" refers to the experienced effect which certain s) symbols produce and which is described above, and in definitions 5 and 6.
10. Research (Gendlin and Berlin, 1961) employing autonomic correlates has borne out this observation operationally. Individuals were given tape-recorded instructions to engage in various processes. After each instruction there was a period of silence in which to carry it out. It was found that galvanic skin resistance (also skin temperature and heart rate) indicated tension reduction during the period when individuals were instructed to (and reported later that they did) focus inwardly on the felt meanings of a troublesome personal problem. It has continued to be difficult to define and check individuals' performances after this and other instructions. Therefore, this research remains tentative. Nevertheless, several replications have supported the observation that, while threatening topics in general raise tension, direct inward focusing involves tension reduction.
10. 简德林和柏林(Gendlin和Berlin 1961)采用内部相关的方法进行研究,从操作上证明了这一观察。这一研究让个体听录音指示参与多种过程。在每一个指令后面有一段沉默时间,以便个体去执行指令。个体收到指令后对麻烦的个人问题进行内在聚焦的时间段里(他们之后汇报确实按指令要求执行了),他们的皮肤电阻显示出紧张的降低。在许多不同的指令后确定并检查个体的表现是很困难的。因此这个研究仍然是尝试性的。不过已经有几次复制研究支持这个观察:威胁性的话题总体上增加紧张,而直接的内在聚焦却会降低紧张。

11. It is extremely important that the listener refers his words to "this" felt datum in the individual and that he shares the sense that the datum itself decides what is correct and what is not. It is much less important whether or not the listener's words turn out to be accurate.
11. 倾听者所说的词语是否正确应由个体的内在感受资料来决定,倾听者清楚应该让这些感受资料自己来决定是什么是对的,什么是错的,这十分重要。倾听者所说的是否精确则没有那么重要。

12. We can always apply logic after the process and formulate the relationships implied, but we can almost never choose correctly ahead of time which of the thousands of possible relations between various problems and topics will function in a concretely felt process as described above.
12. 当过程发生之后,我们总是可以应用逻辑来建构其中蕴含的关联,但是我们无法从这些许许多多的不同的问题和话题中提前正确地选择如何关联,并知道它会像上述例子中那样以某种具体的感受过程的方式进行运作。

13. I must now describe some common sorts of so-called "internal" attention which do not involve direct reference and thus are not focusing.
13. 我需要描述一些一般的,被称为“内在”注意力的类型,这些和直接指涉物无关,因此无法对此聚焦。
Since the term "experiencing" includes any kind of experience at all, so long as we consider it as inwardly felt and apply to it the theoretical formulation of process, misunderstandings have arisen concerning the mode of experiencing called the direct referent. By this latter, more specific term we do not at all mean just anything at all which can be called inward attention.
Especially since the direct referent is "felt;" it has been confused with emotions. (Emotions are also said to be "felt.") But the direct referent is internally complex and an individual feels "in touch with himself" when he refers to it, while emotions are 34,internally all one quality . . . they are "sheer." They often keep him from sensing that in himself which is the complex ground of the emotion.
This and other distinctions will become clearer in the following list of kinds of occurrences in an individual which are not direct reference and thus are not focusing.
Direct reference is not:
1. Sheer emotions. The emotions of guilt, shame, embarrassment, or feeling that I am "bad" are about me or this aspect of my experience and its meaning to me. These emotions are not themselves the experience and its meaning to me. The emotions as such are not a direct reference to the felt experiencing. I must, at least momentarily, get by these emotions about it (or about myself) in order to refer directly to what all this means to me, why and what makes me feel ashamed. For example, I must say to myself: "All right, yes, I am very ashamed; but for a minute now, although it makes me feel very ashamed, I want to sense what this is in me."
1. 纯粹的情绪感受。内疚,羞耻,尴尬的情绪,或是感觉我自己很“坏”,都是关于我的,或是关于我的体验某个部分及对于我的意义的内容。这些情绪本身并不是体验及对我的意义。我必须,最起码暂时地,能够度过关于体验的(或是关于我自己的)这些情绪,以便能和其对我的意义进行直接的关联,是什么以及为什么让我感到羞耻。比如说,我必须对自己说:“好吧,是的,我感觉非常羞耻,但等一会,虽然这让我感觉非常羞耻,但我想感受在我里面的是什么。”
For example: One client spent many sleepless hours each night with anxiety, shame, and resentment. He blamed himself for his reactions to a certain situation. He felt foolish and ashamed of the whole thing. As he tried to resolve it, he alternately felt resentful (he would decide to confront them, fight it out, not back down, etc.), and alternately he felt ashamed (he was a fool, and humiliatingly so, etc.). Only in the psychotherapy hour did it become possible for him to focus directly on "this," what it was, how it felt, and where it "lived" in him. In "this" he found a good many valid perceptions concerning the other people and the situation which he had not been able to specify before, and a good many personal aspects of himself. During a number of hours he directly referred to successive direct referents and felt meanings. Yet between hours he was unable to do this alone, but felt only shame or resentment. Only by moving temporarily "on by" these emotions could he refer directly to "this," "what I feel," about which, granted, I also have these emotions.
It seems quite striking and universal that we feel guilt, shame, and badness, instead of feeling that concerning which we feel shame, guilt, and badness. It is almost as if these emotions themselves preclude our feeling what it 211 is to us-not so much because they are so unpleasant, as because they skip the point at which we might complete, symbolize, respond or attend to that which centrally we feel. I am inclined to hypothesize that guilt, shame, and badness are emotions which occur as responses instead of the response which, by action or symbolizing, we would otherwise give our felt referent. These emotions win to complete but actually "skip" the incomplete implicit meanings. It is like an animal whose response to hunger is to bite itself in the leg. Instead of responding with 1 behavior which in some way "symbolizes" the hunger and carries forward the organismic digestion process, such an animal would be most aware of the pain in its leg and would behave accordingly. At any rate, the preoccupation with these emotions is not to be confused with the felt meaning which, though connected to these emotions, needs the focusing.
One client describes it in terms of a hurricane: "If you only go so far into something, its like going into a hurricane and getting terribly blown around. You have to go into it and then keep going further and further in till you get to the eye of the hurricane. There it's quiet and you can see where you are." This beautifully expresses the fact that the direction of focusing is definitely into the emotions, not away from them, yet also that focusing involves something qualitatively very different than merely "being blown around" by the emotions. The illustration also captures something of the centrality, depth, and quiet which one finds-the quality which others have called 35,"being in touch with myself." The felt referent, for the moment, is "me." It unfolds and is a thousand things. In comparison, the emotional tone which attaches to it and precedes it is not itself a thousand things. To remain with it merely feeds it. There is always a "breath-held," tense, tight quality about most of these emotional tones. Yet to turn away from the emotion is to turn away also from the direction in which one "finds oneself." Thus, one must "move into" and "through," or "on by," these emotional tones to the direct referent which is the felt meaning of it all.
The difference between focusing and "wallowing" or "being trapped in" certain emotions is most dramatically evident when one compares the usual experiences of an individual when he works on a personality difficulty alone and when he does so in the presence of an understanding other person. The difference is dramatic, because during many hours he has gone round and round, feeling the same series of emotions and lacking any referent movement. In contrast, often even just saying to the other person a little of what one has been feeling and thinking produces direct reference and referent movement. Later I will discuss this role of the other person in making focusing and other therapeutic processes possible. Another person's responses to the emotions, for instance, can make it possible to "grant them," "let them," and "get by" them, so as to refer directly to the felt meanings. It is often possible, though always unsteady and difficult, for the individual to focus by himself.

2. Circumstantial orbit. Just as one may get lost in the sheer emotions of guilt, shame, or badness, so one may also get lost in an inward recitation of circumstances, such as: what one ought to have done or did do; what others did, or might have done, or can be imagined to have done, etc. Such circumstantial play and replay, the inward repetitions of conversations, and dramatic re-enactings are clearly different from the felt meaning all this has and on which the individual could (perhaps, with help) focus. Often the client arrives for the therapy hour after sleepless nights and tired days of this kind of circumstantial "runaround" and finds, with a few responses to the felt meaning of "all this;" that with great relief he now directly refers to and unfolds the felt meaning. No matter what a bad look it turns out to have, the physically felt and verbalized steps of focusing arc clearly anti relievingly different from the circumstantial orbit.
2. 情况轨道。就像个体会在罪恶感、羞耻感或坏的感觉这些纯粹的情绪中迷失,个体也会在一种内在的情况的重复中迷失,比如说个体应该做过什么,其他人做过的,或应该已经做的,或是想象可以完成的,等各种情况。这种惯性剧码的上演与重演,内在谈话的重复,戏剧性地重演和个体可以用来聚焦(很可能会比较有帮助)的感受意义所包含的内容也是非常不同地。个案经常在不眠之夜或是好几天这种惯性“绕圈”过后来到治疗室发现,伴随着一些对“所有这一切”的感受意义的少量回应,现在感受到很大的释放,他现在能够直接与感受意义联结,并展开。不管呈现出来的样子有多糟糕,但生理上的感受到的和语言化的聚焦步骤和情况轨道是很不同的。
3. Explanatory orbit. Attempts at explanations arc different from direct reference: "Is it just that I'm so hostile?" "It must mean that I'm protecting some latent homosexuality." "This means I have a need to fail." "It's just that I'm trying to be right." "I'm just trying to get the love I didn't get as a child." "This is paranoid." "Other people don't get upset at this, so it must be that I'm not grateful for what I have."
3. 阐述轨道。尝试去阐述和直接指涉物是很不同的:“是不是因为我太敌意了呢?”“这肯定意味着我在防御一些潜在的同性恋欲望。”“这肯定是因为我有一种失败的需求”。“我只是努力要做对”。“我只是想得到我童年时没得到的爱”。“这是偏执的”。“其他人并没有不安,肯定是我对我拥有的还不够感恩。”
Whether the explanatory concepts are simple and foolish, or sophisticated and quite correct, they are useless unless one employs them as pointers to momentarily name and hold onto a directly felt meaning. Without that, one cogitates in a vacuum and gets "no further." The explanatory "runaround" races the mental engine, disengaged from the wheels. It makes one tired and confused, and it is quite different from focusing on the felt meaning. Even one small step of the focusing process can change the inner scene so that one's whole set of explanatory concepts suddenly becomes irrelevant. In comparison with the felt meaning, explanatory concepts are so gross, so general, so empty, that even when they are accurate they are helpless abstractions.
4. Sell-engineering. A fourth runaround consists in something that might be called "self-engineering." In this also one does not attend to one's felt meaning. Instead, 36,one "talks at" oneself, inwardly. One is very active and constructive, arranging and rearranging one's feelings without stopping to sense quite what they are. This self-engineering is clearly different from focusing on a felt referent and the sensing and symbolizing of its implicit meaning.
4. 自我惯例。 第四种绕圈含有“自我管理”的成分。这种情况下个体也不处理感受意义。相反,个体和自己进行内在地交谈。个体非常积极,有建设性,不停地调整他的感受,从来不停下来感受这些是什么。这种自我管理和聚焦于感受指涉物并对其感受,对其暗在意义进行符号化明显是不同的。
Self-engineering is not always futile. In fact, it can succeed exactly to the extent to which one's experiencing in the given regard functions implicitly. The trouble with willpower and engineering is not, as Sullivan held and Rogers sometimes seems to assume, that there is no such thing. There is. One is not always automatically "wafted" into action or self-control. Willpower, decision, and self-engineering are often necessary. However, they cannot be effectively exerted at points where experiencing does not implicitly function. In such regards self-responses or the responses of others are required first, so that the process can be carried forward and experiencing then does implicitly function.
This focusing may be what has always been meant in religious terms by "listening to the still small voice." This has more recently been confused with conscience (and, only in very well-adjusted people can one identify conscience with direct reference). All but a few people have been puzzled as to where inside to "listen" and "hear" this "voice." The above indicates that to "listen" really means to keep quiet, to stop "talking at" yourself, and to sense just what is there, bodily felt, meaningful, and about to become clearer and then verbalizable.
The rule for focusing--a rule to be applied inwardly to oneself--is "Keep quiet and listen!" Then, by referring to the concretely felt referent, it will unfold; the sense of its meaning, and then the words, will come into focus.
14. Our formulation here may be seen as an extension of Sullivan's basic concepts referred to earlier at the beginning of our discussion of Sullivan.
14. 这里的推论可以看作之前提到的沙利文基础概念的拓展。

15. Recall our earlier discussion of the repression paradigm. Also see later discussion of the unconscious, definition 24.
15. 回顾一下之前对潜抑范式的讨论。定义24会再对潜意识进行讨论。

16. Compare our earlier discussion of the "content paradigm."
16. 和前面讨论的“内容”范式相比较。

17. Compare George Herbert Mead (1938, p. 445): "The self ... grows out of the more primitive attitude of indicating to others, and later arousing in the organism the response of the other, because this response is native to the organism, so that the stimulation which calls it out in another tends to call it out in the individual himself."
17. 和乔治 赫伯特 米德 (George Herbert Mead 1938, p. 445)的观点相比较:“自我……从他人给予指示的原始态度中成长出来,稍后通过他人对其的回应在其有机体中浮现,因为这种回应是产生于有机体的,所以会唤起另外一个人的刺激倾向于唤起个体自己的回应。”

18. This point has been made by others. Freud said that the energy of the defense comes from the repressed--i.e., that the concrete force which motivates the behavior is the real one, despite the opposite and unreal nature of the structure that determines the behavior. Rogers said that the most therapeutic response is to take the basic, intended felt meaning of the individual's self-expression at face value, no matter how obvious the defensiveness and rationalization. But we may add specificity to these more general statements.
18. 这一点其他作者也讨论过。弗洛伊德宣称防御的出现来自于潜抑,比如说,即使相反的不真实的结构决定了行为,给予这一行为真正的动机的力量是真实的力量。罗杰斯则表示从个体自我表达的表面层面出发,搜寻基本的、可预期的感受意义进行回应是最具疗效的,不管防御和理智化的成分多么明显。我们会对这些较为笼统的陈述增加一些具体的内容。

19. I call it a fact, because in psychotherapy we observe it. In the above context it is a matter of theoretical formulation, not of fact.
19. 我称之为事实,是因为这是我们在心理治疗中观察到的。而在上述的内容,是理论建构性的,不是事实。
Some observable research variables have been defined: Assents to one set of descriptions of "immediacy" were found to increase significantly in successful psychotherapy (Gendlin and Shlien, 1961). One group of therapists observed significantly more of the above described new experiencing during the hour in success cases (Gendlin, Jenny, and Shlien, 1960). Successful clients were judged significantly higher on scale-defined variables called immediate manner of experiencing and expression (concerning self, personal meanings, the therapist, problems ... any content), as compared with failure clients.
我们已经定义了一些可观察的研究变量:我们从成功的心理治疗中发现了一组被识别为“直接性”的特征,明显强于不成功的治疗(Gendlin and Shlien, 1961)。一组治疗师观察到在成功的个案中,新的体验明显更多(Gendlin, Jenny, and Shlien, 1960)。与不成功的来访者相比,成功的来访者在体验和表达的(关于自我的,个人意义的,治疗师,及问题的各种内容)直接性的量表上得分明显较高。

20. This is a trouble with most concepts about personality change and psychotherapy, as well as with most concepts of ideals, moral values, and life wisdom: The concepts tell a little something of how it seems when one has arrived at the aim, but they tell nothing of the process of getting there. Such concepts make all sorts of mischief because we tend to try to fit them without allowing ourselves the very different process of getting there. Better concepts about the process of getting there can remedy this age-old problem.
20. 关于人格改变和心理治疗,理想(ideals),价值观及生活智慧的大多数概念都有一个问题:这些概念讲了一点一个人到达目标以后看起来是什么样的,但是关于如何到达那里的过程却什么都没有讲。有一些概念造成了许多损害,我们为了努力去适应这些概念,而不允许自己以非常不同的方式到达那里。更好的概念关于如何到达那的过程,这可以修正这个年代久远的问题。
21. Many contemporary writers point to the essential interpersonal relatedness of the human individual. Daseinsanalyse, Sullivan, Mead, and Buber point out that individual personality is not a self-contained piece of machinery with its own primary characteristics which is then placed into interaction. Rather, personality is an interacting.
21. 许多当代的作者指出了一些非常关键的人类个体的人际关联性。Daseinsanalyse,Sullivan,Mead和Buber指出了个体的人格并不是带着原初特性的独立的机器构造,而是必须放在互动中来考虑。人格是互动性的。
22. Only in verbal and conceptual content is "self-exploration" in psychotherapy distinguishable from the personal "relationship." As an ongoing experience process they are the same. The individual may say "only here am I myself" (showing the process to include both self and relationship), or he may speak mostly about the relationship, or mostly about himself. It is the same process whether the content seems to be mostly about self or mostly about the relationship.
22. “自我探索”和人际“关系”只在语言和概念性的内容上是可以区分的。作为正在进行的体验过程他们是同样的。个体可能会说“只有在这里,我才是我自己”(显示了过程包含自我和关系),他所说的也可能大多数关于关系,或是大多数关于自己。不管内容看起来更多关于自我或是更多关于关系,过程都是同样的。
One research finding (Gendlin, Jenny, and Shlien, 1960) employed some operational variables related to this point. Psychotherapists were asked to make ratings of the extent to which "therapy, for this client, focuses chiefly on his problems, or ... on his 38,relationship with you." These ratings were not associated with outcome.
On the other hand, outcome did correlate with the following two scales: "How important to the client is the relationship as a source of new experience? Examples: 'I've never been able to let go and just feel dependent and helpless as I do now'; or, 'This is the first time I've ever really gotten angry at someone.' " Another scale which also correlated with outcome was: "To what extent does the client express his feelings, and to what extent does he rather talk about them?" These findings indicate that outcome is not affected by whether the content (topic) is the self or the relationship. Rather, it matters whether the individual is engaged in a manner of ongoing interaction process which involves newly reconstituted aspects of experiencing.
This research illustrates the usefulness of process concepts as compared to content concepts to generate operational research variables. Earlier research (Seeman, 1954) had posed the problem by finding no significant association between success in psychotherapy and discussion of the relationship with the therapist. The finding seemed to contradict the importance of the relationship. New research replicated that finding and added scales concerning the ongoing interaction process.
这个研究阐明了在产生一些新的研究变量上过程概念和内容概念相比更有作用。较早的一个研究(Seeman, 1954)提出了一个问题:和治疗师讨论关系与治疗的成功并没有明显的关联。这个发现看起来和关系的重要性有冲突。新的研究复制了这个发现,但增加了一些关于持续进行的互动过程的量表。
We need theory to create operational definitions. The most effective kind of theory for that purpose is one which employs process concepts in reference to experiencing. We must carefully distinguish from theory the operational terms (to which it leads) that are then defined by procedure and observation, not by theory.
23. I will choose two observations and show how the reformulation accounts for them:
1. A sequence of words is flashed, each for fractions of a second, on a screen by means of a tachistoscope. When the individual is unable to read the word it is flashed again and again. Now, for example, an individual may be able to read the words "grass," "democracy," "table," "independence;" with an average number of repetitions, but for the word "sex" he requires twice as many repetitions. The theories of the unconscious explain this as follows:
The organism can discriminate a stimulus and its meaning for the organism without utilizing the higher nerve centers involved in awareness.
23. 我将选择两个观察,并呈现如何能够重新说明它们:
1. 当使用视觉记忆测试仪在屏幕上闪过一系列的语词,每一个只花几分之一秒的时间。个体来不及读懂一次次闪过的词语。现在,举例来说,某一个体可能需要平均次数的重复,以读出这些词语“草地”,“民主”,“桌子”,“独立”,但对于“性”,他可能需要两倍于平均次数的重复。无意识理论会这样来解释:
The current theories have this assumption in common: Words such as "unconscious," "repression," "covert," "not me," "denial to awareness," "subception," all involve the uncomfortable but seemingly necessary assumption that there is a discrimination before an aware discrimination takes place, and that the experience or content which the individual misses in awareness actually exists somewhere in him. How else can one account for the above example and the many other observations just like it?
But we need not assume that something in the individual first reads the word sex, then becomes anxious about it, and then forces it to remain outside of awareness. Rather let us try to interpret this observation as a case where the individual does not ever read it until he does so in awareness. Why then does he take so long to read just that word when he could read the others in half the time? We have tried to show earlier (definitions 4 and 16) that, in order to read a word and to say what it is, the function of felt experiencing is necessary. We read without explicitly thinking the meanings of what we read. We have the sound images and we have the felt meaning. 39,Now if for some reason our felt process cannot interact with the words, our eyes may continue, but we cannot say what we have read.
To explain the matter, process theory must take the place of content theory. The process of interacting with the symbols, of "reading them," requires the function of experiencing (the inwardly felt body process). If this felt process is not functioning in some regards, then the expected discriminating will not occur in these regards. Aspects which ought to be "implicit" will not function and, therefore, cannot interact and interpret the present situation. Hence, in these regards, the individual may misconstrue or simply miss (be unable to complete) the process, without this implying that he first interpreted these fully and then keeps them out of awareness.
The difference can be put simply: content theories assume that one completes the process of knowing, experiencing, interpreting, reacting, but that some of this process does not reach awareness. The present theory holds that the process does not completely occur.
2. A second observation:
An individual leaves a certain situation feeling quite happy. Four days later he becomes aware that really he has been quite angry about what happened. He feels that he "has been" angry all along but "wasn't aware of it."
2. 第二个观察:
Now, our theory denies that what he now calls anger was in his body all along, without awareness. Rather, there war something, but not the process of being angry. He calls it being angry now, because now he is engaged in that process, and he clearly feels the releasing (see definition 8) quality which physiologically lets him know that his present anger "satisfies," "discharges," "releases," "symbolizes," "completes"--in short, has some deeply felt relation to--the condition he physically felt during the four preceding days. The process was not occurring, and that made for a physiological condition which is only now altered. When "structure bound" experience "goes to completion," we feel that we now know what it was then; we did not know it then, because the ongoing process of now is different from the stopped condition of then.
Only by completing the process by response to the feeling or felt meaning that is there (and is not anger) does the individual then "become aware" of anger. If we view this in terms of content, it is all very puzzling. First the content is not there, and then, later on, it is said to have been there all along (hidden in there, somewhere). But in terms of process it is precisely this deeply felt relationship of the later anger to the previously felt condition that tells us that a previously stopped process has only now been completed.
We, therefore, need not assume that there are two minds in the individual--one being an unconscious mind that first perceives a content and then permits or prohibits the aware mind to perceive it. Rather, the aware feeling (whatever it is--let us say it is a tension or a dissatisfaction, not at all anger) must be responded to and carried forward. Only thereby does the process go to completion and anger (or whatever supposed content) come to be an aspect of the reconstituted process.
24. See definition 17, the law of reconstitution. 40
24. 见定义17. 重建的规则。
25. In the large research (Rogers, 1960, p. 93) into psychotherapy with schizophrenics in which I am now engaged, we are applying process variables to the behavior changes of psychotics. The findings so far (Rogers et al., 1961) indicate that improvement on diagnostic tests is associated with operational behavior variables of a less rigid, less repetitive, less structure-bound manner of experiencing, and a greater use of felt experiencing as a direct referent and as a basis for behavior, expression, and relating. These tentative findings are defined in terms of rating scale variables and rating procedures.
25. 在一个我也参与的对精神分裂症心理治疗宏大的研究中(Rogers, 1960,p. 93),我们对精神病的行为改变使用了过程变量。这些发现显示了操作行为上的变量——较不僵化,较不重复,较少结构限制的体验方式——和诊断测试上的改善相关,而作为行为、表达和关联的基础,以及作为直接指涉物的感受体验也有着很大作用。这些试探性的发现是通过等级量表和分级程序的方式来限定的。

26. Therapist's self-expression used to reconstitute process:
26. 重建过程中的治疗师的自我表达
When the client's verbalization or behavior gives us a sense of the implicit, felt meanings from which he speaks, then responding to that (even if it is not at all clear) carries the process forward and reconstitutes it as well. However, when the client is silent or speaks only of external matters, then the therapist's voicing his own feelings is an important mode of response which can reconstitute the client's experiencing process.
There are several other kinds of difficulties. Sometimes the client's talk is bizarre and hard to understand. If there are bits which do make sense, one must repeat these carefully, checking one's understanding. This gives the isolated individual a moment-by-moment sense of contact-something like the pier is for a drowning man. I do not want to be merely poetic in saying that. I want to point up the need for a concretely felt sense of the interacting listener which, where welcome to the client, should be given every few moments during talk that is hard to follow.
Sometimes there is no understandable logical content, but the symbolic images do add up to a feeling. (Client: "The Austrian army took all my possessions. They're going to pay me a million dollars." Therapist: "Somebody did you dirt? Took everything away from you? You want to make them pay back?").
Sometimes even less is understandable, but one can be sure the individual is suffering, lonely, hurt, having a rough time. The therapist can talk about any of. these without needing any confirming response from the client.
Sometimes the therapist must simply imagine what might be going on in the client. If the therapist says he does not know, would like to know but need not be told, and imagines so-and-so, the therapist can speak about what he imagines and thereby an interaction process is restored.
The client may not say a word, but what is occurring is a felt interaction process in which articulation and symbolization is given his feelings. One person's behavior can reconstitute the interaction and experiencing process of the other person (see definition 23).
During silent hours the therapist can express what might go on in a troubled person uncomfortably sitting there; or, what goes on in the therapist as he wishes to help, wishes to hear, wishes not to pressure, hates to be useless, would be glad if he knew the silent time was useful, or imagines many feelings and perhaps painful ones going through the client's mind which he is not ready to talk about yet.
These therapist self-expressions require four specifications:41,
1. They are expressed explicitly as the therapist's own. If they imply anything about the client, then the therapist says he is not sure it is so, he imagines it, has this impression, etc. It needs no affirmation or denial from the client. It is the therapist, speaking for himself.
1. 他们需要清楚表达这只是治疗师的感受。如果他们暗示这是关于来访者的,治疗师要说他并不确定,这只是他的想象,他有这样的印象,等等。这并不需要来访者的肯定或是否定。治疗师只是代表自己在说话。
2. The therapist spends a few moments focusing on the feeling he might express. He seeks some aspect from all he feels, some bit which he can safely and simply say. No one can say all of the thousand implicit meanings he feels at one moment. One or two--especially those which, at the moment, seem too personal or bad or embarrassing--become, after a moments focusing, an intimate and personal expression of present interaction.
2. 治疗师会花一些片刻来聚焦一下他想要表达的内容。他会从他所有的感受中去寻找一些方面,某些比较安全并简单的来进行表达。没有人能够表达他在一个片刻中感受到的所有的许许多多的暗在的意义。其中可能有一两个——特别是那些当时看起来非常私人的,坏的或是很尴尬的感受——对此聚焦一会以后,可能会成为对当下互动的一个内心的、个人的表达。
Perhaps it is hard for me that we are silent and I am perhaps useless to him. There! That is something I can tell him. Or, I wonder if in this silence he is doing anything at all. I find that I am glad to be silent if that gives him time and peace to think and feel. I can express that. Such expressions are a warmly personal interaction. But they require a few moments of self-attention during which I locus on and unfold my present experiencing in this interaction.
3. The phrasings and meanings which arise in us are very strongly influenced by our overall feeling toward the person to whom we speak. The therapeutic attitude toward the client as a person is an attitude of being totally for him-Rogers' (1957) "unconditional regard." Whitehorn (1959) terms it being like the patient's "lawyer." It is an attitude that whatever we both dislike about this trouble, the individual as a person it "up against" that in himself. I can always truly assume that. (This attitude has nothing to do with an overall approval or agreement or liking for this or that behavior, trait, attitude, or peculiarity.) Often I must imagine the person inside, who is "up against" all this. Only months later do I come to love and know that person.
3. 在我们中间升起的表达和意义受到我们正在与之交谈的对象产生的整体感受的影响。对来访者作为一个人的治疗性态度是一种对他的整体的态度——Rogers’ (1957)“无条件关注”。Whitehorn(1959)将之定义为象是病人的“律师”。这是这样一种态度: 我们都不喜欢这个麻烦,而这是个体作为一个人需要在他自己内在所面对(up against)的。我总是可以这样假设。(这种态度和一种完全地赞赏,或是同意,或是喜欢这种或那种的行为,特质,态度或特性完全不同。)我经常需要想象个体的内在,谁在“面对”这些。几个月以后,我会开始爱并了解这个人。
It is amazing what a definable and concrete attitude this is. One can depend on it. There is always a person "up against" anything dislikable in him.
4. When the client expresses himself, a response to that is needed. At such times therapist self-expression can get in the way.
4. 当来访者表达他自己时,需要的是回应。这时治疗师的自我表达可能会成为阻碍。
When one has an opportunity to respond to the client's feeling, to his specific felt meaning, and the exact way of perceiving and interpreting something, responding exactly u, that is the best and most powerful response. The self-expressive modes of responding fit those clients who give little to which one can respond.
Therapist self-expression as a mode of responding is important with those among the people labeled psychotic, who express little feeling, only externalized situational descriptions, or who sit in pure silence. However, there are many well-functioning persons with whom it is difficult to form a deep interaction because they do not express themselves. Kirtner (1958) found that individuals can be predicted to fail in therapy if their first interview shows little inward attention. Recently we are learning that therapist self-expression can help reconstitute the interaction and experiencing process of such individuals.
治疗师的自我表达是一种回应的模式,对那些被标签为精神病的人非常重要,他们不怎么表达感受,只是描述一些外在的情况,经常处于完全的沉默中。但是,有许多个体功能很好,但由于他们不太表达自己,在形成深度互动上比较困难。Kirtner (1958)发现如果一些个体在治疗的初次会谈中显示非常少的内在注意,可以预测这些个体在治疗中通常不会成功。最近我们学习到治疗师的自我表达可以帮助这些个体重建互动和体验过程。
27. A note on the many new terms:
27. 对一些新术语的注解:
In the realm of personality change we largely lack sufficiently specific concepts to discuss and define observations. 'The present theory attempts to offer such concepts. 42,It is hoped that with these concepts (and others) our thinking and discussing will be advanced and our ability to isolate and define observations sharpened.
There may be some difficulty in holding fast to new definitions such as direct referent, referent movement, carrying forward, reconstituting, manner of experiencing, implicit function. It cannot be hoped that all twenty-six definitions will succeed in entering the language. Nevertheless, we need these (or better) terms to discuss personality change.

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