自我无效能知觉和抑郁 Perceived Self-Inefficacy and Depression
The inability to influence events and social conditions that significantly affect one's life can give rise to feelings of futility and despondency as well as anxiety. A theory must specify when perceived inefficacy will generate anxiety and when depression. The nature of the outcomes over which personal control is sought is an important differentiating factor. People experience anxiety when they perceive themselves as ill equipped to manage potentially injurious events. Attenuation or control of aversive outcomes is central to anxiety. People are saddened and depressed by their perceived inefficacy to gain highly valued outcomes. Irreparable loss or failure to gain desired rewarding outcomes figures prominently in despondency. In extreme cases, individuals become so chronically preoccupied with self-depreciation and their sense of worthlessness that the pursuit of personal satisfactions becomes futile (Beck, 1973).
焦虑，还会产生徒劳和意志消沉感。心理学的理论必须阐明无效能感会在什么时候产生焦虑，什么时候产生抑郁。 个人控制结果的性质是重要的区分因素。 当人们在处理一些或许有害的事件时，觉得自己准备不足，就会体验到焦虑。焦虑的中心就是抑制或控制不良结果。 当人们在获取极有价值的结果方面体会到了无效能感后，就会悲哀和抑郁。无可挽回的损失或没能获取所渴望的有价值结果的作用，在失望中十分突出。在极端的例子中，个人长期受自我贬低和无价值感的困扰，会让个人对满足的追求变得徒劳无用。(Beck, 1973) 。如果一个人对显著影响自己生活的事件和社会条件无能为力，不仅会产生
There is a dichotomous view iri the clinical lore that anxious people have an attentional bias toward threats, but depressed people have a memory bias for past failures and other negative events. This dichotomization of biases in information processing is probably an artifact of the types of events presented and whether one examines forethought or after thought. If presented with choice situations involving both potential losses and opportunities, there is every indication that depressed individuals would show a pessimistic attentional bias toward likely losses of future ventures. Nor are the depressed mired solely in negative remembrances of the past. Indeed, hopelessness about the future is one of the major features of depression.
Human distress does not come packaged in neatly separable forms. Perceived inefficacy in gaining highly valued outcomes is often anxiety-provoking as well. When losses of what one values highly produce aversive outcomes, as when failure to secure a job jeopardizes one's livelihood, a sense of powerlessness to control vital aspects of one's life is both distressing and depressing. The fact that attainment failures and losses that portend aversive consequences are both distressing and depressing may be upsetting to nosologists and proponents of discrete emotions but is hardly perplexing to sociocognitivists. Because of the common co-occurrence of privations and threats, both apprehension and despair often accompany perceived inefficacy to alter miserable life circumstances.
There is more than one process through which people can become depressed. In the model of triadic reciprocal causation, each of the three classes of causal factors - cognitive and other personal factors, behavior, and environmental events - contribute to depression interactively. Adverse life events - in the form of failures, hardships, and lack or loss of emotional relationships - can instill a sense of worthlessness and despondency over one's life situation (Krantz, 1985; Lloyd, 1980; Oatley & Bolton, 1985). This is the environmental contributor. Yet most people who struggle with negative realities do not lapse into chronic depression. The emotional effects of adverse life events depend, in large part, on how they are construed. People who have developed a negatively biased self-system tend to interpret adverse life events in pessimistic ways that produce, exacerbate, and prolong bouts of depression (Beck, 1984; Kuiper & Olinger, 1986; Peterson & Seligman, 1984; Rehm, 1988). This is the cognitive contributor. Depressed people create depressing environments by their behavior. Those who are markedly lacking in social competencies experience impoverished, rejective relationships that contribute to feelings of dejection, inadequacy, and worthlessness (Lewinsohn, Haberman, Teri, & Hautzinger, 1985). When they interact with others, their dejective alienating behavior makes those around them morose, hostile, rejecting, and guilty (Coyne, 1985; Joiner, 1994). The negative social evaluations and reactions they elicit from others provide social validation for their morose outlook on life. This is the behavioral contributor to despondency. Thus, depressed people not only have a gloomy view of their environment, they also create gloomy social environments for themselves to view.
人们变成抑郁的过程不止一个。在三元交互因果模型中，三类原因——认知及其他个人因素、行为以及环境事件——交互作用，影响抑郁的产生。不良生活事件——表现为失败、困难，以及感情关系的残缺或丧失——会逐渐形成无价值感及对自身生活状况的失望感(Krantz, 1985; Lloyd, 1980; Oatley & Bolton, 1985) 。这是环境因素。但与消极现实抗争的大多数人并没有坠入长期的抑郁。不良生活事件的情绪作用很大程度上决定于人们对它们作何解释。形成了有消极偏向的自我系统者倾向于以悲观的方式解释不良生活事件，从而产生、加剧并延长抑郁的发作(Beck, 1984; Kuiper & Olinger, 1986; Peterson& Seligman, 1984; Pehm, 1988) 。这是认知因素。抑郁者以其行为创设了抑郁环境。社会能力显著欠缺的人感受到贫乏、排斥的关系，从而产生沮丧、不足和无价值感(Lewinsohn, Hobennan, Teri & Hautzinger,1985）。在与他人交往时，他们令人灰心的疏离行为使周围的人郁闷、敌意拒绝和内疚(Coyne, 1985; Joiner, 1994) 。由他们引出的他人消极的社会评价和反应证实了其闷闷不乐的生活观。这是导致失望的行为作用因素。因此，抑郁的人不仅认为其环境布满阴霾，而且还主动创设这样一个布满阴霾的社会环境供自己仔细观看。
Different theories of depression - cognitive, behavioral, and environmental- have been built around each of the three major contributors to depression. Viewed from an interactional perspective, depression is better understood by examining how these major classes of determinants act together to produce despondency than by treating them as rival determinants that operate independently to create depressive reactions.