Libido 力比多(弗洛伊德)
作者: 维基百科 / 15899次阅读 时间: 2010年3月05日
来源: 译言网站 标签: LIBIDO Libido 弗洛伊德 力比多

/J9M1\7f A1W-?CkzO0For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). 心理学空间/B"|0VL3KeuF{y]u

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Libidoin its common usage  means sexual desire; however, more technical definitions, such as those  found in the work ofCarl  Jung,  are more general, referring to Libido as  the free creative—or psychic—energy an individual has to put toward personal  development or individuation.心理学空间?4}5J,\&K#Wk? \0N'r{
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6?8HoXf\8x01 History of the concept概念史心理学空间k(l,PU1U:T}9kw
2 Libido impairment 力比多缺陷心理学空间?!xS7rd+r:K
2.1 Psychological factors 心理因素
@&V7r0uh'n02.2 Physical factors 生理因素心理学空间&]BN2K0s%gY
2.2.1 Lifestyle 生活方式
M$u+TKhZ02.2.2 Medications 药物心理学空间_"s{{1v] ]7s
2.2.3 Menstrual cycle 月经周期
8e?3E:bX ^E{5\03 See also 另见
:|\?%u6tS04 References 参考资料心理学空间0_k[R.A|j

B [c4Y)np+EoY;e k0History of the concept  概念史心理学空间$l&Z:[6o K)C

9K w6w,Z[G0Sigmund Freudpopularized the  term and defined Libido as  the instinct energy or force, contained in what Freud called the id, the  largely unconscious structure of the psyche. Freud pointed out that these  libidinal drives can conflict with the conventions of civilized behavior,  represented in the psyche by the superego.心理学空间4zx`^6}0H


h.L#uA b&B"aC:J0It is this need to conform to society and control the Libido that  leads to tension and disturbance in the individual, prompting the use ofego  defensesto dissipate the  psychic energy of these unmet and mostly unconscious needs into other forms.  Excessive use of ego defenses results inneurosis.心理学空间WE*ab-Z:LD0z(|

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&f3qXo:?"`CR;T2m0 A primary goal ofpsychoanalysisis  to bring the drives of the id into consciousness, allowing them to be met  directly and thus reducing the patient's reliance on ego defenses.[1]  
Z7q lS\4pV3g1p(Z0精神分析的主要目的在于引导本我的驱力进入意识,容许它们获得直接的满足以减少患者对自我防卫机制的依赖性。


p pv5y [0According to Swiss psychiatristCarl  Gustav Jung, the Libido is  identified as psychic energy. Duality (opposition) that creates the energy  (or Libido)  of the psyche, which Jung asserts expresses itself only through symbols: "It  is the energy that manifests itself in the life process and is perceived  subjectively as striving and desire." (Ellenberger, 697)
;b/[u8wJ.U6v `(l4] _k0在瑞士精神病学家荣格看来,力比多等同于心灵能量。二元性(对立)创造了心灵能量(力比多),且只有通过象征才能表达自身,他是这样论述的:“力比多在生命过程当中表现自身,并被主观地认知为斗争与欲望。”


s_~5]vds"RZ0Defined more narrowly, Libido also  refers to an individual's urge to engage in sexual activity. In this sense,  the antonym of Libido is  destrudo.[citation needed] 
Q @XUq3`0狭义上,力比多也指个体对从事性行为的冲动。在这个意义上,力比多的反义词是死亡本能。


Libido impairment 力比多缺陷


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Sometimes, sexual desire can be impaired or reduced. It also may be weak or  not be present at all, in occurrences such as asexuality. Factors of reduced Libido can  be both psychological and physical. Absence of Libido may  or may not correlate with infertility or  impotence.有时,性渴望会被损害或者减少,同样可能表现出无力甚至完全不表现,诸如无性所发生的那样。影响力比多的因素可以是心理的,也可以是生理的。力比多的缺失与不育症以及阳痿的联系也并非绝对。心理学空间+d}1~?`n}

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w9InB Z7m0 Psychological factors 心理因素
%t S.l/U,G*GW:yao o0Reduction in Libido can  occur from psychological causes such as loss of privacy and/or intimacy,  stress, distraction or depression. It may also derive from the presence of  environmental stressors such as prolonged exposure to elevated sound levels  or bright light. Other causes include:
Depression 抑郁
x]9BD^c.n0stress or fatigue 压力或疲乏
\|!kl h'eCtM0childhood sexual abuse, assault, trauma, or neglect 儿童性虐待 强奸 精神创伤或忽视
w"L`NB6wW0body image issues 身体形象问题
N \4`Q-qk0sexual performance anxiety[2] 性焦虑心理学空间%mSL;|n0H K

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 Physical factors 生理因素
2q S}U!`0Physical factors that can affect Libido include:  endocrine issues such as hypothyroidism, levels of available testosterone in  the bloodstream of both women and men, the effect of certain prescription  medications (for example proscar (a.k.a. finasteride) or minoxidil), various  lifestyle factors and, according to studies, the attractiveness and  biological fitness of one's partner. [3] Inborn lack of sexual desire, often  observed in asexual people, can also be considered a physical factor.影响力比多的生理因素包括:内分泌问题比如甲状腺功能减退;人体血液当中可利用睾丸素水平;某些药物的影响(比如波斯卡(又名非纳斯特胺)以及米诺地尔),不同生活方式的影响以及,根据研究显示,自己伴侣的吸引程度和健康程度。遗传性性欲的缺乏,就如在无性人群中所经常看到的那样,也可以被认为是由生理因素造成的。

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-Y J1} Gf%y:po$Y.^+A0 Lifestyle 生活方式
'Zy8rz:?UW?0Being very underweight, severely obese,[4] or malnourished can cause a low Libidodue  to disruptions in normal hormonal levels.体重过轻,过度肥胖或者是营养不良,由于正常荷尔蒙水平的失调,也会导致力比多低下。

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^'hr6~W.}a;}0 Medications 药物心理学空间 u0U I?:De4`w3I
Reduced Libido is  also often iatrogenic and can be caused by many medications, such as  hormonal contraception, SSRIs and other antidepressants, opioids and beta  blockers. In some cases iatrogenic impotence or other sexual dysfunction can  be permanent, as in PSSD.力比多的降低也经常是医原性的,可能由多种药物引起,比如荷尔蒙避孕法,选择性5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂以及其他抗抑郁药,阿片样物质和β受体阻滞药(治高血压和心脏病的药物)。在某些病例中,如PSSD(Post-SSRI  sexual dysfunction),医原性阳痿或是其他性功能障碍可能是永久性的。心理学空间B zV `PG~

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Testosterone is one of the hormones controlling Libido in  human beings. Emerging research[5] is showing that hormonal contraception  methods like "the pill" (which rely on estrogen and progesterone together)  are causing low Libido in  females by elevating levels of Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).  睾丸素是人体中控制力比多的一种荷尔蒙。最新的研究显示,荷尔蒙避孕法如避孕丸(依靠雌激素和孕酮的共同作用),通过提高性激素结合球蛋白水平,引起女性力比多的降低。心理学空间_l.PvXt"J

R cK%I,k(P)`4^ZE0SHBG binds to sex hormones, including testosterone, rendering them  unavailable. Research is showing that even after ending a hormonal  contraceptive method, SHBG levels remain elevated and no reliable data  exists to predict when this phenomenon will diminish[6].  性激素,包括睾丸素,与球蛋白的结合后,便不可利用了。研究显示,即使停止荷尔蒙避孕法,SHBG水平仍居高不下,并且当下没有可靠的数据能够预测这种上升现象何时会下降。心理学空间+`.\2h-d2wpHtrN

]V0uV0m-BsT(uC!{0Some[who?] question whether "the pill" and other hormonal methods  (Depo-Provera, Norplant, etc) have permanently altered gene expression by  epigenetic  mechanisms.有人怀疑是否避孕丸以及其他荷尔蒙避孕法(甲羟孕酮避孕针,诺普兰植入等)通过后生性机制已经永久地改变了基因表达。心理学空间 W$q `2cM5S$p,N

!`Z,xs&T0Left untreated, women with low testosterone levels will experience loss of Libido which  in turn can often cause relationship stress[citation needed], and loss of  bone and muscle mass throughout their lives. (Low testosterone may also be  responsible for certain kinds of depression and low energy  states.)如果不加处理,睾丸素水平低下的妇女将体验到力比多的丧失,而这反过来将会引起其一生人际关系的紧张,以及骨骼和肌肉质量的丧失。(低睾丸素可能也是某些抑郁症和精力衰弱的原因)


&z KIN&N0Conversely, increased androgen steroids (e.g. testosterone) generally have a  positive correlation with Libido in  both sexes.[citation needed]相反,雄激素(如睾丸素)在两性中普遍都与力比多有确定的关联。

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 Menstrual cycle 月经周期心理学空间6qKN4F^^2G
Women's Libido is  correlated to their menstrual cycle. Many women experience heightened sexual  desire in the several days immediately before ovulation.[7] 女性力比多与她们的月经周期也有关联。许多女性在排卵前的几天里能够体验到高涨的性欲。

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 See also 参见

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@a+PU[l3Z T0Look upLibidoinWiktionary,  the free dictionary.在维基字典查阅力比多。 
Y#Hr(D1Oa*@0Aphrodisiac春药心理学空间 Q(\ @!W'U;m
%Nu ]1@4xL0Coitus reservatus不完全性交心理学空间8pb{8U5w
K3{"}KH0Death drive死亡驱力心理学空间%z0\7y#v&X6Q*S0i
3T8}9YgxZ+Wlo2x0Eros性爱本能心理学空间!l*hx N1gD(N+ri-X
Id, ego, and super-ego本我,自我与超我
'S| PW(c5?0Perimenopause停经前期
p eq8K AZHj0Self preservation自我保存心理学空间oJ+f#DL#x6J
Sexual attraction性吸引

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References 参考资料心理学空间/jBS!R-CU;GyA
1. Reber, Arthur S.; Reber, Emily S. (2001). Dictionary of Psychology. New  York: Penguin Reference.ISBN  0-140-51451-1. 《心理学词典》心理学空间mlGz1D ~2c

){TT3o1Fr~|t02.  (Yalom, I.D., Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New  York: Basic Books, 1989.) 《爱情侩子手及其他心理治疗故事》

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3.  Psychology  Today - The orgasm Wars 《今日心理——性高潮战争》c

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4.  "Obesity  increases risk of erectile dysfunction" [1] 《肥胖提升勃起障碍风险》

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5.  Warnock JK, Clayton A, Croft H, Segraves R, Biggs FC. Comparison of  androgens in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder: those on combined  oral contraceptives (COCs) vs. those not on COCs.. J Sex Med 2006;3:878-882.PMID  16942531.  《女性性冷淡之雄激素比较:关于女性使用组合口服避孕丸的与否》心理学空间zN"E+wPSZ&M

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6. Panzer C, Wise S, Fantini G, Kang D, Munarriz R, Guay A, Goldstein I.  Impact of oral contraceptives on sex hormone-binding globulin and androgen  levels: a retrospective study in women with sexual dysfunction.. J Sex Med  2006;3:104-113.PMID  16409223.  《口服避孕剂对性激素结合球蛋白和雄激素的影响:一份对女性性功能障碍的回溯研究》

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7. Susan B. Bullivant, Sarah A. Sellergren, Kathleen Stern, et al. (February  2004). "Women's  sexual experience during the menstrual cycle: identification of the sexual  phase by noninvasive measurement of luteinizing hormone". Journal of Sex  Research 41 (1): 82–93 (in online article, see pp.14–15,18–22).PMID  15216427.

5i(IYF&x-r6}cYS0   《月经期女性性体验:通过对黄体化激素的非侵害性测量获得的不同性阶段的鉴定》心理学空间4Sdg)p)x_ },h

Gabriele Froböse, Rolf Froböse, Michael Gross (Translator): Lust and Love:  Is it more than Chemistry? Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry,ISBN  0-85404-867-7, (200  《性欲与爱情:仅仅是化学作用?》

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Ellenberger F. Henri (1970). The discovery of the Unconscious: The History  and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books  《无意识的发现:动力精神病学的历史与发展》心理学空间5wA#@jM8C*N({\*i

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