BPS:既然我们知道幸福如何长久,为什么又要及时行乐呢?
作者: Christian Jarrett 文 / 2114次阅读 时间: 2017年2月24日
来源: 陈明 译 标签: 积极心理学 心流
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网
We know what will make us happy, why do we watch TV instead?
既然我们知道什么会让我们快乐,为什么我们又要看去电视呢?
Christian Jarrett 文
陈明 译
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The luxury microwave meal was delicious, the house is warm, work’s going OK, but you’re just not feeling very happy. Some positive psychologists believe this is because many of us in rich, Western countries spend too much of our free time on passive activities, like bingeing on Netflix and browsing Twitter, rather than on active, psychologically demanding activities, like cooking, sports or playing music, that allow the opportunity to experience “flow” – that magic juncture where your abilities only just meet the demands of the challenge. A new paper in the Journal of Positive Psychology examines this dilemma. Do we realise that pursuing more active, challenging activities will make us happier in the long-run? If so, why then do we opt to spend so much more time lazing around engaged in activities that are pleasant in the moment, but unlikely to bring any lasting fulfilment?

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oQ ua'TK0奢华的微波炉烤肉美味又可口,房子很温暖,工作也很好,但你就是觉得不太开心。一些积极心理学家认为,这是因为我们中的许多人生活丰富,西方国家花费了我们太多的自由时间在被动的活动之中,就像是把时间用于浏览Netflix视频网站或推特,而不是积极的心理需求的活动,如做饭、体育或玩音乐,以便有机会去体验“心流”,在这个魔法时刻,你的能力恰好满足了挑战的需求。在《积极心理学杂志》上的一篇新论文探讨了这一困境。我们是否意识到,追求更积极、更有挑战性的活动会让我们更快乐?如果是这样,那么为什么我们会磨磨蹭蹭的花那么多时间从事于即刻愉快的活动,但是,这些活动又不会带来任何持久的成就?心理学空间5S!Z5E{!Xjt d{

:\5oR,]R kS/B S0Across two studies, L. Parker Schiffer and Tomi-Ann Roberts at the Claremont Graduate University and Colorado College, surveyed nearly 300 people (presumably US citizens, average age 33/34 years) via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk website about what they thought of dozens of different activities: some passive like listening to music or watching movies, others more active and potentially flow-inducing, such as making art or meditating. Specifically, the participants rated how enjoyable, effortful, and daunting they considered the activities to be, as well as how often they engaged in each of them in a typical week. The participants also identified which activities they considered the most and least conducive to lasting happiness.心理学空间XHw o)M5nt@

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在两个研究中,克莱蒙特研究大学的L. Parker Schiffer和科罗拉多大学的Tomi-Ann Roberts,通过亚马逊土耳其机器人调查了近300人(大概是,平均年龄33岁、34岁的美国人)所想到的几十种不同的活动:比如听音乐或看电影这些被动的活动,以及其他的更积极的和潜在诱发心流的活动,比如艺术或冥想。具体而言,参与者评估了他们认为这些活动有多快乐、努力或令人畏惧,同时评估了他们在标准的一周时间内参与每一项运动的频率。同时,参与者确认了他们所认为的最有利/不利于持久的幸福的活动。心理学空间 {{7Q&GuZl

{D N~I0There was a clear pattern in the participants’ answers: they identified more effortful activities as being more associated with lasting happiness, yet they said they spent much more time on passive, relaxation-based activities, like watching TV. Looking at their other judgments, the key factor that seemed to deter participants from engaging in more active, flow-inducing activities is that they tended to be seen as particularly daunting and less enjoyable, even while being associated with lasting happiness. The more daunting an activity was deemed to be, the less frequently it was undertaken (by contrast, and to the researchers’ surprise, the perceived effort involved in the activity did not seem to be a deterrent).心理学空间uAbf*ZMN(}

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参与者的回答中有一个清晰的模式:他们发现,更努力的活动是与持久的幸福相关联的,但他们说,他们花在被动、放松的活动的时间更多,比如看看电视。在探寻他们的其他判断时,阻止参与者从事更积极的催生心流活动的关键因素似乎是,这些活动往往被认为特别的艰巨和不太愉快,即便这些活动与持久的幸福相关联。一项活动被认为越是艰巨,它就越少被进行(相比之下,令研究人员惊讶的是,产于活动之中的知觉努力似乎并非是制约的因素)。心理学空间1KJ,Z/E2X,l8|

keM1S^1x`0Schiffer and Roberts consider this to be a paradox of happiness: we know which kind of activities will bring us lasting happiness, but because we see them as daunting and less enjoyable in the moment, we choose to spend much more of our time doing passive, more immediately pleasant things with our free time. Their advice is to plan ahead “to try to ease the physical transition into flow activities” to make them feel less daunting. For example, they suggest getting your gym clothes and bag ready the night before, and choosing a gym that’s close and convenient; or getting your journal and pen, or easel and paintbrushes, ready in advance.

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&@h{g4zP C0Schiffer和Roberts认为这是幸福的一个悖论:我们知道这类活动会给我们带来持久的幸福,但是因为我们认为他们在此刻令人畏缩和不快,我们选择花费更多的时间去做被动的、即刻快乐的事情来度过我们的空闲时间。他们的建议是提前做计划“尽量放松身体,过渡到心流活动之中”,以便让这些活动觉得不是那么令人气馁。例如,他们建议在前一天晚上准备好你的运动服和包,选择一个近的和方便的健身房;或者提前准备好你的日记和笔,或画架、画笔。心理学空间v.~%k7z#b m P

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The other thing they suggest is using mindfulness, meditation or some other “controlled consciousness” technique to help yourself to disregard the initial “transition costs” of a flow activity, such as the early pain of a run, and to focus instead on its pleasurable aspects and the long-term rewards.

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他们建议的另一件事是使用正念,冥想或其他一些“控制意识”的技术,以帮助自己忽视心流活动最初的“过渡成本”,比如开始跑步时的疼痛,并把重点放在快乐的长期回报方面。

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“Future research is needed in order to empirically back our proposal that preplanning, prearranging, and, and controlled consciousness may aid overcoming the activation energy and transition costs that stand in the way of our true happiness,” the researchers said.心理学空间 M[7G ii$x

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研究人员说:“今后的研究被要求验证我们的建议:规划、准备和控制意识,可以帮助克服阻碍我们真正幸福的活化能和过渡成本”。心理学空间M1H(p4e*`.F8f8m

e8h5~5NByE n)A MN0原文:We know what will make us happy, why do we watch TV instead? Couch Potato Watching TVBy Christian Jarrett心理学空间v s)D&Ry)`8m

5r7J \$r/x9g"s-V0论文:The paradox of happiness: Why are we not doing what we know makes us happy?

y;k[hx PnQ;?3O0www.psychspace.com心理学空间网
TAG: 积极心理学 心流
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