Implicit Stereotyping in Person Judgment 人类判断（决策）中内隐刻板印象
Mahzarin R. Banaji, Curtis Hardin, and Alexander J. Rothman
Three experiments demonstrated implicit gender stereotyping. A target's social category determined the use of previously primed stereotyped information, without Ss' awareness of such influence. After unscrambling sentences describing neutral or stereotyped behaviors about dependenceor aggression, Ss evaluated a female or male target. Although ratings of female and male targets didnot differ after exposure to neutral primes, Ss exposed to dependence primes rated a female targetas more dependent than a male target who performed identical behaviors (Experiment 1A). Likewise, Ss rated a male, but not a female, target as more aggressive after exposure to aggression primescompared with neutral primes (Experiment IB). Experiment 2 replicated the implicit stereotypingeffect and additionally showed no relationship between explicit memory for primes and judgmentof target's dependence.
Three experiments demonstrated the effects of a match between temporarily available stereotyped knowledge and the social category of the target in producing implicit stereotyping.Primed information selectively influenced judgments of targets that varied solely in their social category membership.Such effects identify new boundary conditions in the operationof unconscious processes in social judgment and reveal howinsidious forms of discrimination are perpetrated. If contextually unrelated information is used outside subjects' awarenessof the source of influence to produce stereotyped judgments, itis unlikely to be detected by the perceiver, and opportunities toconsciously combat such influences will be minimal.