竞争的父母崩溃或死亡对俄狄浦斯胜利的影响
作者: mints 编译 / 2417次阅读 时间: 2023年11月13日
标签: 俄狄浦斯情结
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竞争的父母崩溃或死亡对俄狄浦斯胜利的影响心理学空间d4N6iZ ]S.]\
Harwant Gill 文
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R8mj(o(~ O?Clz*?0Gill H. S. (1987). Effects of oedipal triumph caused by collapse or death of the rival parent. The International journal of psycho-analysis, 68 ( Pt 2), 251–260.心理学空间T!l(V3Hy&O oXk]

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pKds2h;CbQM0弗洛伊德在1897年的自我分析中发现了他对母亲的爱和对父亲的嫉妒(Freud,1897)。弗洛伊德后来将这种以父母为中心的无意识情感簇命名为“俄狄浦斯情结(Oedipus complex)”(Freud,1910)。从那时起,俄狄浦斯情结理论关注的重点大都是孩子的本能驱动力,对于环境对内在心灵的俄狄浦斯冲突的发展及其解决之贡献的关注相对较少。这种批评最早是由马林诺夫斯基(1927)提出的。他提出的反对意见认为,在某些文明中不会发现俄狄浦斯情结。

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}&x ` zA0Rm0The present paper is limited to the Western culture, and assumes that the oedipal triangularity necessarily invests the two parents with power to influence the course of oedipal development and its resolution. It is intended to illustrate the hitherto little discussed effect of oedipal triumph, following the collapse or death of the rival parent. At first, it reviews some of the literature relating to parental influence on the child's oedipal development in order to counterpoise the greater emphasis in psychoanalysis on the intrapsychic life of the child. Having prepared the reader for a balanced view of child development, discussion is introduced of environmental hazards befalling the oedipal rival, and the consequent oedipal triumph. The intrapsychic effects of such a triumph are then discussed, followed by three clinical examples. The final section of the paper attempts to clarify the relevance of some clinical concepts found useful in the analysis of such patients. 心理学空间1}N Hk;K

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本文仅限于西方文化,并假设俄狄浦斯情结三角的性质必然赋予父母双方影响俄狄浦斯情结之发展过程及其解决的权力。本文旨在说明当竞争的父母崩溃或死亡之后对俄狄浦斯胜利的影响,(该议题)迄今为止很少被讨论。首先,本文回顾了一些和父母影响孩子俄狄浦斯之发育有关的文献,这些文献平衡了精神分析对孩子内在精神生活的重要性。在让读者对儿童发展有了一个平衡的看法后,讨论了俄狄浦斯竞争对手所面临的环境危害,以及由此带来的俄狄浦斯胜利。然后讨论了这一胜利对内在精神的影响,并列举了三个临床例子。论文的最后一部分试图澄清一些临床概念的相关性,这些概念在分析此类患者时很有用。

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PARENTAL EFFECT UPON THE COURSE OF OEDIPAL DEVELOPMENT 

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1、父母对俄狄浦斯发育过程的影响

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Freud considered the relevance of parental behaviour to the development of oedipal feelings. For example: 'his [father's] numerous illnesses were bound to have increased her [Dora's] affection for him. In some of these illnesses he been so proud of the early growth of her intelligence that he had made her his confidante while she was still a child' (Freud, 1905, p. 57). Again: 'children often react in their Oedipus attitude to a stimulus coming from their parents, who are frequently led in their preferences by difference of sex, so that the father will choose his daughter and the mother her son as a favourite, or in case of a cooling-off in the marriage, as a substitute for a love-object that has lost its value' (Freud, 1916, p. 207). However, Freud's underemphasis of parental contribution to the child's oedipal development can be seen in his interpretation of Sophocles' Oedipus. He did not mention Laius' crime in his summary of the myth, and after abandoning the seduction theory, ignored his patients' fathers in the case histories. A number of writers (e.g. Bernstein, 1976); (Ross, 1982) have offered a different interpretation of Sophocles' play. According to them, it is the action of King Laius, the father, and not that of Oedipus, the son, that sets into motion the tragic chain of events. As Ross (1982, p. 189) has pointed out: 'Repeatedly Freud neglected the familial reality lurking behind their [patients'] psychopathology, ascribing the latter mainly to the workings of fantasy'.

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#r@C&p!N*{&A0弗洛伊德认为父母的行为与俄狄浦斯情结的发展有关。例如:“他(父亲)的许多疾病注定会增加她(多拉)对他的感情。在其中一些疾病中,他为她的智力早期增长感到骄傲,以至于在她还是个孩子的时候,他就把她当作了自己的知己”(Freud, 1905, p. 57)。再次强调:“孩子们经常对来自父母的刺激做出俄狄浦斯式的反应,父母的偏好往往受到性别差异的影响,因此父亲会选择自己的女儿、母亲会选择她的儿子作为最爱,或者在婚姻变淡的情况下,作为失去价值的爱情对象的替代品”(Freud, 1916, p. 207)。然而,弗洛伊德在对索福克勒斯的俄狄浦斯的解读中可以看出,他对父母对孩子俄狄浦发育的贡献不够重视。他在总结神话故事时没有提到底比斯国王拉伊俄斯(Laius)的罪行,在放弃诱惑理论后,在案例历史中忽视了他的病人的父亲。许多作家(如伦纳德·伯恩斯坦,1976);(Ross,1982)对索福克勒斯的剧作提出了不同的解读。根据他们的说法,是父亲拉伊俄斯国王的行为,而不是儿子俄狄浦斯的行为,引发了一连串的悲剧。正如罗斯(1982年,第189页)所指出的:“弗洛伊德一再忽视隐藏在他们(患者)精神病理学背后的家庭现实,将后者主要归因于幻想的运作。”心理学空间ZYy9_K!S7X

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%mQC(E8Lf+?O4x0Considering that he had abandoned the seduction theory, and that he lacked 'the hindsight of another half century of observational and clinical contact with children' (Ross, 1982, p. 190), Freud's difficulty in fully appreciating the family contribution is understandable. Bowlby (1969) has observed that 'although in his search for explanation he [Freud] was in each case led to events of early childhood, he himself only rarely drew, for his basic data, on direct observation of children' (p. 3). Unlike Freud, the modern observer is in a position to refine his notions of development by watching children grow within their families. 

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鉴于弗洛伊德已经放弃了诱惑理论,而且他缺乏“半个世纪以来观察和临床接触儿童的后见之明”(Ross,1982,190),弗洛伊德难以充分理解家庭的贡献,这是可以理解的。Bowlby(1969)观察到,“尽管在寻找解释的过程中,他[弗洛伊德]在每一案例中都通向了儿童早期的事件,但他自己很少从直接观察儿童的过程中得出基本数据”(第3页)。与弗洛伊德不同,现代观察者可以通过观察孩子在家庭中的成长来完善他的发展观。

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Spitz (1965) maintains that babies are the only persons in the family without a past. However, each baby is fitted with one, when his parents influence his behaviour and the emerging sense of self in terms of their own predetermined oedipal feelings, says that the child's Oedipus complex can reflect that of his parents, and that parent's unconscious sexual attachment to their children becomes especially strong whenever the parents' real sexual gratification leaves them unsatisfied. Rangell (1955) lists other occasions when a parent's role is affected by his own Oedipus complex: an offspring's emergence from adolescence and search for an overt sexual partner; his impending marriage; entry into the family of the daughter-in-law for the father and of the son-in-law for the mother. Schecter (1968) describes how the arrival of the first baby changes the dual attachment of a marital relationship to an oedipal, triangular one. As the baby gets older, he or she is experienced like a true rival for the privileges and prerogatives in relation to the other spouse. 

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Spitz(1965)坚持认为婴儿是家庭中唯一清白的人。然而,每个婴儿都有过往,当他的父母根据他们自己预先确定的俄狄浦斯情结影响他的行为和浮现的自我意识时,这意味着孩子的俄狄浦情结可以反映出其父母的情结,每当父母之间真正的性满足让他们不满意时,父母对孩子的无意识性依恋就会变得特别强烈。Rangell(1955)列出了父母的角色受到自己俄狄浦斯情结影响的其他情况:子女从青春期出现并寻找公开的性伴侣;他即将结婚;父亲进入儿媳家庭,母亲进入女婿家庭。Schecter(1968)描述了第一个孩子的到来如何将婚姻关系的双重依恋转变为俄狄浦斯情结、三角的结构。随着婴儿年龄的增长,他或她就像一个真正的竞争对手,争夺与另一方配偶有关的特权和特权。心理学空间}U/t3NW

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Freud's own oedipal development was affected by his family constellation of a young mother, and a passive, much older father as seen in Jones' (1953) biography. The father, Jakob, married twice. When Jakob was 40, and his two sons from the first marriage were 22 and 19, he married Amalie, Sigmund's mother, who was then under 20. Jakob is described as gentle, calm, and subdued. He sidestepped the anti-Semitic provocations of his neighbours. For example, the son bitterly recalled an episode when, at the age of 12, he was told how a Gentile had knocked off his father's new fur cap into the mud and shouted at him: 'Jew get off the pavement'. To the indignant son's question: 'And what did you do?' Jakob calmly replied: 'I stepped into the gutter and picked up my cap'. According to Jones (1953, p. 22), after the painful cap-in-the.gutter episode, 'his father never regained the place he had held in his [Sigmund's] esteem'. In contrast, his mother's pride and love for her first-born left an intense impression on the growing boy. As he wrote later: 'A man who has been the indisputable favourite of his mother keeps for life the feeling of a conqueror, that confidence of success that often induces real success' ( Jones, 1953, p. 5). 心理学空间eo:x VIk*j"Y:H

7aM3e:P_z1\6HL:?E0正如琼斯(1953)的传记中所见,弗洛伊德自己的俄狄浦斯发育受到了他的家庭星座的影响,即年轻的母亲和被动的、年长得多的父亲。父亲雅各布结过两次婚。雅各布40岁时,第一次婚姻中的两个儿子分别是22岁和19岁,他娶了当时不到20岁的西格蒙德的母亲艾米丽。雅各布被描述为温和、冷静和克制。他避开了邻居的反犹太主义挑衅。例如,儿子痛苦地回忆起一段插曲,当时他12岁,有人告诉他,一个外邦人如何把他父亲的新皮帽敲到泥里,并对他喊道:“犹太人滚出人行道”。愤怒的儿子的问题:“你做了什么?”雅各布平静地回答:“我走进排水沟,拿起帽子。”根据琼斯(1953年,第22页)的说法,在经历了痛苦的排水沟里的帽子事件后,“他的父亲再也没有恢复他(西格蒙德)所尊敬的地位”。相比之下,他母亲对第一个孩子的骄傲和爱,给这个正在成长的男孩留下了深刻的印象。正如他后来所写:“一个无疑是母亲最爱的人,一生都有一种征服者的感觉,那种对成功的信心往往会带来真正的成功。”(Jones,1953,第5页)。

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Freud's lengthy dream, published as Count Thun, gives a clear picture of his attitude to his father. He dreamt it, after the father's death, in early August of 1898, and called it the 'revolutionary dream'. ( Jones' 1953 biography of Freud mentions two different dates for the death of Freud's father. The generally accepted date of 23 October 1896 is listed on the second page, while a foot.note refers to page 407, where, according to the unpublished Fliess correspondence, Jakob is said to have died on 1 August 1898). An abridged version of the dream from Freud (1900, pp. 208.19) is given below: 

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弗洛伊德以《图恩伯爵》出版的长篇梦境清晰地描绘了他对父亲的态度。1898年8月初,父亲去世后,他做了一个梦,并称之为“革命梦”。(琼斯1953年的弗洛伊德传记提到了弗洛伊德父亲去世的两个不同日期。第二页列出了公认的1896年10月23日,而脚注指的是第407页,根据未出版的Fless信件,据说雅各布于1898年8月1日去世)。弗洛伊德的梦(1900年,第208.19页)的节略版本如下:

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A crowd of people … A count (Thun or Taaffe) was speaking. He was challenged to say something about the Germans, and declared with a contemptuous gesture that their favourite flower was a colt's foot, and put some sort of dilapidated leaf … into his buttonhole. I fired up … I was in the Aula; the entrances were cordoned off and we had to escape. I made way through a series of beautifully furnished rooms, evidently ministerial or public apartments … I was now sitting in the compartment, which was like a carriage on the Stadtbahn [the suburban railway]; and in my buttonhole I had a peculiar plaited, long-shaped object, and beside it some violet-brown violets made of a stiff material. This greatly struck people … Once more I was in front of the station, but this time in the company of an elderly gentleman … He appeared to be blind … I handed him a male glass urinal … So I was a sick-nurse and had to give him the urinal because he was blind … Here the man's attitude and his micturating penis appeared in plastic form. (This was the point at which I awoke, feeling a need to micturate.) 
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一群人…一个伯爵(图恩或塔夫)在讲话。他被要求说一些关于德国人的话,并轻蔑地宣称他们最喜欢的花是colt's foot,并把某种破旧的叶子…放进了他的纽扣孔。我发火了……我当时在Aula;入口被封锁了,我们不得不逃跑。我穿过一系列家具精美的房间,显然是部长级或公共公寓……我现在坐在车厢里,就像Stadtbahn(郊区铁路)上的一节车厢;在我的扣孔里,我有一个奇特的格子长形物体,旁边有一些由坚硬材料制成的紫棕色紫罗兰。这让人们非常震惊……我又一次站在车站前,但这次是在一位老先生的陪伴下……他看起来是盲人……我递给他一个男性玻璃小便器……所以我是一名生病的护士,因为他是盲人,所以不得不把小便器给他……在这里,这个男人的态度和他正在排尿的阴茎看起来是塑料的。(这就是我醒来的时候,感觉有必要排尿。)

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Grinstein (1980) subjects Freud's dream, the associations and allusions, to detailed examination (pp. 94.160) and arrives at the following conclusion: 

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4?5R1T)u7E0Grinstein(1980)对弗洛伊德的梦、联想和典故进行了详细的研究(94.160页),得出了以下结论:

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his association went from his annoyance with Count Thun and his singing the aria from The Marriage of Figaro, through the numerous literary allusions in which aggression of all kinds was displayed against father figures, and culminated in the reference to the Panizza play which reviled even God himself in the most irreverent way. Freud's intensity of aggression against his father, summarized in his calling it the 'revolutionary dream', became so acute that he had to awaken with a 'pressing need to micturate' (p. 160). 

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F(` e7wK0他的联想从他对图恩伯爵的不满和他演唱《费加罗的婚姻》中的咏叹调,到无数文学典故中对父亲形象表现出的各种侵略,最终提到帕尼扎的戏剧,甚至以最不敬的方式辱骂上帝本人。弗洛伊德对父亲的强烈攻击,概括为他称之为“革命梦”,变得如此尖锐,以至于他不得不在“迫切需要排尿”的情况下醒来(第160页)。心理学空间 g~)b8Br6DU

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@:t3qW2ur0Grinstein's extensive analysis of the dream included family and environmental considerations, e.g. that Jakob by the time of his death was half-blind, and that he sidestepped the anti-Semitic provocations, which humiliated his son. 心理学空间%E sXd9rA%p

o\ d dU;e7a0d0Grinstein对这个梦想的广泛分析包括家庭和环境因素,例如雅各布去世时已经半盲,他回避了羞辱儿子的反犹太主义挑衅。

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It should be clear by now that oedipal development and resolution are influenced by both internal and external determinants. Although it is true that the child partly creates his own environment, the external world does have some influence. Some but not all occurrences are of the child's own making. Influence flows back and forth between parents and children. A child influences his parents just as the parents influence him. According to Fenichel (1945), everything the child learns or thinks about the parents' sexual life affects his Oedipus complex. He states that, according to Freud (1915), 'It was no innate mystical Oedipus complex that created the family as a place where it might be satisfied; it was the family that created the Oedipus complex' (Fenichel, 1945, p. not live together with their parents … exposed to the typical family conflicts of sexual excitation and frustration. Different environments provoke different reactions' (Fenichel, 1945, p. 98).

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现在应该很清楚,俄狄浦斯的发展和解决受到内部和外部决定因素的影响。虽然孩子确实在一定程度上创造了自己的环境,但外部世界确实有一些影响。有些但不是所有的事情都是孩子自己造成的。这些影响在父母和孩子之间来回涌动。孩子影响他的父母就像父母影响他一样。根据Fenichel(1945)的说法,孩子对父母性生活的一切学习或思考都会影响他的俄狄浦斯情结。他指出,根据弗洛伊德(1915)的说法,“并不是天生的神秘俄狄浦斯情结创造了一个可以满足家庭的地方;正是这个家庭创造了俄狄浦斯情结”(费尼切尔,1945年,第98页)。不和父母一起生活……暴露在典型的性兴奋和性挫折的家庭冲突中。不同的环境会引发不同的反应。心理学空间-G7Z.dj _*S5e

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:I.YRQ"?c#N0Of the hitherto little-explored effects of environmental influence on the course of oedipal development, the present paper will focus on the intrapsychic consequences of one specific environmental hazard—collapse or death of the child's oedipal rival. However, the question of how the Oedipus complex is resolved first requires a re-examination. 心理学空间`(u:j#c\)rf`!@ a7~

\k1yL9b Z)J0在迄今为止很少探索的环境影响对俄狄浦斯发育过程的影响中,本文将重点关注一种特定环境危害的心理内后果——孩子的俄狄浦斯竞争对手的崩溃或死亡。然而,如何解决俄狄浦斯情结的问题首先需要重新审视。心理学空间"?x~9JEr

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RESOLUTION OF THE OEDIPUS COMPLEX 

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It will be clear from the following quotes, which contradict each other, that Freud was not satisfied with his attempts to explain the resolution of the Oedipus complex. In his main paper on the topic (Freud, 1924), he says first that 'what brings about the destruction of the child's phallic genital organization is … [the] threat of castration' (p. 175). Later, he wonders whether repression may not be the appropriate term: 'I see no reason for denying the name of "repression" to the ego's turning away from the Oedipus complex' (p. 177), and goes on to explain his objection: 'repressions come about for the most part with the participation of the superego, which in this case is only just being formed' 心理学空间 ?d,DdN[,}Nu

z]fGT0从以下相互矛盾的引文中可以清楚地看出,弗洛伊德对他试图解释俄狄浦斯情结的解决方案并不满意。在他关于这个主题的主要论文(Freud, 1924)中,他首先说,“导致儿童阳具生殖器组织破坏的是……阉割的威胁”(第175页)。后来,他想知道抑制(repression)是否不是一个合适的术语:“我看不出有什么理由否认“压抑”这个名字是为了让自我远离俄狄浦斯情结”(第177页),并解释了他的反对意见:“压抑在很大程度上是在超我的参与下产生的,在这种情况下,超我才刚刚形成。”心理学空间+[u}sSr4f

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(p. 177). But he proceeds to assert that 'the process … is more than a repression. It is equivalent, if it is ideally carried out, to a destruction and an abolition of the complex' (p. 177). Soon thereafter, he cautions that 'there is room for a theoretical speculation which may upset the results we have come to or put them in a new light' (p. 177). In other writings, Freud tends to favour repression as the likely result of castration threats at the phallic-oedipal phase: 'the Oedipus complex succumbs … from the beginning of the period of latency onwards to a wave of repression' (1921, p. 138). The Oedipus complex 'reaches a first climax in the fourth or fifth years of a child's life. But thereafter … the sexual impulses … are overcome by repression' (1925, p. 37). '[T]he child embarks on his attempts at defence—repressions—which are effective for the moment but nevertheless turn out to be psychologically inadequate when the later reanimation of sexual life brings a reinforcement to the instinctual drives which have been repudiated in the past' (1940, p. 200). Fenichel's (1945) textbook of psychoanalysis is more consistent than Freud's writings, and always uses the terms 'suppression' or 'repression' to describe the effects of castration fears. 

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(第177页)。但他继续断言,“这个过程……不仅仅是抑制。”。如果理想的话,这相当于摧毁和废除综合体”(第177页)。此后不久,他警告说,“有理论推测的空间,这可能会打乱我们已经得出的结果,或者用新的眼光看待它们”(第177页)。在其他著作中,弗洛伊德倾向于将压抑视为阳具俄狄浦斯期阉割威胁的可能结果:“俄狄浦斯情结屈服了……从潜伏期开始,到压抑浪潮”(1921,第138页)。俄狄浦斯情结在孩子生命的第四年或第五年达到了第一个高潮。但此后……性冲动……被压抑所克服”(1925年,第37页)[T] 孩子开始尝试防御——压抑——这在目前是有效的,但当后来性生活的复活强化了过去被否定的本能驱动时,心理上却不够充分”(1940,200)。费尼切尔(1945)的精神分析教科书比弗洛伊德的著作更为一致,并且总是使用“压抑(suppression)”或“抑制(repression)”来描述阉割恐惧的影响。

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overcome by repression, and a period of latency follows. 'no great change is effected by the repression of the original unconscious phantasy. Whatever is repressed … remains intact and potentially operative in the unconscious' (Freud, 1919, p. 199). 

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0TT#RFU*@ G.z0被抑制所克服,随之而来的是一段时间的潜伏。”对最初无意识的幻想的压制不会带来什么大的变化。任何被压抑的东西……在无意识中都保持完整,并可能发挥作用”(弗洛伊德,1919年,第199页)。心理学空间[zki$}6tk

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3SfW?2^}dD0If the threat of castration during the phallic-oedipal phase and the consequent repression does not lead to resolution of the Oedipus complex, when and how is the resolution achieved? It would appear that mastery over the oedipal conflict depends on developments during latency and adolescence. What characteristics of intrapsychic development or family environment facilitate or hinder such mastery? A satisfactory answer would require an extensive review of the literature and additional publications. The present paper will be limited to the study of one determinant: the role of reality testing. Under favourable conditions it leads to resolution of the Oedipus complex, but if the rival parent collapses or dies during the child's latency or adolescence, the Oedipus complex is repressed once again, this time with the added sense of guilt. 心理学空间 l^s a&v

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如果在阴茎-俄狄浦斯期阉割的威胁和随之而来的抑制并没有导致俄狄浦斯情结的解决,那么解决的时间和方式是什么?似乎对俄狄浦斯冲突的掌握取决于潜伏期和青春期的发展。心理发展或家庭环境的哪些特征促进或阻碍了这种掌握?一个令人满意的答案需要对文献和其他出版物进行广泛的回顾。本论文将仅限于研究一个决定因素:现实测试的作用。在有利的条件下,它会导致俄狄浦斯情结的解决,但如果敌对的父母在孩子潜伏或青春期崩溃或死亡,俄狄浦斯情结会再次被压抑,这一次会增加内疚感。心理学空间_4K*p,@"hVN;NcY*a

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0U)^i6u?ol:cG-GN0COLLAPSE OR DEATH OF THE RIVAL PARENT 心理学空间s4c sX-d7D7x+bF7}.bIk

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;}T]`K5^8^0Analysis of patients, who had achieved reasonable mastery over the Oedipus complex, led me to construct that, during their latency and adolescence, they were engaged in attempts to outdo their oedipal rivals, sometimes winning, sometimes losing, but repeatedly finding that the unconsciously feared calamity (destruction of self or the rival) did not, in fact, occur. This kind of reality testing, essential for the mastery of the Oedipus complex, was disrupted in the case of three patients reported below. When the rival parent collapsed or died, they could no longer distinguish between mental images and external percepts, 'between phantasy and external reality, [and] correct subjective impressions by reference to external facts' (Rycroft, 1968, p. 138). It led them not to reality testing, but to a confusion of the unconscious wish with an external happening. They could not cope with the consequent guilt, and resorted to its repression. Critical aspects of this oedipal trimph, in Freud's words, remained 'intact and potentially operative in the unconscious' (1919, p. 199). 心理学空间si r-skhK#Um#F/J

}jK,q'Q0对那些对俄狄浦斯情结有着合理掌握的患者进行的分析让我认为,在他们的潜伏期和青春期,他们试图超越俄狄浦斯的对手,有时赢,有时输,但反复发现,无意识恐惧的灾难(自我或对手的毁灭)实际上并没有发生。这种对掌握俄狄浦斯情结至关重要的现实测试,在下面报道的三名患者的案例中被打乱了。当敌对父母崩溃或死亡时,他们再也无法区分心理图像和外部感知,“在幻想和外部现实之间,并通过参考外部事实来纠正主观印象”(Rycroft,1968,第138页)。这导致他们没有进行现实测试,而是将无意识的愿望与外部发生的事情混为一谈。他们无法应对由此产生的罪恶感,只好诉诸抑制。用弗洛伊德的话来说,这种俄狄浦斯情结的关键方面仍然“完好无损,并可能在无意识中发挥作用”(1919年,第199页)。心理学空间D$Y)An}.h*R0y ]

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While I proceeded according to Freud's dictum, and in each case delayed my construction until the patient 'himself had so nearly arrived at it that only a single step remain[ed] to be taken' (1940, p. 178), in the case of two patients that they discontinued their treatment halfway, while the third one stayed on to bring his psychoanalysis to a satisfactory conclusion. Although, during their analysis, all three patients seemed emotionally involved, the first two appeared superficial and insincere in their expression of both affectionate and hostile feelings towards the analyst, while the transference experience of the last one came across as genuine and deeper. 

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虽然我按照弗洛伊德的格言处理,在每一个案例中都推迟了我的构建,直到患者“自己几乎达到了目的,只剩下一步要走”(1940年,第178页),但在两名患者的案例中,他们中途停止了治疗,而第三名患者则继续进行,使他的精神分析得出了令人满意的结论。尽管在分析过程中,三名患者似乎都有情感参与,但前两名患者对分析师表达的深情和敌意都显得肤浅而不真诚,而最后一名患者的移情体验则显得真实而深刻。

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Narratives relating to oedipal triumph are intentionally extracted from other analytical material. Patient's associations to their dreams are either given in an abbreviated form or, where it was not possible, hinted at in square brackets. In particular, the dreams of the third patient constituted a large part of his analysis, and his associations to these dreams were even more abundant. A deliberate choice was made to give the key dreams, and omit most of his free associations. All three patients had experienced an oedipal triumph, but they differed from each other in their concern for the collapsed rival; in their indulgence in oedipal wishes; in their closeness to the oedipal object; in the presence or absence of distressing symptoms; and in other ways. Such differences will later be used to discuss the patients' progress in analysis, and to clarify related clinical concepts. 心理学空间'`{j-gN5Ot-h

6r)@S:{]tEv0与俄狄浦斯胜利有关的叙述是有意从其他分析材料中提取的。患者与梦境的关联要么用缩写形式给出,要么在不可能的情况下用方括号暗示。特别是,第三位患者的梦构成了他的分析的很大一部分,他与这些梦的联系甚至更加丰富。他作出了一个深思熟虑的选择,给出了关键的梦想,并省略了他的大部分自由联想。这三位患者都经历过俄狄浦斯的胜利,但他们的不同点在于:对崩溃对手的担忧各不;沉溺于俄狄浦斯情结;与俄狄浦斯对象的亲密关系;出现或不出现令人痛苦的症状;以及以其他方式。这些差异稍后将用于讨论患者的分析进展,并澄清相关的临床概念。心理学空间 ^@QL$W6I

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Patient 1. John, a 32-year-old professional man, approached me for analysis. He did not come for any personal difficulty, but because he thought it would help him attain a better understanding of his clients and would thus enable him to offer a better service to them. 心理学空间2?T'p J dVo

_8}zw~r$O*B0患者1 约翰,一个32岁的职业男人,来找我分析。他来这里不是为了解决任何个人困难,而是因为他认为这将有助于他更好地了解客户,从而使他能够为他们提供更好的服务。心理学空间$h:O(V;v ^m3Q/s;p/q?

W R(s0w(Mz0As analysis progressed, his difficulties began to surface. His parents separated when he was 6, and the father became an alcoholic. He used to wait for John on his way to school and walk along with him until the mother interfered and stopped these encounters with the father. When John was 10, the father came to the matrimonial home requesting shelter because he was seriously ill with cirrhosis. In the discussion between mother and son, John did not oppose the mother's firm stand that in their home there was no room for an irresponsible alcoholic. Within six months of this episode, the father fell down stairs and died. 心理学空间[Q-b8`z@

D$Dy G%x?!Kf0随着分析的进展,他的困难开始浮出水面。他6岁时父母离异,父亲酗酒。他过去常常在去学校的路上等约翰,和他一起走,直到母亲出面干预,阻止了与父亲的这些遭遇。当约翰10岁时,他的父亲来到婚姻之家请求庇护,因为他患有严重的肝硬化。在母子俩的讨论中,约翰并不反对母亲的坚定立场,即在他们家里容不下一个不负责任的酒鬼。在这一事件发生后的六个月内,这位父亲从楼梯上摔了下来,不幸身亡。心理学空间4?8Mq$V(Ku(zL

(p:t9TubH*CAE0John's closeness to his mother continued through the school and university years. Then he moved 60 miles away from the mother's home, but visited her almost every week-end. At 32, he still took the week's laundry home, and the mother attended to it the way she had done during his school and university relations, but he did not complain about it and appeared to be content with his life. 

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约翰与母亲的亲密关系一直延续到学校和大学。然后,他搬到了离母亲家60英里远的地方,但几乎每个周末都会去看望她。32岁时,他仍然把一周的洗衣房带回家,母亲像在他学校和大学关系期间那样处理洗衣房,但他没有抱怨,似乎对自己的生活感到满意。心理学空间}[YjLqY8v

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Lack of a woman companion (other than his mother), the history of oedipal triumph, and his request for personal analysis, all conflicted with his proclaimed sense of complacency, but then John told me of a recurring dream: 心理学空间h5GTZ/[-P!T @ j

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缺少女性伴侣(除了他的母亲),俄狄浦斯胜利的历史,以及他对个人分析的要求,都与他宣称的自满感相冲突,但后来约翰告诉我一个反复出现的梦:心理学空间'vW3un(bW U6B

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'I find myself in a ship made of matchsticks, getting frightened, waking up, and assuring myself that it is only a dream, and going back to sleep.' 心理学空间7h[5l4d4W ]op&W

'zAWsp @0“我发现自己在一艘火柴棒做成的船上,受到了惊吓,醒来后向自己保证这只是一场梦,然后又睡着了。”

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FEp%X_'vMh:u0John added that the dream had a rather simple explanation: 'As a child I was fond of building things with matchsticks.' 

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(zi \*b:y9Kaq4E#jY I6s0约翰补充说,这个梦有一个相当简单的解释:“小时候我喜欢用火柴棒做东西。”心理学空间 wLW,PVL

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His associations to the dream made it clear that he meant sticks of burnt out matches, and not live ones, fearing collapse of the ship's structure, and not its destruction by fire. John's ability to stay afloat in a ship made of matchsticks, and concurrent fears regarding the stability of its structure, pointed to the fragility of his confident self. The dream also foreshadowed the nature of difficulties John's analysis was to confront, e.g. strong resistance or early termination. 

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4_o3yN{^|0他对这个梦的联想清楚地表明,他指的是烧毁的火柴棒,而不是活的,因为他担心船的结构会倒塌,而不是被火摧毁。约翰能够在火柴棒制成的船上漂浮,同时也对其结构的稳定性感到担忧,这表明他自信的自我是脆弱的。这个梦也预示了约翰的分析将面临的困难的性质,例如强烈的抵抗或提前终止。

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*Y"X Ph@ g0Patient 2. David was a 35-year-old academic, complaining of his inability to make decisions, assert his views or enjoy life. He was 9 years old when his father, a physician, became deaf and blind. David attended to the father's needs and carried out his instructions, using all the free time before going to school and after returning. He never experienced the normal assertive phase during his adolescent years. At the time I met him, his father had died and he was sending half of his earnings to his widowed mother and two younger sisters, who like him, remained unmarried. Altogether he presented a picture of a devoted son and brother who had sacrificed all his personal needs for his family.心理学空间c3| `gr~-_

EW,TJ,CYR0病人2。大卫是一名35岁的学者,他抱怨自己无法做出决定、坚持自己的观点或享受生活。他9岁时,他的父亲,一名医生,变成了聋哑人。大卫照顾父亲的需要并执行他的指示,利用上学前和放学后的所有空闲时间。在青少年时期,他从未经历过正常的自信阶段。当我见到他时,他的父亲已经去世,他把一半的收入捐给了寡居的母亲和两个妹妹,她们和他一样未婚。总的来说,他展示了一个忠诚的儿子和哥哥的样子,他们为家庭牺牲了所有的个人需求。心理学空间Hjt+]M l:ZZ^

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As the analysis progressed, a different picture began to emerge. When, at the age of 17, he joined the university in another town, he visited the home of an aunt several times a week. He showed interest in the aunt's daughter, his cousin, but she did not respond to him. The aunt offered to persuade her daughter to marry him, provided he first made love to the aunt. He agreed and shared her bed for six months during his uncle's absence at work. On hearing of this episode, I was expecting some expression of regret for his oedipal indulgence. However, over the next few sessions, David appeared unconcerned. He was angry not with himself but with his aunt for cheating him and for failing to facilitate his marriage to her daughter. But then he remembered that at the awake, he could appreciate that the carpet would have been badly soiled but, when dreaming, he only marvelled at the accomplishment. 

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5h#R&d)V/hT0随着分析的进展,一幅不同的画面开始出现。17岁时,他进入另一个城镇的大学,每周去一位阿姨家几次。他对姑姑的女儿,他的堂妹表现出了兴趣,但她没有回应他。姑姑主动提出要说服女儿嫁给他,前提是他先和姑姑做爱。他同意了,并在叔叔不上班期间与她同床共枕了六个月。听到这一幕,我本以为他会对自己的俄狄浦斯情结表示遗憾。然而,在接下来的几次会议上,大卫似乎并不在意。他生气的不是他自己,而是他的姑姑,因为姑姑欺骗了他,没有促成他和姑姑女儿的婚姻。但后来他想起,当他醒来时,他可以意识到地毯会被严重弄脏,但当他做梦时,他只是对这一成就感到惊讶。

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Our discussion of the dream focused on his defiling the fabric of family relationships by sleeping with his aunt and thus triumphing over his uncle. Gradually a different version of his inner life began to emerge. Because it was too easy for him to topple his father, and have the exclusive attention and care of the three women in his family, he was terrified of his power over the father. Although in his manifest behaviour he was weak, indecisive and non-assertive, unconsciously he enjoyed all the privileges of oedipal triumph. He was greatly admired by his mother and two sisters. Like David, his sisters did not seek marriage, and the mother never considered re-marriage. 

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'N2[\a4lK&_(`0我们对这个梦的讨论集中在他与姑姑上床,从而战胜了叔叔,从而破坏了家庭关系。渐渐地,他内心生活的另一个版本开始出现。因为他太容易推翻父亲,并且只关心和照顾家里的三个女人,他害怕自己对父亲的权力。尽管在他明显的行为中,他软弱、优柔寡断、不自信,但在不知不觉中,他享受着俄狄浦斯胜利的所有特权。他深受母亲和两个姐姐的钦佩。和大卫一样,他的姐妹们也没有寻求婚姻,母亲也从未考虑过再婚。心理学空间y!R R4mf/S%E

?S6M2qP6LW0Patient 3. Alan was a 30-year-old professional man, who had taken a year off his work because of anxiety. At the age of 21 he impregnated a casual friend at the university. He tried but failed to persuade her to have an abortion. Later, at his marriage to another young woman, both he and his wife confessed to each other their previous sexual indiscretions. Alan told everything except this one relationship resulting in a baby boy. He had kept this secret from his wife for seven years of their married life, until a few months before the consultation when suddenly he felt the urge and confessed it first to his wife, and then to his widowed mother who lived some miles away. He felt so guilty and anxious about having kept the secret from his wife, that he could not carry on his professional work, took a year off, and started coming to see me for treatment. 心理学空间'A Y"L WU5o+`Y|

*X#t*q SYy,X.u0病人3。阿兰是一名30岁的职业男子,由于焦虑,他已经休息了一年。21岁时,他让大学里的一个普通朋友怀孕了。他试图说服她堕胎,但没有成功。后来,在他与另一位年轻女子结婚时,他和妻子都向对方坦白了他们以前的性行为。阿兰把所有的事情都说了出来,除了这段导致了一个男婴的关系。在他们婚后的七年里,他一直对妻子隐瞒这个秘密,直到咨询前几个月,他突然有了冲动,先向妻子坦白,然后向住在几英里外的寡居母亲坦白。他对向妻子隐瞒这个秘密感到非常内疚和焦虑,以至于他无法继续他的专业工作,请了一年假,开始来看我接受治疗。

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|E%w~"U0@0The story, as it very slowly emerged during the first month, turned out to be different. The casual girlfriend at the university was also seeing another young man at the time, and the baby might have been his. In any case, she married the other young man, and Alan had not seen either the girl or the baby since its birth. When asked about his need to visit and confess to his mother, he could offer no reason other than that he felt the urge to do so. At the time, his own son was 5 years old (whose oedipal preoccupations may have stirred up Alan's own repressed Oedipus conflict). 心理学空间5jks6{7j.YB

hq4Nx|Lj0这个故事在第一个月慢慢浮出水面,结果却不同了。这位大学里的休闲女友当时也在和另一个年轻人约会,孩子可能是他的。不管怎样,她嫁给了另一个年轻人,从女孩出生起,阿兰就没有见过她,也没有见过孩子。当被问及是否需要去看望母亲并向母亲坦白时,他没有其他理由,只能说他有这样做的冲动。当时,他自己的儿子5岁(他的俄狄浦斯情结可能引发了阿兰自己压抑的俄狄浦斯冲突)。心理学空间-O#G ?_/{p,U-^`

D;u)j?Q4FO![0His father, a university professor, had a stroke when Alan was 13. With damage to both speech and movement, he resigned his professorship. Alan's contact with his father diminished, 'because it was easier and more interesting to talk to my mother'. When Alan was 18, his younger brother had a cyst on the spine which left him paralysed from the waist down. Later when Alan was 20, and father had had another stroke and was likely to die, but that Alan need not come home and interrupt his studies. Some days later the father died, and the mother arranged for the hospital to take care of his cremation—there being no funeral organized by the family. Six months later, the mother re-married. For several weeks, Alan insisted that no part of the above history should be misconstrued to imply his or his mother's disloyalty to the father. But his dreams over a period of several months told another story. 心理学空间:oc0TZ@F S!c

,C:t5q/Y4aWFo k0他的父亲是一名大学教授,在阿兰13岁时中风。由于言论和运动受到损害,他辞去了教授职务。阿兰与父亲的联系减少了,“因为与母亲交谈更容易、更有趣”。阿兰18岁时,他的弟弟脊椎上有一个囊肿,导致他腰部以下瘫痪。后来,阿兰20岁了,他的父亲又中风了,很可能会去世,但阿兰不需要回家中断他的学业。几天后,父亲去世了,母亲安排医院为他火化——家人没有组织葬礼。六个月后,这位母亲再婚了。几个星期以来,阿兰坚持认为,上述历史的任何部分都不应被误解为暗示他或他母亲对父亲不忠。但他几个月的梦讲述了另一个故事。

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+n,@;ACWX0The first leakage in Alan's repression of his oedipal involvement was seen when, after a few weeks of analysis, he reported the following dream: 

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经过几周的分析,阿兰报告了以下梦境,这是他对俄狄浦斯参与的第一次抑制:

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'My family and I were expecting some people to attack us. I prepared a trap for the attackers. But instead of the enemy, two members of our own group fell in the trap, and they were covered up with a grass lid. Later in the dream, I was thinking that preparing a trap was a criminal thing to do. I thought that things had gone too far and that I could bear the situation no longer.' 心理学空间R\)rM2S H*Q

&M&L cJ6{8K0“我和家人原本以为会有人袭击我们。我为袭击者准备了一个陷阱。”。但是,我们小组的两名成员没有抓住敌人,而是掉进了陷阱,他们被草盖盖住了。后来在梦中,我想,准备一个陷阱是一件犯罪的事情。我认为事情已经太过分了,我再也无法忍受这种情况了。”心理学空间wW%l~z3N)n5[&T

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Family infighting is first projected to an external group, but when two members of his own family, father and brother, fall in the trap [collapse] and are covered up with a grass lid [forgotten], Alan can dimly see that the preparing of a trap was a criminal thing to do [that he may have contributed to the collapse of his father and brother], and he resolves to bear the situation no longer [to speak out]. 

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家庭内讧首先投射到一个外部群体,但当他自己的两个家庭成员,父亲和兄弟,落入陷阱[崩溃],被草盖掩盖[被遗忘]时,阿兰可以模糊地看到,准备陷阱是一件犯罪的事情[他可能促成了父亲和兄弟的崩溃],他决定不再忍受这种情况[说出来]。

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` fOP ^C)V`6H$[!kN0Some weeks later, Alan reported another dream: 心理学空间:d$fS@:ZXBJ4s

.J"q7J W5tB3T0几周后,阿兰又做了一个梦:

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HGP*?}7ip o0'I was sitting at a cafe table with my brother. A white Rolls Royce passed us with some people in the back. I did not want to know what they were doing. In the front passenger seat, there was a blonde woman. The windows of the car were tinted. Later, the scene changed and I was on a train, which did not stop at High St. Kensington [where Alan's childhood home was] where I wanted to get off. I was angry with the female guard of the carriage, but she ignored me.' 心理学空间`J.h){@"Rs Q ~

b_/yS5e[_ `G0“我和弟弟坐在咖啡桌旁。一辆白色劳斯莱斯从我们身边经过,后面有几个人。我不想知道他们在做什么。在前排乘客座位上,有一个金发女人。汽车的车窗是有色的。后来,情况发生了变化,我坐在一列火车上,火车没有停在我想下车的高圣肯辛顿(阿兰童年的家就在那里)。我对车厢的女警卫很生气,但她不理我。”心理学空间']0E!jj(C f;H

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In our discussion of the first dream, Alan had noted, however obscurely, a possibility of his own involvement in the fall of his father and brother. In the second dream, he suspects the integrity of his mother [who had her hair dyed blonde]. At first he is reluctant to find out what was going on in the back of the Rolls Royce [actions of, or on behalf of the tinted blonde woman], but later in the dream the female guard [the mother who is supposed to protect and guide] is blamed for her careless disregard of the family bond. 

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eE/]!ql eK1[0在我们对第一个梦的讨论中,阿兰注意到,尽管很模糊,他自己也有可能参与了父亲和兄弟的倒下。在第二个梦中,他怀疑母亲(头发染成金色)的正直。起初,他不愿意知道劳斯莱斯后面发生了什么(有色金发女子或代表有色金发女子的行为),但后来在梦中,女警卫(本应保护和引导的母亲)因疏忽大意而无视家庭纽带而受到指责。心理学空间!Ri Y6h#ZG

_9`4Z5p6`e3k j,c0'I was with some people looking at my father in his coffin. Someone said that although he died a few days ago, his body did not smell. Later in the dream at the end of a long corridor, I met my father. I was aware he was dead and yet we were talking to each other. His speech was not damaged in the dream. He was talking very well. Father gave me a basket full of many little presents wrapped up—don't know what they were.' 

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,i#g6J#tb;t"R9I)NRqg0“我和一些人一起看着我父亲的棺材。有人说,虽然他几天前去世了,但他的尸体没有气味。后来在一条长长的走廊尽头的梦中,我遇到了我的父亲。我知道他已经死了,但我们还在互相交谈。他的演讲没有在梦中受损。他说得很好。父亲给了我一个篮子,里面装满了包着的小礼物——不知道是什么心理学空间b(}(C;G*f%I q!|3Q0b;F

o'^ExJ~0When Alan tried to recall memories of his father, after not thinking of him for ten years, he was surprised to find that his past neglect of his father was not totally unbearable [father's body did not smell]. Thus assured, he approached the memories which were fresh as ever [father was talking very well]. Alan did not know what the little wrapped presents were [true gifts or bombs for example], i.e. will the recall of memories harm him or benefit him? 

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在十年没有想起父亲后,当阿兰试图回忆起父亲的记忆时,他惊讶地发现,他过去对父亲的忽视并不是完全无法忍受的[父亲的身体没有气味]。他如此确信地走近那些记忆犹新的记忆[父亲说得很好]。阿兰不知道这些小包装的礼物是什么(例如,真正的礼物或炸弹),也就是说,回忆起来会对他有害还是有益?心理学空间C(u @G4?W

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S8`4k#Mo d]0Six months later, Alan had another dream: 心理学空间(i$agv~%wp

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六个月后,阿兰又做了一个梦:心理学空间J v#_+]"t Y8jH p

v.`^`,_Uj0'I was with a friend and my wife. The friend asked me why I was interested in another woman. He said that he did not sleep with anyone other than his wife. Later in the dream, some members of my family were getting dressed. I was talking about Tanya [his mother]. She was washing her hair and was partly undressed. She looked young and pretty with long, blonde hair. Then an older Tanya appeared. This one was older with hair up, with unsmiling and crinkled face—the severe version of Tanya. Everyone was looking at me, waiting for me to find out—like you [the analyst] I suppose. After a long time when I realized that both women were my mother Tanya, and the young pretty one had gone, I broke down crying and my wife, Alice, put her arm around me. A bit later, a young boy someone like my son Johnny, was playing with his willie. Tanya said that he should go next door but I refused. Later in the same dream, I tried to light some candles, but they kept going out. 

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“我和一个朋友和我的妻子在一起。朋友问我为什么对另一个女人感兴趣。他说,除了他的妻子,他没有和任何人睡觉。在梦的后期,我的一些家庭成员正在穿衣服。我说的是Tanya(他的母亲)。她正在洗头发,还脱了一部分衣服。她留着一头金色的长发,看上去年轻漂亮。然后一个年长的Tanya出现了。这个人年纪较大,头发朝上,脸上不苟言笑,皱着眉头——这是Tanya的严肃版。每个人都在看着我,等着我发现——我想就像你(分析师)一样。过了很长一段时间,当我意识到这两个女人都是我的母亲Tanya,而年轻漂亮的那个已经走了,我哭了,我的妻子Alice搂着我。过了一会儿,一个像我儿子Johnny一样的小男孩正在和他的willie玩。Tanya说他应该去隔壁,但我拒绝了。后来在同一个梦里,我试着点了一些蜡烛,但它们一直熄灭。

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-Z?l p#{nF;C0The dream starts with a discussion of triangular/oedipal relationships. Then it moves more directly to his oedipal longings for his mother, and he recalls the memories of his childhood and of his mother's youth. He could see how he could have fallen in love with such a young and pretty woman with long, blonde hair. But Alan is puzzled about how to protect this version of his mother from the soiling which would occur if he recalls her severity in dealing with her dead husband and also with his own oedipal longings. A reference is made to the displacement of oedipal attachment from Alan's mother to his wife [I broke oedipal activities of his 5-year-old son, which could have stirred up Alan's own oedipal conflicts [Tanya said that Johnny should go next door but I refused]. The recall and the mourning of the father's death were complicated by the patient's oedipal involvement [candle kept going out]. A week before this dream, after extensive enquiries, the patient had discovered the father's cemetery, had visited it, and had lighted a candle for eight days. 

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,dS B5~ oB0Oo~M0这个梦开始于对三角恋/俄狄浦斯关系的讨论。然后,它更直接地转移到他对母亲的俄狄浦斯情结,他回忆起童年和母亲年轻时的记忆。他明白自己怎么会爱上这样一个金发碧眼的年轻漂亮女人。但阿兰很困惑,如果他回忆起母亲在处理已故丈夫时的严厉态度,以及他自己对俄狄浦斯的渴望,他会如何保护这个版本的母亲免受污染。提到了阿兰的母亲对妻子的俄狄浦斯情结的转移[我打断了他5岁儿子的俄狄浦斯行为,这可能会引发阿兰自己的俄狄浦斯冲突[Tanya说Johnny应该去隔壁,但我拒绝了]。父亲去世后的回忆和哀悼因患者的俄狄浦斯细胞参与而变得复杂[蜡烛一直熄灭]。在这个梦的前一周,经过广泛的询问,病人发现了父亲的墓地,参观了它,并点燃了一支八天的蜡烛。心理学空间m(g$Ek!@r Sm

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讨论

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Fenichel (1931) was perhaps the first to observe a possible effect of the rival parent's death on the child's development: 'when the parent of the child's own sex dies, this is perceived as a fulfilment of the oedipus wish and specially strong feelings of guilt are therefore aroused' (p. 213). There is a lack of discussion in the literature relating to this observation, and it is difficult to account for it, since the death of the rival parent is not so rare in the history of analytic patients that its non-occurrence could serve as an explanation. The complexity of the task was perhaps simplified for me when I came across three such analysands within a reasonable time of each other. By comparing them with one another, it became possible to understand something of the oedipal triumph following the collapse or death of the rival parent.

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Fenichel(1931)可能是第一个观察到敌对父母的死亡对孩子发展可能产生的影响的人:“当孩子自己性别的父母死亡时,这被视为俄狄浦斯愿望的实现,因此会引起特别强烈的内疚感”(第213页)。文献中缺乏与这一观察结果相关的讨论,也很难解释这一点,因为在分析患者的历史上,敌对父母的死亡并不罕见,因此其未发生可以作为一种解释。当我在合理的时间内遇到三个这样的分析时,任务的复杂性可能对我来说被简化了。通过将他们相互比较,我们可以理解在竞争对手父母崩溃或死亡后俄狄浦斯的胜利。

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nconscious sense of guilt. Each of the three patients, described above, had experienced oedipal triumph, but responded differently to it and the consequent guilt. John adopted an assertive, confident, and successful self, which served as his defence against the unconscious sense of guilt. In contrast, David took up to be subdued, non-assertive, and self-sacrificing. He saw himself to be a 'good' man who, as a child, had nursed his ill father, and who was now devoted to the care of his mother and two sisters. Alan had denied his part in the disrespect shown to his father, during the latter's illness or after his death. But this denial was put under additional strain when Alan's own son exhibited his oedipal preoccupations daily. 

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2J@y`-f[?gR0无意识的内疚感。如上所述,三名患者中的每一位都经历过俄狄浦斯胜利,但对它和随之而来的内疚感的反应不同。约翰表现出自信、自信和成功的自我,这是他对无意识内疚感的防御。相比之下,大卫变得低调、不自信、自我牺牲。他认为自己是一个“好人”,小时候照顾过生病的父亲,现在全身心地照顾母亲和两个姐妹。阿兰否认自己在父亲生病期间或去世后对父亲的不尊重。但当阿兰的儿子每天都表现出俄狄浦斯情结时,这种否认又增加了压力心理学空间r,c$n{3u mZ~6w

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It is evident that an environmental hazard befalling the rival parent had affected the lives of all three patients, but that each patient's attempted adaptation to it was determined by his intrapsychic life. 心理学空间 L(U\7x v b a

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很明显,降临在敌对父母身上的环境危害影响了所有三名患者的生活,但每个患者试图适应的情况都取决于他的心理生活。

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Resistance and the oedipal triumph. Death of the rival parent in the case of John, David, and Alan had led to a freezing of their defensive adaptation. Deprived of continued contact with their fathers, internal representations of their relationships with their fathers remained uncorrected by the external world. In fathers' death would have accomplished little. Instead, the analysis was directed to correcting their distorted perceptions of themselves, of their current lives, and of the analyst. The hope was that, having acquired in the transference a clearer vision of their mental processes and the accompanying affects, they would wish to re.examine their relationships with their parents—a technique which worked very well for Alan, but failed to deal effectively with the resistance offered by John and David. 

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xW5F*Dxd(]8MS0阻抗和俄狄浦斯的胜利。在约翰、大卫和阿兰的案件中,竞争对手父母的死亡导致他们的防守适应冻结。由于被剥夺了与父亲的持续联系,他们与父亲关系的内部表征仍然不受外部世界的影响。在父亲去世的时候不会有什么成就。相反,分析的目的是纠正他们对自己、当前生活和分析师的扭曲看法。希望在移情过程中对自己的心理过程和伴随的影响有了更清晰的认识后,他们希望重新审视自己与父母的关系——这一技巧对阿兰来说非常有效,但未能有效应对约翰和大卫提出的阻抗。

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Freud observed that a resistance can be 'a manifestation of the unconscious sense of guilt' (1933, p. 110). Since an oedipal triumph following the collapse or death of the rival parent is accompanied by an unconscious sense of guilt, all three patients offered various degrees of resistance—'a manifestation of the ego, which originally put the repression into force and now wishes to maintain it' (Freud, 1933, p. 68). John and David frequently blocked the flow of their free associations, and kept their analysis on the verge of termination, perhaps to dissuade me from interpreting the repressed. Alan denied his part in the disregard shown to his father during the latter's illness or after his death, and attempted to meet the analytic requirements by telling me of his dreams— those 'profuse nocturnal productions [of] what … [he] should struggle and learn to tell … in straight words' (Erikson, 1954, p. 6). 心理学空间#E6K8f b!LV4t8`F

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弗洛伊德观察到,阻抗可以是“无意识内疚感的表现”(1933年,第110页)。由于在敌对父母崩溃或死亡后,俄狄浦斯的胜利伴随着无意识的负罪感,这三位患者都提供了不同程度的阻抗——“自我的表现,最初将抑制付诸实施,现在希望维持它”(弗洛伊德,1933,第68页)。约翰和大卫经常阻止他们自由联想的流动,并使他们的分析处于终止的边缘,也许是为了劝阻我不要解读被压制的东西。阿兰否认了他在父亲生病或去世后对父亲的漠视,并试图通过告诉我他的梦来满足分析的要求——那些“大量的夜间作品……他应该努力并学会用直白的语言讲述……”(埃里克森,1954年,第6页)。心理学空间!M1?4a+Z&vC

9F%N4Hl^AkS0The analytic aim was the same for each patient—'alteration of the ego which … will hold good in life' (Freud, 1940, p. 179), and not merely the removal of symptoms. Hence, Alan had to confront repeatedly that insights achieved through dreaming and dream interpretation had their parallels in the daily experiences of his past and present life, as well as in the transference with me —a difficult task which he managed to the end. Unlike him, John's and David's stronger resistance was probably based on their greater involvement in the oedipal triumph and the consequent strength of their unconscious sense of guilt—'the most powerful bastion in the subject's … gain from illness' (Freud, 1923, p. 166). 心理学空间A3D(J#QS H#b!E{PA+C

%mGJ&Wx0分析的目的对每个患者来说都是一样的——“改变生活中的自我”(弗洛伊德,1940,179),而不仅仅是消除症状。因此,阿兰不得不反复面对,通过做梦和解梦获得的见解在他过去和现在生活的日常经历中,以及在与我的移情中都有相似之处——这是一项他最终完成的艰巨任务。与他不同的是,约翰和大卫更强的阻抗可能是基于他们对俄狄浦斯胜利的更多参与,以及随之而来的无意识内疚感的强烈——“受试者从疾病中获得的最强大的堡垒”(弗洛伊德,1923年,第166页)。心理学空间3{ a!s(Mj!M rN

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John and David had remained closely tied to the oedipal object after the collapse and death of the rival parent, and were uninterested in establishing their own families. While indiscretion had characterized their early sexual life, they now showed no interest in seeking a permanent or temporary sexual relationship. Unlike Alan, whose professional career was suddenly disrupted by acute distress, John and David had not experienced any significant recent wished a change in some long-standing character traits. In some ways, they were more satisfied with the status quo than perhaps they realized. 心理学空间9ImBJ3a3C"]0Uq

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在对立的父母崩溃和去世后,约翰和大卫一直与俄狄浦斯的客体紧密相连,对建立自己的家庭不感兴趣。虽然轻率是他们早期性生活的特点,但他们现在对寻求永久或暂时的性关系没有兴趣。与阿兰不同,阿兰的职业生涯突然被严重的痛苦打乱了,约翰和大卫最近没有经历过任何重大的变化,他们希望改变一些长期存在的性格特征。在某些方面,他们对现状的满意度可能比他们意识到的要高。

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Since reactions of these three patients differed in some ways from those described in the extensive literature on bereavement, the relevance of oedipal determinants to the study of bereavement may be worth considering. 

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由于这三名患者的反应在某些方面与大量丧亲文献中描述的不同,俄狄浦斯决定因素与丧亲研究的相关性可能值得考虑。心理学空间6A OnZ Nak5@'K6P

dnhK;b}7\Zj:iFF0Oedipal determinants in differential outcome of bereavement. The accumulation of evidence in literature has led to widespread agreement that bereavements in childhood or adolescence can be hazardous psychological experiences. However, since only a minority of those affected show long-term adverse effects, the question of vulnerability to loss has become important to investigate. What intrapsychic or other characteristics of an individual, of his interpersonal and family environment render him more, or less, vulnerable to the occurrence of death in his family? 心理学空间*V8V$y.J b-~&`)T

]3v6XCdN8W z0丧亲之痛不同结局的俄狄浦斯决定因素。文献中证据的积累使人们普遍认为,儿童或青少年时期的丧亲之痛可能是危险的心理体验。然而,由于只有少数受影响的人表现出长期的不利影响,因此易受损失的问题变得需要调查。一个人的心理内部或其他特征,他的人际和家庭环境,使他或多或少地容易受到家庭死亡的影响?

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Empirical studies of bereavement have largely ignored psychoanalytic observations, although Freud (1917) made one of the earliest contributions to the study of bereavement. In distinguishing mourning from melancholia, he observed that in the former one suffered a loss of an object, in the latter a loss of one's ego. The melancholic shifted his reproaches against a loved object away from it on to his own ego in the form of self-reproaches. What accounted for the difference was the presence or absence of an intense ambivalence in the pre-existing relationship. 

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8?o&|&JX0尽管弗洛伊德(1917)对丧亲之痛的研究做出了最早的贡献,但对丧亲的实证研究在很大程度上忽略了精神分析的观察。在区分哀悼和忧郁症时,他观察到,在前者中,一个人失去了一个对象,在后者中,一个失去了自我。忧郁症患者以自我谴责的形式,将他对所爱对象的指责从爱转移到了自己的自我身上。造成这种差异的原因是在先前存在的关系中是否存在强烈的矛盾心理。心理学空间:B(YV2t3g%?h9sr\

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A. Freud & Dann (1951) have described '"Experiments" of this kind, which are provided by fate' (p. 165). The present paper illustrates the effects of a similar event, and focuses on an aspect of the pre-existing relationship between the child and his deceased oedipal rival. When the oedipal wish of a child coincides with the death of his oedipal rival, it leads not to reality testing, but to a confusion of the oedipal wish with the fortuitously occurring death of the rival parent and to an unconscious sense of guilt. This unconscious guilt complicates the experience of bereavement, and the gradual process of recovery from it. 心理学空间:pP-Td(q.yDU3S

.[ aR0ke Q)H;_0A.Freud和Dann(1951)描述了“这种由命运提供的实验”(第165页)。本文阐述了类似事件的影响,并重点介绍了孩子和他已故的俄狄浦斯竞争对手之间预先存在的关系的一个方面。当孩子的俄狄浦斯情结与他的俄狄浦斯情结竞争对手的死亡相吻合时,这不会导致现实测试,而是导致俄狄浦斯情结愿望与竞争对手父母的意外死亡相混淆,并导致无意识的内疚感。这种无意识的内疚感使丧亲之痛的经历以及从中逐渐恢复的过程变得复杂。心理学空间H+Y3~mLW

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A full discussion of the effects of the rival parent's death would have required concurrent consideration of several issues, typically discussed in different contexts: Pre-oedipal determinants of oedipal development and resolution; the contribution of family environment; the course of the Oedipus complex during the phallic-oedipal phase; progress during latency and adolescence; the role of reality-testing; the effect on bereavement of ambivalence in the pre-existing relationship; the impact of continued tie to the oedipal object; the nature of resistance in case of oedipal triumph; the quality of transference and countertransference. While all of these concepts are relevant to the analysis of patients with a history of oedipal triumph, the present paper was deliberately limited to those issues, where it had a contribution to make, however small. 

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4[#h;SUFQ i1qE7t0对敌对父母死亡的影响进行全面讨论需要同时考虑几个问题,这些问题通常在不同的背景下进行讨论:俄狄浦前俄狄浦发育和解决的决定因素;家庭环境的贡献;俄狄浦斯情结在阴茎俄狄浦斯期的过程;潜伏期和青春期的进展;现实测试的作用;预先存在的关系中矛盾心理对丧亲之痛的影响;与俄狄浦斯对象持续联系的影响;俄狄浦斯胜利时阻抗的性质;移情和反移情的性质。虽然所有这些概念都与有俄狄浦斯胜利史的患者的分析有关,但本文故意将其局限于这些问题,无论其贡献有多小。

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总结

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It is suggested that the threat of castration at the phallic-oedipal phase results in repression, effecting no change in the unconscious fantasy, that the resolution of the Oedipus complex depends on developments during latency and adolescence, and that during this period one of the determinants impeding the resolution may be the collapse or death of the rival parent. Death of the oedipal rival results in a confusion of the unconscious wish with an external happening. The child, unable to cope with the consequent guilt, resorts to repression. Thus, the critical aspects of the oedipal triumph remain potentially operative in the unconscious, hindering the patient's functioning in all closely associated areas. 心理学空间[Sy"A7u^w!^w

,X-PN1zd c_0有人认为,在阴茎—俄狄浦斯期阉割的威胁会导致抑制,不会影响无意识幻想的改变,俄狄浦斯情结的解决取决于潜伏期和青春期的发展,在这段时间里,阻碍解决的决定因素之一可能是敌对父母的崩溃或死亡。俄狄浦斯竞争对手的死亡导致了无意识愿望和外部发生的混乱。这个孩子无法应付随之而来的内疚感,只好求助于压制。因此,俄狄浦斯胜利的关键方面仍然可能在无意识中发挥作用,阻碍患者在所有密切相关领域的功能。

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c0h nT9k d0Three clinical illustration of oedipal triumph are described to indicate some of the psychodynamic issues that arise in the analysis of such patients. Of particular importance are: the concept of reality testing; differential adaptation to the unconscious sense of guilt; the varying degrees of resistance evidenced in the analysis of such patients; and the impact of oedipal determinants in differential outcome of bereavement. 

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描述了三个俄狄浦斯胜利的临床案例,以表明在分析这些患者时出现的一些心理动力学问题。特别重要的是:现实测试的概念;对无意识内疚感的差异适应;在对这些患者的分析中证明的不同程度的耐药性;以及俄狄浦斯决定因素对丧亲不同结局的影响。

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