约翰·阿特金森 John William Atkinson 简介
作者: 转载 / 6977次阅读 时间: 2011年3月10日
标签: 阿特金森 成就动机 动力学 心理学家
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J.阿特金森
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约翰·阿特金森 [John William Atkinson 1923.12.31-2003.10.27],美国心理学家。出生于美国,因研究成就动机而著名。1970 年,他与 D.伯奇合作在《活动动力学》一书里系统地阐述动机理论心理学空间M8Z)E4I0c}`

|u/a:d/B c.j0第二次世界大战期间,阿特金森曾任空军领航员,1947 年他在威斯莱大学获文学士学位,1950 年在密执安大学获哲学博士学位。自那以后,他一直供职于密执安大学,1960 年成为心理学教授。
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阿特金森在与 D.C.麦克莱兰和其他人的早期合作中,出版了《成就动机》一书。该书是他在编纂了密执安研究项目的专题文章后写成的。密执安研究项目的专题文章有:《幻想、活动和社会的动机》,《成就动机的理论》(与N.T.费瑟合作),《动机和成就》(与J.O.雷纳合作)。
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[DM'_o/Mn V+x5a/l0在《动机导论》一书里,阿特金森阐释了动机概念的历史变迁,并且第一个把“期待”放在与“内驱力”同样重要的地位。后来,在与伯奇一起进行修订时,他讨论了毫无联系的指向目标的事件,并把它与传统的动机分析相比较,他们的新观点强调行为趋向和行为趋向赖以存在的动机结构这两者的暂连续性。心理学空间ic j3U?3kZ:`9`
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阿特金森还通过以新的动机原理为基础的计算机模拟手段(而非经典的测验理论),解决了人格研究中的两个难题。他指出:
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[s"Tj*~jN0动机的主题统觉测量的效度并不取决于它的信度(内部一致性),如同该方法的批评者所假设的那样;心理学空间'~E UVG|Cs
人格方面稳定的个体差异可以通过系统的变量(也即不一致性)的行为来表达。
g/L.Al&s0阿特金森曾是社会研究学会研究会员(1952),行为科学先行研究中心成员(1955-1956),J.S.古根海姆会员(1960-1961)。1975 年他被选为美国艺术和科学学会会员,1979 年获美国心理学会杰出科学贡献奖,1980 年被德国波恩鲁尔大学哲学、教育和心理学学院授予荣誉学衔。
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主要著作:
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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John William Atkinson (December 31, 1923 – October 27, 2003), also known as Jack Atkinson, was an American psychologist who pioneered the scientific study of human motivation, achievement and behavior. He was a World War II veteran, teacher, scholar, and long term member of the University of Michigan Community.心理学空间mH{7U.@ Ge1w
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Atkinson was a leader in establishing motivation as a distinct field of study in psychology research. His belief that scientific progress came from conceptual breakthroughs fueled his formulation and reformulation of a theory of motivation. He was one of the first in psychology to incorporate rigorous mathematical models in his theories and to use computer simulations of these models for experimentation. He also recognized the importance of measurement in science, maintaining a career-long interest in the refinement of measures of motivation by means of content analysis of imaginative thought using, for example, the Thematic Apperception Test. He is well known for establishing measures for motives of achievement, affiliation, fear, sex, risk-taking behavior, and aggression. His discipline-changing ideas were followed around the world. In recognition, he received in 1979 the American Psychological Association's highest award, the Gold Medal for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.
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@8wz0?6fm3g^0Atkinson was born in Jersey City, NJ, to Frank G. and Wilhelmina "Minnie" Atkinson. He attended public schools in Oradell NJ, graduating from Dwight Morrow High School in Englewood NJ. He enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corp, earning his wings in 1944, He served as an advanced instrument flight instructor for the B-25 and other bombers. On earning his wings Jack married his high-school sweetheart Mary Jane Wanta. They were married in 1944 in Macon, GA.心理学空间Z l3E*j6B6B;GM

mvU6f[@(I]q p0After the war Atkinson completed his undergraduate psychology degree with Honors at Wesleyan University, graduating in the middle of the 1946-47 academic year. As a lecturer at Wesleyan University, he began to pursue his interests in basic research on the arousal of human needs and behavior with the financial support of the Office of Naval Research and collaboration with David McClelland. Atkinson was awarded his doctorate in Psychology in 1950 at the University of Michigan. He was invited to join the faculty of the University of Michigan in the Psychology Department where he remained his entire career.
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d(f)Nd4B)U#m"f0Atkinson was devoted to the teaching of undergraduates throughout his career. As one of the original founders of the University of Michigan's Honors Program in the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, Professor Atkinson fostered unique opportunities and created multi-disciplinary courses to challenge undergraduate students. He authored and edited many books and articles on the scientific study of human motivation, achievement and behavior. Many of his books have been translated into other languages, including Russian, German, and Spanish. His theoretical and experimental work spanned decades and spawned many doctorates.心理学空间eF Q;e;gi^]y

S$L7K3e2~ZS}W0His awards and honors included election to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, participation twice as a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University, Fellow of the American Psychological Association, an Honorary Doctorate from Ruhr University, Germany, Wesleyan University Distinguished Alumni Award, the Association for Psychological Science: William James Fellow Award, and the American Psychological Association's highest award, the Gold Medal for Distinguished Scientific Contribution. Atkinson was honored on his retirement with a special colloquium at the University which brought together a number of his former students and colleagues who spoke of his inspiration and contributions to the science of human motivation. He was named Professor Emeritus in 1985.
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Atkinson insisted on ethical behavior and highly valued the fundamental freedoms on which our country was founded. An expression of this was his role as a member of the Board of Control of the Michigan Daily during the turbulent 1960s. In the early 1970's, his belief's led him to become outraged by the behavior of President Richard M. Nixon, whom he viewed as a threat to liberty and justice. Jack organized and led public meetings and demonstrations denouncing President Nixon and vigorously promoted Nixon's impeachment by Congress.

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