我们为什么害怕蜘蛛?
作者: 环球科学 / 6767次阅读 时间: 2017年11月16日
来源: 一站阅读 标签: 恐惧 蜘蛛
www.psychspace.com心理学空间网

}.MN _.O&Qu!JK^0
0i[} X(K0G#_ r0];\0心理学空间WfV0\AB

心理学空间#gcTn3q x'h:h5HI

"Both of us were in the lab when we just saw a spider, and I'm really afraid of them. So I started to scream for her to come and pick it up because she's not afraid of them.”心理学空间+V9}\t'O-?5}
心理学空间*I$Ef%St!~
“我们看到蜘蛛是在实验室里,我真的非常害怕这种生物。因此我就冲她大喊大叫让她把蜘蛛弄走,因为她不害怕。”
JEh&b.MK5Iy0
TYKEM c dN1b0Ben-Gurion University of the Negev psychologist Tali Leibovich, talking about herself and a colleague.心理学空间7L)T'd Jd?Su9x v'o
心理学空间Z2Y;Q,e'w;}6Q ^ le1sm
班古里昂大学的内盖夫心理学家塔里·勒博维奇谈论着自己和同事的经历。心理学空间bL*@?^0U.M n7r
心理学空间f!l!cD3L,}
“And she said, but it's small, how come you're afraid of it?
/C3?N`,H'oF0
Jdb4W:Ov;R"O0“我的同事说,蜘蛛那么小的个头,你怎么会害怕呢?心理学空间`L5i8S s r;Rk_Ed$]

PeEs`0And I said, no it's huge! And she said 'it's small; I said it's huge.心理学空间*V2c9G+^6}6fy

V"F;i+]\W s0而我说,不,它很大的!她说蜘蛛很小,但我则说很大。
/[*z,EM)u'kz`3O0心理学空间[T)V7r0Tw
We started arguing, and this is why we started this study. To see who is right."心理学空间"Y-D:k+Z`F-D1T*\,m5`

4`)Ab_:g@b0随后我们开始争论起来。而为了证明孰是孰非,我们开始了这项研究。
2k*la&XZE0心理学空间'X1vE'^ G8E
Leibovich does not ordinarily study spiders.心理学空间W7e3G1}F%Lu l
心理学空间+pp5g+|G0@#lc
勒博维奇并没有按照常理出牌去研究蜘蛛。心理学空间p.] V3?'g p&m

E!_2kP-F9N:@x0But this spider encounter made her curious about how the human brain understands magnitude—what are the factors that influence our estimation of how big or small something is?
'w'C {+m V5B#]&Nq0心理学空间Y|sl%JgsZ4i
但这次被蜘蛛吓到的经历让她对人类的大脑如何理解大小产生好奇—究竟是哪些因素对我们评判事物大小的标准产生影响呢?心理学空间4?[~']4S4J
心理学空间 }w.h-Oe.C+X
And does fear play a role?
6QaCi{!m&M mPU0
(m `}8^\};X zq0恐惧是否也在其中起到关键作用呢?心理学空间1at!e)yQk)e ^.^
心理学空间b-z$Ni#ym
So she and colleagues did an experiment in which participants had to say how big a spider in a photo was on a scale from housefly to goat.心理学空间F8^w@BRD9Y

T] ^`$w8Z0因此她和同事们进行了一项实验,参与其中的试验者们必须说出照片中从家蝇到山羊相大小的蜘蛛到底有多大。心理学空间r,K;t5DU1}4m4H

#U7]t5mf+~0And the subjects who were afraid of spiders consistently rated the arachnids as larger than did the non-phobic participants.
'fP v0eT']*kH0
(Iw7`8|)O4WD0相比不害怕蜘蛛的受试者,对蜘蛛感到害怕的人认为这种生物更大一些。
p\Lx-A|0心理学空间"N*d.o[#Dn.E)P$~9D
But the spider-phobes did not miscalculate the size of butterflies or birds.心理学空间%A{}"Ym

^XB"`c1GK,vO4l0但蜘蛛恐惧症者并不会错误判断蝴蝶或鸟类的体型。心理学空间*bx"c;FFEg,}6Y'L
心理学空间Bje:wp'`_)D:V
Nor did they see wasps as larger-than-life, even though wasps can be dangerous.心理学空间{1y`wJ n

-aTXQ+~@V\{s0而且尽管黄蜂非常危险,他们也不会认为黄蜂比实际要大一些。心理学空间N|!L5D(b

n,Gw\VpZ0The estimation error was spider-specific.
?{0Ku @cc|x,Fw_0
s3n0|+G+~.R W!kte-Z0这种错误的估计只针对蜘蛛。
.[w0f/^7Gr0
| R;m)[b0It seems our emotions drive us to experience the same world in very different ways.心理学空间k9D/u/| s
心理学空间m0\8lgA-x*| ^7p
似乎我们的情感驱使着我们用不同的方式体验着同一个世界。心理学空间2Eb?_"`7z_5@9_
心理学空间#z:oD} FKFO_Fc
The results are in the journal Biological Psychology.
Oy!k7mE!e[#z h0
0N kEsZ.bU0这项研究已在《生物心理学》杂志上发表。心理学空间Oqhc7Vp.G\!{

/I?-lx0H6^0"Now we can ask the question of what causes what?心理学空间aRb1V`sTJ
心理学空间 y#g6p+E8g#S
“现在我们可以探究原因,是什么原因造成这种情况呢?心理学空间X0]%om$svs

#e5B2fP8dx0[~!`0Is it the fear of spiders that makes you see them as larger, or first you see them as larger for some reason and because of it you start being afraid of them?"心理学空间 ro3l$x7p3G
心理学空间 K\rUG+B
是因为对蜘蛛的恐惧让你觉得它们看起来很大,还是第一次见到蜘蛛就觉得它们体积较大令你害怕?”心理学空间CH'm!l"piXq
心理学空间&gXPr#@*xsq#x1iN
If it's the latter, then perhaps spider-phobes can be trained to more accurately judge the size of the arachnids, and maybe that could ease their worries.
p"R5ns'BL M z:f0
|(F"}&o~2Xj#|0如果是后者,那么蜘蛛恐惧症也许可以通过训练更准确地判断蜘蛛的大小,这样也许能缓解他们的担忧。心理学空间/w0^Tb0Yx

0{U r9m&N-m(~ H.b[0Some might even come to see spiders as actually kind of cool—or at least not downright terrifying.
jiA2n8i4H!z0
's+ex+V$}+W0有些人甚至认为看到蜘蛛很酷啊—至少不是很害怕。

:f h&^+`j Gs0www.psychspace.com心理学空间网

picpic

TAG: 恐惧 蜘蛛
«教你记录梦境的技巧 自我
《自我》
是什么阻碍心理疾病的治疗?»
延伸阅读· · · · · ·