Mowrer was a learning researcher and theorist who extended a unified learning theory into interpretations of the phenomena of psychoanalysis. APA President, 1954. O. Hobart Mowrer, an atheist who served as President of the American Psychological Association, produced a work called: The Crisis in Psychology and Religion (1962) in which he challenged the entire field of psychiatry for its dependence upon Freudian premises
The father of "integrity therapy," Mowrer believes that the solution to man's problems lies in the group milieu. The group provides all that is necessary to handle guilt (confession and restitution on the human level only), and then to develop a sense of self-worth.
奥维尔·霍巴特·莫瑞尔 [Orval Hobart Mowrer 1907.01.23－1982.06.21]，美国临床心理学家。
O. Hobart Mowrer (1907-1982) was born in Unionville, Missouri, and received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins in 1932. During most of the 1930s, Mowrer was at Yale University, first as a postdoctoral fellow and then as an instructor of psychology. While at Yale, Mowrer was strongly influenced by Hull. In 1940, Mowrer joined the Harvard School of Education and remained there until 1948; he then moved to the University of Illinois (Urbana), where he stayed for the rest of his professional career.
The Problem of Avoidance Conditioning Mowrer's career as a learning theorist began with his efforts to solve the problem that avoidance learning posed for Hullian theory. If an apparatus is arranged so that an organism receives an electric shock until it performs a specified response, it will quickly learn to make that response when it is shocked. Such a procedure is called escape conditioning, and it is diagrammed below:
Although Hull had many ardent disciples, it was Kenneth W. Spence who became the major spokesperson for Hullian theory after Hull's death. For many years Hull and Spence had a reciprocal influence on each other. It is clear that Hull had a profound influence on Spence, but it is also clear that Spence influenced Hull's evolving theory in several important ways. The two worked so closely together that it is not uncommon for their combined efforts to be referred to as the Hull-Spence theory of learning. In the end, however, Spence made several radical changes in the traditional Hullian theory, and in so doing he created a learning theory that was essentially his own.
莫勒早期研究前庭视觉反射和空间定向问题，并就此连续发表了 19 篇论文。虽然他的研究很少被心理学文献引用，但却很受耳科学和感觉生理学的欢迎。1934－1940 年，莫勒因为这些论文而获得耶鲁大学人类关系研究所的职务。在该所工作期间，他对学习、语言、精神病理学、认知过程和人际关系等心理学问题逐渐产生了理论上的兴趣，这对他后来的专业生涯产生了重要的影响。
1940－1948 年，莫勒供职于哈佛大学教育研究院，在心理学系得到了一个待遇优厚的职务，他与帕森斯（Talcott Parsons）、克拉孔（Clyde Kluckhohn）、G.奥尔波特、默里（Harry Murray）一起组建了社会关系系。后期又担任《哈佛教育评论》杂志的主编，并帮助一个学生编辑委员会，负责他们的终审工作。1948 年，莫勒被伊利诺斯大学巴那香槟分校任命为心理学研究教授，直到 1975 年退休，他一直担任着这项职务。
1938 年，他曾依据条件反射原理治疗儿童尿床问题，成为他最知名的一项实际贡献。这个方法称为铃声 - 垫子法，他制作了一个尿床报警装置，装置很简单，用一个电铃与一块布垫相连接。每当儿童的尿浸湿了布垫，就形成了一个完整的回路，电铃就响起来。数次以后，儿童就会在快要解小便时醒来，或者睡整夜的觉而不会尿床。事实表明，他的作法是很成功的。
莫瑞尔是行为学派的心理学家，主要从事学习理论的研究，他运用统一的学习理论解释了心理分析现象，以其二因素学习理论（two-factor learning theory，又称两阶段学习理论）而闻名。该理论认为，动物或人类首先经由经典条件反射（classical conditioning）而习得恐惧，这是第一个历程；然后他们通过操作性条件反射（operant conditioning）学习到逃避原情境的行为可降低恐惧。当他们从事这些行为时，恐惧的降低增强了逃避，所以通过操作性条件反射他们迅速地学得这些习惯，此乃第二个历程。
1953－1954 年间，莫瑞尔曾任美国心理学会的主席，他还是数家专业杂志编委成员。他对学习、语言和人际关系心理学也作出了很大的贡献。莫勒的完整书目大约有 235 本（篇），其中有 12 本专著。
The New Group Therapy
学习理论与行为：Learning Theory and Behavior.
Learning Theory and the Symbolic. 1960
学习理论与个人动力Learning Theory and Personality Dynamics: Selected Papers
学习理论与象征性过程 Learning Theory and the Symbolic Processes
Psychotherapy, Theory and Research
The Crisis in Psychiatry and Religion
The New Group Therapy