安娜.弗洛伊德| Anna Freud
Continuing the work of her father, Sigmund Freud, she was a pioneer in
the psychoanalysis of children. She received her training in Vienna and
then emigrated to England, where she founded and directed a clinic for
child therapy. Her writings include Normality and Pathology in Childhood
(1965) and The Writings of Anna Freud (7 vol., 1973).
Best Known For:
- Founder of child psychoanalysis
- Defense mechanisms
- Contributions to ego psychology
Birth and Death:
Contributions to Psychology:
- Born December 3, 1895 in Vienna, Austria.
- October 9, 1982 in London, England
Freud created the field of
child psychoanalysis and her work contributed greatly to our understanding of
child psychology. She also developed different techniques to treat children.
Freud noted that children’s symptoms differed from those of adults and were
often related to developmental stages. She also provided clear explanations of
the ego's defense mechanisms in her book The Ego and the Mechanisms of
Early Life: The youngest of Sigmund Freud’s six
children, Anna was extraordinarily close to her father. Anna was not close to
her mother and was said to have tense relationships with her five siblings. She
attended a private school, but later said she learned little at school. The
majority of her education was from the teachings of her father’s friends and
After high school, Freud worked as an
elementary school teacher and began translating some of her father’s works into
German, increasing her interest in child psychology and psychoanalysis. While
she was heavily influenced by her father's work, she was far from living in his
shadow. Her own work expanded upon her father's ideas, but also created the
field of child psychoanalysis.
Although she never earned a higher degree, her work in psychoanalysis and child
psychology contributed to her eminence in the field of psychology. She began her
children’s psychoanalytic practice in 1923 in Vienna, Austria and later served
as chair of the Vienna Psycho-Analytic Society. During her time in Vienna, she
had a profound influence on Erik Erikson, who later went on to expand the field
of psychoanalysis and ego psychology.
In 1938, Anna was interrogated by the Gestapo and then fled to London along with
her father. In 1941, she formed the Hampstead Nursery with Dorothy Burlington.
The nursery served as a psychoanalytic program and home for homeless children.
Her experiences at the nursery provided the inspiration for three books,
Young Children in Wartime
(1942), Infants Without Families
and War and Children
(1943). After the Hampstead Nursery closed in 1945,
Freud created the Hempstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic and served as
director from 1952 until her death in 1982.
- Freud, A. (1936) Ego & the Mechanisms of Defense.
- Freud, A. (1956-1965) Research at the Hampstead Child-Therapy Clinic
& Other Papers.
- Freud, A. (1965) Normality & Pathology in Childhood: Assessments of
Biographies of Freud
- Peters, U. H. (1985) Anna Freud: A life dedicated to children.
- Young-Bruehl, E. (1988) Anna Freud: A Biography. Summit Books,